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Detailed information about coin type: Penny (Britannia, third design) from United Kingdom:

Coin type: Penny (Britannia, third design)
Description

Composition: 95% copper, 4% tin, 1% zinc.

CountryUnited Kingdom CurrencyPound Sterling (pre-decimal)
Sub-type ofPenny (Pre-decimal) Sub-types
Face value1 (x Penny)
Years produced1860 - 1894 CurrentNo (demonetised 1971)
MaterialBronze DesignerLeonard Charles Wyon
Production technologyMilled (machine-made) ShapeRound
Size (mm)31 Thickness (mm)
Mass (g)9.4000
Obverse

Bust of Queen Victoria facing left wearing bodice and a mantle decorated with rose, thistle and shamrock; in her hair a wreath of leaves and berries tied at back with ribbon, her hair drawn to a plaited bun behind; she wears a circular brooch; at the back of her shoulder, a small part of the Star of the Garter is visible, with a small part of its motto ('HONI SO') readable.

Around, the legend VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D : (Victoria, by the Grace of God, Queen of the Britains, Defender of the Faith).

Freeman describes several obverse varieties.

Obverse 1 (1860)
As described above, with a border of circular dots. The name of the designer, L.C.Wyon, in very small letters, appears on the lowest extremity of the bust, towards the right. The letters are partly on, and partly beneath the bust.

Obverse 1* (1860)
Similar to Obverse 1, but the eyeball of the Queen visibly bulges out. The eye is lower in relation to the bridge of the nose. The forehead is slightly more rounded.

Obverse 2 (1860 - 1862)
Similar to Obverse 1 but the border dots are tooth-like, elongated and incomplete in that they join the rim. The Queen's hair below the wreath is slightly more wavy, and at the nape of the neck there are distinctive curls curving downwards and back towards the neck. Usually at least one of the last three letters in BRITT is out of alignment. The signature L.C. Wyon is distinctly clear of the toothed border.

Obverse 3 (1860 - 1861)
A retouched version of Obverse 2. Some of the leafs in the wreath now have incuse outlines. The signature L.C. Wyon is almost in contact with the toothed border. The legend has slightly larger letters, BRITT is correctly aligned.

Obverse 4 (1860 - 1861)
Similar to Obverse 3 but L.C. Wyon is below the bust and not partly on it. The rim is narrower and the border teeth are shorter than on obverses 2 and 3.

Obverse 5 (1860 - 1861)
Similar to Obverse 4 but there is no designer's signature. There is a small recess in the outline of the bust where the signature would have been. The veins in the leafs of the wreath now have double incuse lines.

Obverse 6 (1860 - 1874)
The Queen's bust sits higher than before and the topmost part of her head is only 0.9 mm from the linear circle, as opposed to 1.5 mm on obverses 1 to 5. All leaf veins in the wreath are raised, and there is an additional leaf (now they are 16 and not 15). There is no designer's signature but, unlike Obverse 5, there is no recess where it would have been either. The Queen's nose is slightly sharper, her eye is slightly closer to the edge of the head. The letters of the legend have thinner lines than before. More often than not, there is a flaw between the upper dot after D : of F : D : and the linear circle.

Obverse 7 (1874)
The Queen appears older, indicated most obviously by the thick neck. The profile is more coarse, the nose irregular, the eye closer to the bridge of the nose. The hair below the wreath is much straighter and there is a groove between the back of the head and the "bun". Only the top of the rose on the neckline is showing, and the design on the mantle is lower so that the bottom half of the thistle and some rose leaves no longer appear.

Obverse 8 (1874 - 1879)
Similar to obverse 7 but the Queen's nose is slightly larger, straighter and more rounded at the tip. The line between the nose and mouth is shorter and more curved. There is no groove between the back of the head and the bun. The loose ends of the ribbon are thicker and nearer to each other.

Obverse 9 (1879 - 1881)
Similar to Obverse 8 but the dies has been "touched up" (refreshed). Incuse lines sharpen the design on the mantle and outline some of the leaves of the wreath and the Queen's hair. The legend is in high relief, with letters and colons thicker than on Obverse 8.

Obverse 10 (1880, 1881)
The Queen's bust is slightly smaller, displaying older features which icnlude a more rounded back and forehead. The wreath now has 15 leaves and 4 berries, with veins recessed within the leaves. The outer loose end of the ribbon does not curve outwards. The style of the lettering is less heavy. Only "HONY S" appears on the shoulder. The linear circle is complete beneath the bust.

