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Detailed information about Coin: Penny 1861 from United Kingdom

Coin: Penny 1861
Description

CountryUnited Kingdom CurrencyPound Sterling (pre-decimal)
Face value1 (x Penny) TypePenny (Britannia, third design)
Year1861 CurrentNo (demonetised 1971)
Mintage36,449,280 (36.4 million)
Mints
NameMint markMintage
Royal Mint No mint mark 36,449,280 (36.4 million)
MaterialBronze DesignerLeonard Charles Wyon
MonarchQueen Victoria EffigyPortrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head)
Production technologyMilled (machine-made) ShapeRound
Size (mm)31 Thickness (mm)
Mass (g)9.4000
Obverse

Bust of Queen Victoria facing left wearing bodice and a mantle decorated with rose, thistle and shamrock; in her hair a wreath of leaves and berries tied at back with ribbon, her hair drawn to a plaited bun behind; she wears a circular brooch; at the back of her shoulder, a small part of the Star of the Garter is visible, with a small part of its motto ('HONI SO') readable.

Around, the legend VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D : (Victoria, by the Grace of God, Queen of the Britains, Defender of the Faith).

Obverse inscription VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Reverse

Figure of Britannia seated facing right on a rock, wearing a helmet and breastplate with flowing dress; she holds a trident and rests her right hand on a shield which bears the combined crosses of the Union Flag; at right a ship sailing away; at left, a lighthouse; around, the denomination ONE PENNY; in exergue, the date 1861.

Apart from the earlier reverse varieties (see Penny 1860), Freeman also describes:

Reverse F
Similar to Reverse D but there are no designer's initials L.C.W. There is now a rock line where the letters would have been, touching the shield rim. The lighthouse in the background has a distinctly rounded top.

Reverse G
There are numerous difference between this reverse and all earlier ones. The design and letters are smaller and sit lower on the flan than before. There are no designer's initials L.C.W. and the exergual line does not curve upwards at the left. The shield, instead of being flat as in the earlier versions is now convex. The sea crosses the linear circle at all points, extending to the border. There is no rock at the base of the lighthous; the top of the lighthouse is now bell-shaped, with a small knob at the tip. Trident prongs are shorter and closer together. There are no incuse hemlines on the drapery. The border teeth are shorter.

Specimens of Reverse G are found with the central and lower areas of the shield weakly struck.

Reverse inscriptionONE PENNY 1861
EdgePlain Edge inscriptionNone
Notes

The "normal" coins for the year are considered to be those with Obverse 2 and Reverse D (Freeman 18).

References to additional information:

[Book] Freeman, Michael J. 2016. The Bronze Coinage of Great Britain. Rotographic, London, UK. pp 30-31

Penny 1861: Known varieties
VarietyMintageDetails
Obverse 2, Reverse F (Freeman 19) unknown (included in main number)
Obverse 2, Reverse G (Freeman 20) unknown (included in main number)
Obverse 3, Reverse D (Freeman 21) unknown (included in main number)
Obverse 4, Reverse D (Freeman 22) unknown (included in main number)
Obverse 4, Reverse D, on a heavy flan (Freeman 23) unknown (included in main number)
Obverse 4, Reverse F (Freeman 24) unknown (included in main number)
Obverse 4, Reverse G (Freeman 25) unknown (included in main number)
Obverse 5, Reverse D (Freeman 26) unknown (included in main number)
Obverse 5, Reverse F (Freeman 27) unknown (included in main number)
Obverse 5, Reverse G (Freeman 28) unknown (included in main number)
Obverse 6, Reverse D (Freeman 29) unknown (included in main number)
Obverse 6, Reverse D, Overdate 1861/81 (Freeman 30) unknown (included in main number)
Obverse 6, Reverse D, Bronze proof (Freeman 31) unknown
Obverse 6, Reverse F (Freeman 32) unknown (included in main number)
Obverse 6, Reverse G (Freeman 23) unknown (included in main number)
Obverse 6, Reverse G, Overdate 1861/1881 (Freeman 33A) unknown (included in main number)
Obverse 6, Reverse G, Gold proof (Freeman 34) unknown
Obverse 6, Reverse G, Silver proof, thin flan (Freeman 35) unknown
Obverse 6, Reverse G, Silver proof, extremely thick flan (Freeman 35A) unknown
Obverse 6, Reverse G, Copper proof, bronzed finish, low 1 (Freeman 36) unknown (hover mouse for text)
Obverse 6, Reverse G, Bronze proof (Freeman 37) unknown
Obverse 6, Reverse G, Copper proof, low 1 (Freeman 37A) unknown (hover mouse for text)
Penny 1861: Photos
Penny 1861: Photo Great Britain 1861 penny
Great Britain 1861 penny
Copyright: CoinFactsWiki / CC BY-SA
Author:
Notes: Reverse G, Proof (Freeman 37).
source
Penny 1861: Photo Great Britain 1861 penny
Great Britain 1861 penny
Copyright: CoinFactsWiki / CC BY-SA
Author:
Notes: Obverse 6, Proof (Freeman 37).
source
Penny 1861: Catalogue Reference IDs
SourceReference ID
Freeman, Bronze Coinage of Great BritainFrom 18 through to 37A incl.
Spink, Coins of England and the United Kingdom3954
Krause, Standard Catalog of World CoinsGreat Britain KM# 749.2
Penny 1861: References to Information Used
SourceEditionAboutLinkNotes
Whitman, Guidebook of English Coins, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries 1962 Mint
Whitman, Guidebook of English Coins, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries 1962 Mintage
Whitman, Guidebook of English Coins, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries 1962 Varieties Proof
Freeman, Bronze Coinage of Great Britain 1970 Varieties
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Penny 1861: Some useful external links
Great Britain 1861 penny - CoinFactsWiki
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List of all (129) coins of type: United Kingdom / Penny (Pre-decimal)
Penny 1806 Penny 1807 Penny 1808 (Proof only) Penny 1817 (Silver, circulating) Penny 1818 (Silver, circulating) Penny 1820 (Silver, circulating)
Penny 1825 Penny 1826 Penny 1827 Penny 1831 Penny 1834 Penny 1837
Penny 1839 (Proof only) Penny 1841 Penny 1843 Penny 1844 Penny 1845 Penny 1846
Penny 1847 Penny 1848 Penny 1849 Penny 1851 Penny 1853 Penny 1854
Penny 1855 Penny 1856 Penny 1857 Penny 1858 Penny 1859 Penny 1860 (Large)
Penny 1860 (Small) Penny 1861 Penny 1862 Penny 1863 Penny 1864 Penny 1865
Penny 1866 Penny 1867 Penny 1868 Penny 1869 Penny 1870 Penny 1871
Penny 1872 Penny 1873 Penny 1874 Penny 1875 Penny 1876 Penny 1877
Penny 1878 Penny 1879 Penny 1880 Penny 1881 Penny 1882 Penny 1883
Penny 1884 Penny 1885 Penny 1886 Penny 1887 Penny 1888 Penny 1889
Penny 1890 Penny 1891 Penny 1892 Penny 1893 Penny 1894 (Bun Head) Penny 1894 (Veiled Head, Pattern)
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Penny 1901 Penny 1902 Penny 1903 Penny 1904 Penny 1905 Penny 1906
Penny 1907 Penny 1908 Penny 1909 Penny 1910 Penny 1911 Penny 1912
Penny 1913 Penny 1914 Penny 1915 Penny 1916 Penny 1917 Penny 1918
Penny 1919 Penny 1920 Penny 1921 Penny 1922 Penny 1926 Penny 1927
Penny 1928 Penny 1929 Penny 1930 Penny 1931 Penny 1932 Penny 1933
Penny 1934 Penny 1935 Penny 1936 Penny 1937 Edward VIII (not released) Penny 1937 George VI Penny 1938
Penny 1939 Penny 1940 Penny 1944 Penny 1945 Penny 1946 Penny 1947
Penny 1948 Penny 1949 Penny 1950 Penny 1951 Penny 1952 Penny 1953
Penny 1954 Penny 1961 Penny 1962 Penny 1963 Penny 1964 Penny 1965
Penny 1966 Penny 1967 Penny 1970 (Proof only)