Obverse 11 (1881 - 1883)
Similar to Obverse 10 but with about one-sixth more border teeth. The Queen's nose is hooked, and on many specimens the bridge of the nose is weakly struck. The line between nose and mouth is more curved, the eye is very close to the bridge of the nose. The linear circle is extremely weak below the bust.

Obverse 12 (1881 - 1894)
Similar to Obverse 10 but the heair below the wreath is less wavy. Border teeth as numerous as on Obverse 11. The Queen's nose is slightly longer and has an uneven profile. The letters of the legend are slightly larger than before.

Obverse 13 (1889)
The wreath has only 14 leaves; they have been re-engraved (possibly because of the deterioration of the die). The eye of the Queen is depicted by a deeper groove.

Obverse inscriptionVICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Reverse

Figure of Britannia seated facing right on a rock, wearing a helmet and breastplate with flowing dress; she holds a trident and rests her right hand on a shield which bears the combined crosses of the Union Flag; at right a ship sailing away; at left, a lighthouse; around, the denomination ONE PENNY; in exergue, the date.

Freeman describes several reverse varieties:

Reverse A (1860)
Border of circular dots. Within the border, a plain linear circle, up to which the sea at the feet of Britannia extends on both sides. The rock on which the lighthouse is based does not reach the linear circle. The designer's initials L.C.W. appear incuse on the rock below and to the left of the shield. The crosses on the shield are outlined with closed double raised lines. The thumb of Britannia's right hand does not quite reach the end of the cross.

Reverse B (1860)
Similar to reverse A but the crosses of the shield are outlined with treble incuse lines, and the thumb of Britannia's right hand touches the end of the cross.

Reverse C (1860)
Similar to reverse A but the raised lines on the shield crosses are thinner and farther apart. The thumb of Britannia's right hand touches the end of the cross. The rock on which the lighthouse is based extends leftwards as far as the linear circle. The plume on Britannia's helmet is shorter. There is an incuse hemline to the drapery. Parts of the sea at her feet extend beyond the linear circle.

Reverse D (1860 - 1861)
Similar to reverse C but the border dots are tooth-like, elongated and incomplete in that they join the rim. On this reverse, flaws frequently occur, and the top of the lighthouse. the tips of the trident prongs and the designer's initials L.C.W. are often mis-struck. The horizontal line which forms the upper limit of the exergue curves upwards slightly at the left where it meets the linear circle.

Reverse E (1860)
Similar to Reverse D but with L.C.W. incuse below the foot of Britannia. The rim of the shield is thicker than on previous reverses. The masonry on the lighthouse is sharply depicted, as are the waves on both sides of Britannia. There is no upward curve of the exergual line.

Reverse F (1861)
Similar to Reverse D but there are no designer's initials L.C.W. There is now a rock line where the letters would have been, touching the shield rim. The lighthouse in the background has a distinctly rounded top.

Reverse G (1861 - 1875)
There are numerous difference between this reverse and all earlier ones. The design and letters are smaller and sit lower on the flan than before. There are no designer's initials L.C.W. and the exergual line does not curve upwards at the left. The shield, instead of being flat as in the earlier versions is now convex. The sea crosses the linear circle at all points, extending to the border. There is no rock at the base of the lighthous; the top of the lighthouse is now bell-shaped, with a small knob at the tip. Trident prongs are shorter and closer together. There are no incuse hemlines on the drapery. The border teeth are shorter.

Specimens of Reverse G are found with the central and lower areas of the shield weakly struck.

Reverse H (1874, 1875, 1877)
Britannia's head is smaller in proportion to her body, and her neck is long and thin. The lighthouse is thin, its masonry faint, and its base is closer to the linear circle than on previous reverses. It has four incuse vertical lines below the top, and six windows. The trident shafts is thicker, its prongs more crudely depicted. The sea extends to, but does not cross, the linear circle. The date numerals are small and close to each other. Border teeth are small.

Reverse I (1874)
The rim thickness and spacing of date numerals is are as reverse G, but Britannia resembles Reverse H. However, her thumb extends farther down the shield. Her hair falls behind her head, whereas on earlier reverses it lay on the neck. The lighthouse is thicker, and has four windows.

This reverse is only seen with "H" mint mark.

Reverse J (1875 - 1881)
Similar to Reverse G and even more to Reverse I. The figure of Britannia is more massive than before; the top of the plume of her helmet is nerare to the rim than before. The exergue is deeper. The lighthouse is thicker but less sharply depicted. The sea does not quite reach the linear circle on either side. Date numerals are more widely spaced, and are nearer to the exergue line.

Reverse K (1876, 1879)
Similar to reverse H, with closely spaced date numerals. Britannia's head is larger, her neck shorter and thicker; the helmet is also thicker, and as a result the plume appears to be closer to her neck.

Reverse L (1880)
Similar to Reverse J but there appears to be a smaller cluster of rocks to the left of the lighthouse. The trident shaft is altered, most notably by the addition of three rings which encircle the shaft near Britannia's hand. Her head is lighter and there is an extra feather in the plume of the helmet.

Reverse M (1881, 1882)
Similar to reverse J but Britannia's shield is flat and heraldically coloured (i.e. has small stripes representing the colours). The lower end of Britannia's helmet terminates in two strands.

Reverse N (1881 - 1894)
Britannia is thinner than before. On the shield, the plain sections of the diagonal cross are outlined with raised lines. There are about one-third more border teeth than on reverse M. The hull of the sailing ship is smaller, the the trident shaft as well as the lighthouse are thinner. The lower end of Britannia's helmet terminates in a single strand.

Reverse inscriptionONE PENNY [year]
EdgePlain Edge inscriptionNone
Notes

According to Krause, pennies from 1874 (new type) to 1894 have a mass of 8.8 g. and not 9.4 g. as the earlier and later ones. Accordingly, they are listed separately.

References to additional information:

[Book] Bressett, Kenneth E. 1962. A Guidebook of English Coins, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Wisconsin, USA, pp 31-40
[Book] Freeman, Michael J. 1970. The Bronze Coinage of Great Britain. Motherwell, Scotland, (2016 ed. pp 21-48)
[Book] Remick, Jerome. 1971. The Guide Book and Catalogue to British Commonwealth Coins, pp 202-206

Penny (Britannia, third design): Photos

Great Britain 1861 penny
Copyright: CoinFactsWiki / CC BY-SA
Author:
Notes: Reverse G (1861 - 1875)
source

Great Britain 1875-H penny
Copyright: CoinFactsWiki / CC BY-SA
Author:
Notes: Reverse J (1875 - 1881).
source

Great Britain 1881-H penny
Copyright: CoinFactsWiki / CC BY-SA
Author:
Notes: Reverse M (1881, 1882).
source

Great Britain 1882-H penny
Copyright: CoinFactsWiki / CC BY-SA
Author:
Notes: Reverse N (1881 - 1894).
source

Great Britain 1861 penny
Copyright: CoinFactsWiki / CC BY-SA
Author:
Notes: Obverse 6 (1860 - 1874).
source

Great Britain 1875-H penny
Copyright: CoinFactsWiki / CC BY-SA
Author:
Notes: Obverse 8 (1874 - 1879)
source

Great Britain 1879 penny
Copyright: CoinFactsWiki / CC BY-SA
Author:
Notes: Obverse 9 (1879 - 1881).
source

Great Britain 1881-H penny
Copyright: CoinFactsWiki / CC BY-SA
Author:
Notes: Obverse 11 (1881 - 1883).
source

Great Britain 1882-H penny
Copyright: CoinFactsWiki / CC BY-SA
Author:
Notes: Obverse 12 (1881 - 1894).
source
List of 35 coins of type: Penny (Britannia, third design) from United Kingdom
NameMintageReignEffigyLegend
Penny 1860 (Small) 5,053,440 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1861 36,449,280 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1862 50,534,400 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1863 28,062,720 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1864 3,440,640 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1865 8,601,600 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1866 9,999,360 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1867 5,483,520 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1868 1,182,720 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1869 2,580,480 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1870 5,695,022 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1871 1,290,318 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1872 8,494,572 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1873 8,494,200 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1874 12,288,105 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1875 11,443,680 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1876 11,074,560 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1877 9,624,747 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1878 2,764,470 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1879 7,666,476 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1880 3,000,831 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1881 6,065,562 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1882 7,526,400 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1883 6,237,438 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1884 11,702,802 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1885 7,145,862 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1886 6,087,759 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1887 5,315,085 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1888 5,125,020 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1889 12,559,737 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1890 15,330,840 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1891 17,885,961 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1892 10,501,671 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1893 8,161,737 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1894 (Bun Head) 3,883,452 Queen Victoria Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :