Online Coin Club / Home / Directory / Currencies and Coinage / Coinage

Browse category: Coinage

General informations about the past and present coins of the world.

Subcategories (7):
Coins from Great Britan and the Commonwealth Australian coins Euro coins
Bullion coins Commemorative coins Collector Editions
American (US) Coins
Links (167):
Bulgarian National Bank: Coins in Circulation
http://www.bnb.bg/NotesAndCoins/NACCoinsCurrency/index.htm

Specifications and photos of coinage currently in circulation in Bulgaria.

Czech National Bank: 50 h
http://www.cnb.cz/en/banknotes_coins/coins/coin_50h.html

Detailed information about the 50 haleru coins issued by the Czech National Bank.

Czech National Bank: 20 h
http://www.cnb.cz/en/banknotes_coins/coins/coin_20h.html

Detailed information about the 20 haleru coins issued by the Czech National Bank.

Czech National Bank: 10 h
http://www.cnb.cz/en/banknotes_coins/coins/coin_10h.html

Detailed information about the 10 haleru coins issued by the Czech National Bank.

Wikipedia: Heller (money)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heller_(money)

The Heller or Häller, originally a German coin valued at half a pfennig, took its name from the city of Hall am Kocher (today Schwäbisch Hall). Mints produced the coin from the beginning of the 13th century, based on a previously produced silver pfennig (Häller Pfennig, sometimes called Händelheller for its depiction of a hand on the front face), but its composition deteriorated with the mixing in copper little by little so that it was no longer considered to be a silver coin. There were red, white and black Hellers. Beginning in the Middle Ages it became a symbol of low worth, and a common German byword is "keinen (roten) Heller wert", lit.: not worth a (red) Heller, i.e. "not worth a tinker's curse".

Wikipedia: Coins of the Czechoslovak koruna (1919)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Czechoslovak_koruna_(1919)

In 1921, coins were introduced in denominations of 20 and 50 haleru, followed by 10h and 1 koruna in 1922, 2 and 5h in 1923, 5 korun in 1925, 10 korun in 1930, and 25h and 20 korun in 1933. The 2h was struck in zinc, the 5 and 10h in bronze, and the 20, 25 and 50h and 1 koruna in cupro-nickel. The 5 koruna was struck in cupro-nickel until 1928, when a silver version was introduced. This denomination reverted to cupro-nickel in 1938. The 10 and 20 korun were issued in silver.

Wikipedia: Maravedí
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maraved%C3%AD

The maravedí was the name of various Iberian coins of gold and then silver between the 11th and 14th centuries and the name of different Iberian accounting units between the 11th and 19th centuries.

Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Coins
http://www.hkma.gov.hk/eng/key-functions/monetary-stability/notes-coins-hong-kong/coins.shtml

The Government issues coins of $10, $5, $2, $1, 50 cents, 20 cents and 10 cents. Until 1992 these coins were embossed with the Queen's head. In 1993 a programme was initiated to replace the Queen's Head series with a new series depicting the bauhinia flower (but the Queen's Head coins remain legal tender). The first Bauhinia coins, the $5 and $2 coins, were issued in January 1993. New $1, 50-cent and 20-cent coins were issued in October 1993, and a new 10-cent coin in May 1994. The $10 coin, the latest in the Bauhinia series, was issued in November 1994.

Wikipedia: Coins of the Hong Kong dollar
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Hong_Kong_dollar

The Hong Kong coinage, including 10¢, 20¢, 50¢, $1, $2, $5 & $10, is issued by Hong Kong Monetary Authority on behalf of the Government of Hong Kong. From 1863 until 1992 these coins were embossed with the reigning British monarch's effigy. From January 1993 to November 1994, a new series depicting the bauhinia flower was gradually issued, including a new denomination of $10. Since the beginning of the coin replacement programme in 1993, over 585 million coins featuring Queen Elizabeth II have been withdrawn from circulation. However, these coins remain legal tender. The total value of coins in circulation in Hong Kong can be found in Monthly Statistical Bulletin and the Annual Report.

Wikipedia: Coins of the Czechoslovak koruna (1945)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Czechoslovak_koruna_(1945)

Between 1946 and 1948, 20 and 50 haléřů and 1 and 2 koruny coins were introduced. The lower two denominations were struck in bronze, the higher two in cupro-nickel. The designs of all but the 2 koruny were based on those of the interwar coins but the coins were smaller. In 1950, aluminium 1 korun coins were introduced, followed by aluminium 20 and 50h in 1951. 5 korun coins were minted but not introduced. A monetary reform occurred in 1953.

Bank of Albania: Coins issued by the National Bank of Albania from 1926 to 1945
https://www.bankofalbania.org/web/Coins_issued_from_1926_to_1945_2227_2.php

Coins issued by the National Bank of Albania from 1926 to 1945.

Wikipedia: Coins of the Czechoslovak koruna (1953)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Czechoslovak_koruna_(1953)

After the 1953 currency reform a new series of coins were introduced. Coins were first issued in denominations of 1, 3, 5, 10, 25 h – the 1, 3 and 5 Kčs denominations only existed as paper money (state notes). The haler coins dated 1953 were all minted in Leningrad. The 1, 3 and 5 Kčs state notes were replaced by coins in 1957, 1965 and 1966, respectively. The 50 h coin appeared in 1963. In 1972 the 25 h and 3 Kčs coins were withdrawn, and – from 1972 – 20 h (as part of the new series) and 2 Kčs coins were introduced instead. The 3 h coin was withdrawn in 1976. A redesigned series of haler coins was released into circulation during the 1970s.

Bank of Albania: Coins issued by the National Bank of Albania from 1945 to 1992
https://www.bankofalbania.org/web/Coins_issued_from_1945_to_1992_2226_2.php

Coins issued by the National Bank of Albania from 1945 to 1992.

Bank of Albania: Coins issued by the National Bank of Albania from 2000 to 2012
https://www.bankofalbania.org/web/Coins_minted_by_the_Bank_of_Albania_2000_2012_2821_2.php

Coins issued by the National Bank of Albania from 2000 to 2012.

Royal Canadian Mint: Faces of the monarch
http://www.mint.ca/store/mint/learn/faces-of-the-monarch-1100026

As a Commonwealth country, Canada has included the likeness - or "effigy" - of the reigning monarch on its coins since the Royal Canadian Mint started production in 1908. This page lists the different effigies used through this time.

Central Bank of Ireland: Coin
http://www.centralbank.ie/paycurr/notescoin/coin/Pages/default.aspx

The Central Bank of Ireland acts as an agent of the Minister of Finance in the production in the issuing of euro coins and all seniorage received is returned to the Exchequer. The euro coin series comprises eight different denominations: 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 cent, €1 and €2. The euro coins have a common side and a national side. The common side of the coins were designed by Mr Luc Luycx of the Royal Belgium Mint. His initials "LL" are visible on the common side of the euro coins. He was also involved in the design change in 2007, when the map of the Eurozone was expanded to incorporate 10 new accession countries, although not all were members of the Eurozone. The national side indicates the issuing country and is depicted by a harp on the Irish coins.

The edge-lettering on the Irish €2 coin is the same as the French design. It is also adopted by Belgium, Luxemburg and Spain amongst others.

Central Bank of Ireland: Collector Coin
http://www.centralbank.ie/paycurr/collector/Pages/default.aspx

The Central Bank of Ireland acts as agent for the Minister for Finance in issuing all Irish coin, both circulating and commemorative. It issues Irish collector coin products to mark specific events in Irish history of significant national importance or celebrate national treasures. Typically it launches four to five new products each year.

Wikipedia: Piastre
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piastre

The piastre or piaster refers to a number of units of currency. The term originates from the Italian for "thin metal plate". The name was applied to Spanish and Hispanic American pieces of eight, or pesos, by Venetian traders in the Levant in the 16th century.

These pesos, minted continually for centuries, were readily accepted by traders in many parts of the world. After the countries of Latin America had gained independence, pesos of Mexico began flowing in through the trade routes, and became prolific in the Far East, taking the place of the Spanish pieces of eight which had been introduced by the Spanish at Manila, and by the Portuguese at Malacca. When the French colonised Indochina, they began issuing the new French Indochinese piastre (piastre de commerce), which was equal in value to the familiar Spanish and Mexican pesos.

Wikipedia: Cypriot pound
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cypriot_pound

The pound, also known as the lira (Greek: λίρα / plural λίρες and Turkish: lira, from the Latin libra through the Italian lira), was the currency of Cyprus, including the Sovereign Base Areas in Akrotiri and Dhekelia, until 31 December 2007, when the Republic of Cyprus adopted the euro. However, the self-proclaimed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus used and still uses on the official level the Turkish lira.

The Cyprus pound was replaced by the euro as official currency of the Republic of Cyprus on 1 January 2008 at the irrevocable fixed exchange rate of CYP 0.585274 per EUR 1.00.

Narodowy Bank Polski: Coins issued by the NBP
http://www.nbp.pl/homen.aspx?f=/en/banknoty/monety.htm

List of coins issued by the National Bank of Poland, with specifications and photos.

Narodowy Bank Polski: Collector Coins & 2 zł NG
http://www.nbp.pl/homen.aspx?c=/ascx/subgen.ascx&navid=5175

List of collector coins issued by the National Bank of Poland, with specifications and photos.

Reserve Bank of Vanuatu: Coins
http://www.rbv.gov.vu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=221&Itemid=184&lang=en

Coins.

Mint of Poland: Collector coins
http://www.mennica.com.pl/en/products-and-services/mint-products/nbp-coins/collector-coins.html

Collector coins minted by the Mint of Poland. Specifications, photos, onine store.

Mint of Poland: Coins of other issuers
http://www.mennica.com.pl/en/products-and-services/mint-products/coins-of-other-issuers.html

Collector coins minted by issuers other than the Mint of Poland. Specifications, photos, onine store.

Bank of Lithuania: Coins
http://www.lb.lt/circulation_coins

Currently, circulation euro coins in eight denominations are used (1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents, 1 and 2 euro). Circulation coins have a common European side and a unique national side.

Bank of Lithuania: Collector coins
http://www.lb.lt/collector_coins_1

List of collector coins issued by the Bank of Lithuania.

Bank of Lithuania: Coins out of circulation
http://www.lb.lt/coins_out_of_circulation

Litas coins, no longer legal tender as of 16 January 2015, are exchanged free of charge at branches of Lithuania Post and some credit unions (until 1 March 2015), at commercial banks (until 30 June 2015), at the Bank of Lithuania (for an unlimited time).

New Zealand Post: New Zealand currency today
https://coins.nzpost.co.nz/about-coins-collecting/new-zealand-currency-today

New Zealand coin currency today consists of five decimal coins that represent different aspects of our culture and heritage.

Wikipedia: Ducat
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ducat

The ducat was a gold or silver coin used as a trade coin in Europe from the later medieval centuries until as late as the 20th century. Many types of ducats had various metallic content and purchasing power throughout the period. The gold ducat of Venice gained wide international acceptance, like the medieval Byzantine hyperpyron and the Florentine florin, or the modern British pound sterling and the United States dollar.

Wikipedia: Kuruş
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuru%C5%9F

Kuruş (derived from the French gros, German Groschen and Hungarian Garas; Ottoman Turkish: قروش gurûş) is a Turkish currency subunit. Since 2005, one Turkish lira is equal to 100 kuruş. The kuruş was also the standard unit of currency in the Ottoman Empire until 1844, and from that date until the late 1970s was a subdivision of the former lira. It was subdivided into 40 para (پاره), each of 3 akçe. In European languages, the kuruş was often referred to as the piastre, derived from the Italian word piastra.

Wikipedia: Qirsh
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qirsh

Qirsh, Ersh, Gersh, Grush, Kuruş and Grosi are all names for currency denominations in and around the territories formerly part of the Ottoman Empire. The variation in the name stems from the different languages it is used in (Arabic, Ethiopian, Hebrew, Turkish and Greek) and the different transcriptions into the Latin alphabet. The name originally comes from the Italian grosso, as in denaro grosso, a silver coin worth twelve denari.

The original qirsh was a large, 17th century silver piece, similar to the European thalers, issued by the Ottomans. It was worth 40 para. In 1844, following sustained debasement, the gold lira was introduced, worth 100 qirsh.

In Greek, it was known as γρόσι, grosi; plural γρόσια grosia.

Japan Mint: International Sales
http://www.mint.go.jp/eng/buy-eng/eng_coin_international_index.html

Online sales of commemorative coins and mint sets by the Japan Mint.

Banco de México: Banknotes and Coins
http://www.banxico.org.mx/billetes-y-monedas/indexEn.html

In order to fulfill the constitutional mandate of providing the economy with domestic currency, Banco de México issues banknotes and orders the minting of coins, and puts both into circulation.

Danmarks Nationalbank: Danish Coins
http://www.nationalbanken.dk/en/banknotes_and_coins/Danish_coins/Pages/default.aspx

The present coin series was introduced gradually in the period from 1989 to 1993. The series comprises six denominations: 50 øre, 1 krone, 2 kroner, 5 kroner, 10 kroner and 20 kroner. In addition to the ordinary circulation coins, Danmarks Nationalbank occasionally issues commemorative coins and thematic coins. Every year three coin sets are also issued. All of these coins are legal tender in the same way as the ordinary circulation coins.

Danmarks Nationalbank: Thematic Coins
http://www.nationalbanken.dk/en/banknotes_and_coins/thematic%20coins/Pages/default.aspx

Since 2002, Danmarks Nationalbank has issued coin series with common motifs. The themes of the 20-krone coins have been towers and ships, while those of the 10-krone coins have been fairy tales and Polar Year motifs. A portrait of the Queen is depicted on the obverse of all thematic coins.

The series with motifs from Hans Christian Andersen’s fairy tales was issued in 2005-07 to mark the 200th anniversary of Hans Christian Andersen’s birth. In 2007-09, it was followed by a series of three coins to mark the International Polar Year. The Fairy Tale and Polar Year coins were also issued in collectors' editions in silver and gold.

Central Mint of Taiwan: Circulation Coins
http://www.cmc.gov.tw/product.jsp?ptype=1

List of coins for general circulation produced by the Central Mint of Taiwan.

Central Mint of Taiwan: Commemorative Coins
http://www.cmc.gov.tw/product.jsp?ptype=4

List of commemorative coins produced by the Central Mint of Taiwan.

Irish Coinage
http://www.irishcoinage.com/

Information about Irish coins for numismatists, collectors, archaeologists and others who have an interest in the currency in use in Ireland from earliest times to the present day.

Coin Books: The Sestroretsk and Pugachev Rubles
http://www.coinbooks.org/esylum_v18n24a28.html

The advent of eBay and other online auction sites has greatly expanded the availability of rare and unusual numismatic items. I have an interest in the copper coinage of 19th century Russia, especially the coins issued under the reigns of Peter III, limited to 1762 and Catherine II (The Great), covering 1762-96. There are numerous instances of coins being struck over coins of earlier rulers, of which I have made a particular specialty. The presence of eBay has allowed me to purchase a number of nice coins, some of them directly from Russia. I have two pieces in my collection that have been struck from the dies of the same design. One is renowned as the world’s largest round copper coin, and the other is a famous fantasy piece struck especially for collectors. Both are copper, but that is where their commonality ends.

Монеты России и СССР: The Recoinage of 1796: The Cipher Series
http://monety-rossii.com/the-recoinage-of-1796-the-cipher-series/

Catherine II’s lightweight coinage of 1796, the cipher series, has always interested numismatists, and continuous research since its inception has gradually revealed the extent of the series and the reason it was undertaken. There are still some uncertainties, but recent Soviet findings by L’vov, Koretzki, and Gornung have resolved many of them.

Монеты России и СССР: The Siberian Coinage 1763 -1781
http://monety-rossii.com/the-siberian-coinage-1763-1781/

To alleviate the shortage of coins in Siberia during the reign of Catherine II a new mint was erected to supply the province with currency in the form of copper coins.

In the Altai mountains mines and factories already existed at Kolyvan—Voskres-sensk, property of the Czar. Here silver was mined, as well as copper. In fact, because of the primitive refining method, this copper contained silver, and even some gold.

Монеты России и СССР: The Swedish 5 Kopek Pieces 1787
http://monety-rossii.com/swedish-5-kopek-pieces-1787/

In 1788 when Gustaf III of Sweden went to war against Russia, he ordered Russian 5 kopek pieces to be made for use by his troops in Russia proper and the frontier regions. These rare pieces have been found in a number of Swedish and a few Russian coin collections, and they deserve special mention. Only a couple of years after their striking, Catherine II’s secretary writes in his diary: "Count Pushkin has sent us some 5 kopek pieces that the Swedes have used to pay Russian workers in the war zone. The Swedes say that they have taken them as prize on Russian ships, but we feel that they are forgeries, although they are as good as ours."

Монеты России и СССР: The Sestroretsk ruble. Part 1.
http://monety-rossii.com/sestroretsk-ruble-part-1/

The Sestroretsk copper ruble is the largest round copper coin in the world, with a diameter of about 76 mm., being 26 mm. thick and weighing about 1,000 grams. The only known dates are 1770 and 1771, the minting initiated under Catherine II. A small number of novodels were struck with the original dies in the 1840’s and 1850’s.

Wikipedia: History of copper currency in Sweden
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_copper_currency_in_Sweden

The Swedish Empire had the greatest and most numerous copper mines in Europe as it entered into its pre-eminence in the early 17th century as an emerging Great Power. Through poor fiscal policies and in part the Treaty of Älvsborg, Sweden lost control of its reserves of precious metals, primarily silver, of which most had fled to the burgeoning trade economy of Amsterdam. In 1607 the Swedish king Charles IX attempted to persuade the populace to exchange their silver-based currency for a copper-based coin of equal face value, though this offer was not generally taken up. Sweden's large army of the time were paid entirely in copper currency, further issued in large numbers by Gustavus II to finance his war against Ferdinand II of Germany. The face value of the copper coins in circulation now greatly exceeded the reserves of the state and production of the national economy, and quickly the value of the currency fell to its commodity value, which in a country where copper was so abundant, was small indeed. The savings of the people of Sweden were wiped out.

Counterfeit Draped Bust Dollars
http://drapedbustcoins.reidgold.com/page_7.html

Counterfeits have been a part of coinage since the inception of coinage. Big-ticket items such as Draped Bust dollars are a favorite of counterfeiters for the obvious reason that fakes of them can bring in big money. Online auction houses such as eBay are an increasingly common outlet for these forgeries because of the relative anonymity they afford sellers.

Draped Bust Coins
http://drapedbustcoins.reidgold.com/

The material on Draped Bust coins presented here is an elaboration of articles that appeared in the January 2001 and May 2001 issues of Coins magazine and the June 2002 issue of COINage magazine.

Reserve Bank of New Zealand: F4 Coin mintings
http://www.rbnz.govt.nz/statistics/tables/f4/

Data about the mintage of New Zealand modern coins.

Reserve Bank of New Zealand: New Zealand Coinage Specifications
http://www.rbnz.govt.nz/notes_and_coins/coins/0101459.html

On 31st July 2006, the Reserve Bank of New Zealand introduced a new set of smaller and lighter coins to replace the existing 10, 20 and 50 cent pieces. The 5 cent piece was phased out of circulation, while recovery of the old coinage began.

Reserve Bank of New Zealand: History of New Zealand Coinage
http://www.rbnz.govt.nz/notes_and_coins/coins/0094086.html

In early 1840, Captain William Hobson, RN, the first Governor of New Zealand, extended British laws to New Zealand. This meant that certain sections of the Imperial Coinage Act, 1816 (UK) became relevant to the new colony. This allowed for the standard gold, silver and bronze British coins to circulate freely in New Zealand alongside the existing variety of foreign coins. British coins were made legal tender in terms of the above act by the passing of the English Laws Act in 1858.

Wikipedia: Coins of the Fijian dollar
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Fijian_dollar

The coins of the Fijian dollar have been part of the physical form of Fiji's currency, the Fijian dollar.

Wikipedia: Coins of the Fijian pound
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Fijian_pound

The coins of the Fijian pound were part of the physical form of Fiji's historical currency, the Fijian pound.

Wikipedia: Coinage of the Republic of Venice
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coinage_of_the_Republic_of_Venice

The Coinage of the Republic of Venice include the coins produced by the Republic of Venice from the late 12th century to 1866.

Wikipedia: Austrian Netherlands Kronenthaler
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austrian_Netherlands_Kronenthaler

The kronenthaler was the currency of the Austrian Netherlands since 1755. It was subdivided into 216 liards or 54 sols. During the Brabant Revolution in the Austrian Netherlands in 1789-90, it was briefly replaced with a short-lived revolutionary currency. Following the French occupation of the Austrian Netherlands in 1794, the Kronenthaler was replaced by the French franc.

Wikipedia: Brabant Revolution coinage
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brabant_Revolution_coinage

The coinage of the United Belgian States was only produced during the state's one-year existence in 1790, following the Brabant Revolution, but provided a strong numismatic influence for the coinage of Belgium after its independence in 1830.

Wikipedia: Ragusan perpera
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ragusan_perpera

The Ragusan perpera (Croatian: Dubrovačka perpera) was a type of silver coin issued and used in the Republic of Ragusa/Republic of Dubrovnik (Croatian: Dubrovačka republika).

It was minted between 1683 and 1803 and depicted the image of Saint Blaise (Croatian: Sveti Vlaho), the patron of the Republic, on the obverse, carrying a model of Dubrovnik city as well as a bishop's crosier in his left hand and giving a blessing with his right one.

Bank of Guyana: Coins
https://www.bankofguyana.org.gy/bog/notes-coins/coins

There are three coins issued by the Bank of Guyana. The denominations are as follows: $10, $5, $1.These coins were put into circulation on 26th May, 1996.

Wikipedia: Thaler
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thaler

The Thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years. Its name lives on in the many currencies called dollar and until recently, the Slovenian tolar. Further, the name of the Romanian and Moldovan currencies (Romanian and Moldovan Leu) comes from the Thaler via one of the Dutch daalders, the leeuwendaalder ("lion thaler").

NGC World Auction Central
https://www.ngccoin.com/auction-central/world/

NGC World Auction Central lists past and future auctions of certified world coins. You can easily navigate sales from some of the world’s largest numismatic auction houses, including Heritage, Stack’s Bowers, Teletrade, Goldberg, David Lawrence, GreatCollections and Champion Auction. This powerful search tool helps you research prices realized and find upcoming auctions of your favorite coins, all in one place.

Wikipedia: Akçe
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ak%C3%A7e

A silver coin, the akçe (Ottoman Turkish: آقچه‎) (pronounced akche) was the chief monetary unit of the Ottoman Empire. Three akçes were equal to one para. One-hundred and twenty akçes equalled one kuruş. Later after 1687 the kuruş became the main unit of account, replacing the akçe. In 1843, the silver kuruş was joined by the gold lira in a bimetallic system. Its weight fluctuated, one source estimates it between 1.15 and 1.18 grams. The name Akçe originally referred to a silver coin but later the meaning changed and it became a synonym for money.

Wikipedia: Sultani
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sultani

The sultani was an Ottoman gold coin. It was first minted during the reign of Mehmed II (r. 1451–1481), weighing about 3.45 grams. The sultani is the classic Ottoman gold coin also known generically as altın ("gold").

Zeno - Oriental Coins Database
http://www.zeno.ru/

Large database, with photos, of Asian coins.

The Royal Mint Museum: Iceland
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/overseas-coins/country-profiles/iceland/index.html

The origins of Iceland’s long-standing relationship with the Royal Mint may be found in the disjointed conditions of the Second World War. Being united to Denmark, Iceland had previously turned to the Copenhagen Mint for its coinage requirements but the fall of Denmark into enemy hands required the authorities in Reykjavic to look elsewhere. Thus it was that in 1940 the Royal Mint received an order for the five denominations from one eyrir to 25 aurar, soon to be followed by additional orders for króna and 2 krónur coins.

The Royal Mint Museum: Jordan
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/overseas-coins/country-profiles/jordan/index.html

The Royal Mint has a long relationship with Jordan stretching back to the first national coinage – dated 1949 but issued in 1950 – produced soon after the achievement of independence. An order was placed for six denominations, from the 100 fils down to the 1 fils. The denomination, date and name of the country appeared in Arabic on the obverse, in English on the reverse. A misunderstanding regarding the spelling of the Arabic singular meant that the first issue included a 1 fil coin – this was hastily corrected to 1 fils for future orders.

The Royal Mint Museum: Uruguay
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/overseas-coins/country-profiles/uruguay/index.html

Coins for Uruguay were first struck at the Royal Mint in 1953, making up a large order of almost 250 million pieces in 1, 2, 5 and 10 centesimos. The obverse bears a portrait of General Artigas – founder of Uruguayan independence – by Humphrey Paget.

Another order of a similar size was received in 1960, this time for six denominations from the 1 peso down to the 2 centesimos. Paget’s portrait of Artigas was retained, as were the reverse designs for the three lower denominations. But a new reverse type was adopted for the higher denominations, consisting of the national coat of arms surrounded by an arc of five-pointed stars.

Reserve Bank of New Zealand: Notes and coins
http://www.rbnz.govt.nz/notes_and_coins/

The Reserve Bank is the sole supplier of New Zealand banknotes and coins. We act as a wholesale distributor to the trading banks, and manage the design and manufacturing of the currency. We also withdraw damaged or unusable notes and coins to manage the quality of currency in circulation.

Reserve Bank of New Zealand: Coins
http://www.rbnz.govt.nz/notes_and_coins/coins/

Designs on New Zealand’s coins have not changed significantly since decimal currency was introduced in 1967. These initial coins were intended to match some of the previous imperial currency, for example the 20 cent piece was the same size as a florin. It was in the late 1980s that the two lowest denomination notes, the $1 and the $2, were ‘coined’. These coins were released in 1990, made of aluminium bronze, and featured a kiwi on the $1 coin and a kotuku on the $2 coin.

Wikipedia: New Zealand two-dollar coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand_two-dollar_coin

The New Zealand two-dollar coin is the largest-denomination coin of the New Zealand dollar. It was introduced along with the one-dollar coin in 1990. Both are made from an alloy of aluminium and brass. It is the largest and heaviest coin in circulation, weighing ten grams and measuring 26.5 millimetres in diameter. Its thickness is 2.7 mm, only 0.4 mm thinner than the one-dollar coin, thus it is the second-thickest coin in the country's circulation.

Wikipedia: New Zealand one-dollar coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand_one-dollar_coin

The New Zealand one-dollar coin ($1) is a coin of the New Zealand dollar. The current circulating coin was introduced on 11 February 1991 to replace the existing $1 note. There had previously been occasional issues of commemorative "silver dollars", but they are rarely seen in circulation.

Wikipedia: One-satang coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One-satang_coin

The Thailand one-satang coin is a currency unit equivalent to one-hundredth of a Thai baht. It is rare in circulation but used in banking transactions.

Wikipedia: New Zealand fifty-cent coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand_fifty-cent_coin

The New Zealand fifty-cent coin is a coin of the New Zealand dollar. It was the largest by denomination, diameter and mass to have been introduced on the decimalisation of the currency on 10 July 1967, replacing the pre-decimal crown coin (five shillings). On 31 July 2006, as part of a revision of New Zealand's coinage, the fifty cent was made smaller, lighter and of a cheaper alloy (nickel-plated steel). On 1 November of that year the previous larger fifty cent coin was demonetised.

Wikipedia: Five-satang coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five-satang_coin

The Thailand five-satang coin is a unit of currency equivalent to one-twentieth of a Thai baht. It was introduced in 1908 as a coin with a hole through its middle, which was minted until 1939. In 1946 the hole was removed and the new Thai monarch featured on the obverse: Rama IX. In 1996 a five-satang coin marked the 50th anniversary of his reign.

Wikipedia: New Zealand twenty-cent coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand_twenty-cent_coin

The New Zealand twenty-cent coin is the second lowest denomination coin of the New Zealand dollar. The 20 cent coin was introduced when the New Zealand dollar was introduced on 10 July 1967, replacing the New Zealand florin coin. Its original reverse of a kiwi bird was changed in 1990 when the image was moved onto the one dollar coin. In 2006 its size was reduced and its edge altered to a Spanish flower as part of a revision of New Zealand's coins, which also saw its alloy become nickel-plated steel.

Wikipedia: Ten-satang coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ten-satang_coin

The Thailand ten-satang coin is a currency unit equivalent to one-tenth of a Thai baht. It is rare in circulation but used in banking transactions. It was introduced in 1908 as a coin with a hole through its middle and minted until 1939.

Wikipedia: New Zealand ten-cent coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand_ten-cent_coin

The New Zealand ten-cent coin is the lowest denomination coin of the New Zealand dollar. The 10 cent coin was introduced when the New Zealand dollar was introduced on 10 July 1967, replacing the New Zealand shilling coin. In 2006 its size was reduced as part of a revision of New Zealand's coins, which also saw its alloy become copper-plated steel.

Wikipedia: Twenty-five-satang coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twenty-five-satang_coin

The Thailand twenty-five-satang coin is a currency unit equivalent to one-fourth of a Thai baht. It is commonly called salueng (Thai: สลึง) by Thai speakers. Salueng is the name of a historical Thai measurement, equal to one quarter of a baht or three and three quarters of a gram.

Wikipedia: Coins of the New Zealand dollar
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_New_Zealand_dollar

Prior to 10 July 1967, the New Zealand pound, using the £sd system, was the currency of New Zealand. Coins of the pound tend to follow the size, weight, and composition of their British counterparts. The main coins in usage were the halfpenny (½d), penny (1d), threepence (3d), sixpence (6d), shilling (1s), florin (2s), and halfcrown (2s 6d).

Wikipedia: Fifty-satang coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fifty-satang_coin

The Thailand fifty-satang coin is currency unit equivalent to one-half of a Thai baht. It is also called สองสลึง (song salueng - "two salueng" while สลึง salueng is used to describe the 25-satang coin). In 2008, fifty satang coin was minted both old aluminium series bronze and new copper series.

Wikipedia: New Zealand five-cent coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand_five-cent_coin

The New Zealand five-cent coin was the lowest denomination coin of the New Zealand dollar from 1990 to 2006. The five-cent coin was introduced when the New Zealand dollar was introduced on 10 July 1967, replacing the New Zealand sixpence coin. On 31 July 2006 it was eliminated as part of a revision of New Zealand's coins, and it was demonetised (no longer legal tender) as of 1 November 2006.

Wikipedia: One-baht coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One-baht_coin

The one-baht coin is a currency unit of the Thai baht. It is commonly called rian baht (Thai:เหรียญบาท) by Thai speakers (rian meaning "coin" in Thai). Like all coins in Thailand, its obverse features King Bhumibol Adulyadej. Its reverse features Wat Phra Sri Rattana Satsadaram or Wat Phra Kaew, the royal temple in Bangkok's Grand Palace complex.

Wikipedia: Two-cent coin (New Zealand)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-cent_coin_(New_Zealand)

The New Zealand two-cent coin was the second smallest denomination coin of the New Zealand dollar from the currency's introduction in 1967 to its demonetisation, along with the one-cent coin, on 30 April 1990. Its reverse featured two kowhai flowers, considered emblematic of New Zealand. The image was designed by Reginald George James Berry, who designed the reverses for all coins introduced that year.

Wikipedia: Two-baht coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-baht_coin

In Thailand, the two-baht coin is the coin which is worth 2 baht or 200 satang. The new 2-baht coin design features H.M. King Bhumibol Adulyadej, the Great on the obverse, like all other Thai legal tender coins presently in circulation. The reverse design depicts the Golden Mountain at Wat Saket Ratcha Wora Maha Wihan in Bangkok.

Wikipedia: New Zealand one-cent coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand_one-cent_coin

The New Zealand one-cent coin was the smallest denomination coin of the New Zealand dollar from the currency's introduction in 1967 to its demonetisation, along with the two-cent coin, on 30 April 1990. With a diameter of 17.53 millimetres, it is the smallest coin ever issued of the dollar, and at 2.07 grams in mass the lightest as well. Its reverse featured a fern leaf, a sign of New Zealand, associated also with its national rugby union team. The image was designed by Reginald George James Berry, who designed the reverses for all coins introduced that year.

Wikipedia: Five-baht coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five-baht_coin

The Thailand five-baht coin is a currency unit of the Thai baht.

Wikipedia: Ten-baht coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ten-baht_coin

The Thailand ten-baht coin is a currency unit of the Thai baht. Like every standard-issue coin in Thailand, its obverse features King Bhumibol Adulyadej. Its reverse features Wat Arun Ratchawararam Ratchawora Mahavihara seen from the Chao Phraya River. Raised dots corresponding to Braille cell dot 1 and dots 2-4-5, which correspond to the number 10, are at the 12 o'clock position on the reverse of the standard-issue 10-baht coin. Braille enumeration does not appear on coins of other denominations, nor on ten-baht coins frequently issued as commemorative coins (for example, the 50th and 60th Anniversary of Accession to the Throne of King Bhumibol Adulyadej).

Sheqel: British Mandate of Palestine 1927 - 1947
http://sheqel.info/2-1.htm

British Mandate of Palestine 1927 - 1947 coins.

Sheqel: The Online Catalog of Israel Numismatics 1927 - Present
http://sheqel.info/

The Online Catalog of Israel Numismatics 1927 - Present.

Sheqel: Trade Coins : Mil & Pruta Series (1948 - 1957)
http://sheqel.info/2-2.htm

Trade Coins : Mil & Pruta Series (1948 - 1957).

Sheqel: Trade Coins : Agora - Lira Series (1960 - 1980)
http://sheqel.info/2-3.htm

Trade Coins : Agora - Lira Series (1960 - 1980).

Wikipedia: Coinage of India
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coinage_of_India

Coins provide not only evidence of art and economy, but also a wisdom for understanding the history and politics of a nation. As a means of communication, they speak to the political and religious ideologies that underpinned a ruler's or state's claim to power. Coinage of India, issued by Imperial dynasties and smaller middle kingdoms of India began during the 1st millennium BCE, and consisted mainly of copper and silver coins in its initial stage. Scholars remain divided over the origins of Indian coinage.

Sheqel: Trade Coins : New Agora - Sheqel Series (1980 - 1985)
http://sheqel.info/2-4.htm

Trade Coins : New Agora - Sheqel Series (1980 - 1985).

Sheqel: Trade Coins : Agora - New Sheqel Series (1985 - present)
http://sheqel.info/2-5.htm

Trade Coins : Agora - New Sheqel Series (1985 - present).

Wikipedia: Coinage of Asia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coinage_of_Asia

The earliest coinage of Asia is also the oldest coinage of the world. Coins were invented several times independently of each other. The earliest coins from the Mediterranean region are from the kingdom of Lydia, and are now dated ca. 600 BCE. The dating of the earliest coins of China and India is difficult and the subject of debate. Nevertheless, the first coins of China are at least as old as the earliest Lydian coins and possibly older, while the earliest coins of India seems to have appeared at a later stage.

Wikipedia: Modern Indian coins
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modern_Indian_coins

India became independent on 15 August 1947 but the old British India coins were still in use as a frozen currency till 1950 when India became Republic. The 1st Rupee coins of Republic of India was minted in 1950.

Wikipedia: Coins of British India
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_British_India

British trading posts in India were first established by the East India Company (EIC) early in the seventeenth century, which quickly evolved into larger colonies covering a significant part of the subcontinent. Early settlements or factories included Masulipatnam (1611) and Madras (1640) in the south, Surat (1612) in the west, and modern-day Kolkata (1698–99) in the east. These colonies gave rise to Madras Presidency, Bombay Presidency, and Bengal Presidency, and each Presidency had a separate coinage and monetary system. In 1835, the EIC adopted a unified system of coinage throughout all British possessions in India and the older Presidency system was discontinued. After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, control of EIC territories passed to the British Crown. Coinage issued after 1857 were under the authority of monarch as India became part of the British Empire. There was a transition period after India gained independence on 15 August 1947, and the first set of republic India coins were issued in 1950.

Wikipedia: Penny (Canadian coin)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penny_(Canadian_coin)

In Canada, a penny is a coin worth one cent, or 1⁄100 of a dollar. According to the Royal Canadian Mint, the official national term of the coin is the "one-cent piece", but in practice the terms penny and cent predominate. Originally, "penny" referred to a two-cent coin. When the two-cent coin was discontinued, penny took over as the new one-cent coin's name. Penny was likely readily adopted because the previous coinage in Canada (up to 1858) was the British monetary system, where Canada used British pounds, shillings, and pence as coinage alongside U.S. decimal coins and Spanish milled dollars.

Wikipedia: Coins of the Rhodesian dollar
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Rhodesian_dollar

The coins of the Rhodesian dollar were part of the physical form of Rhodesia's historical currency, the Rhodesian dollar. On February 17, 1970, Rhodesia changed over to decimal currency. The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland halfpenny and penny were withdrawn from circulation and replaced with the ½ cent coin, 1 cent coin (their values were not exactly equal) and a 2½ cent (3d) tickey.

Wikipedia: Nickel (Canadian coin)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nickel_(Canadian_coin)

The Canadian five-cent coin, commonly called a nickel, is a coin worth five cents or one-twentieth of a Canadian dollar. It was patterned on the corresponding coin in the neighbouring United States. Starting 4 February 2013, after the elimination of the penny, it became the smallest valued coin in the currency.

Wikipedia: Coins of the Rhodesian pound
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Rhodesian_pound

The coins of the Rhodesian pound were part of the currency of Southern Rhodesia, which changed its name to Rhodesia, following the break-up of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, when the Rhodesian pound replaced the Rhodesia and Nyasaland pound.

Wikipedia: Dime (Canadian coin)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dime_(Canadian_coin)

In Canada, a dime is a coin worth ten cents. It is the smallest (in physical size) of the currently issued Canadian coins. According to the Royal Canadian Mint, the official national term of the coin is the 10 cent piece, but in practice, the term dime predominates in English-speaking Canada. It is nearly identical in size to the American dime, but unlike its counterpart, the Canadian dime is magnetic due to a distinct metal composition: from 1968 to 1999 it was composed entirely of nickel, and since 2000 it has had a high steel content.

Wikipedia: Quarter (Canadian coin)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quarter_(Canadian_coin)

The quarter, short for quarter dollar, is a Canadian coin worth 25 cents or one-fourth of a Canadian dollar. It is a small, circular coin of silver colour. According to the Royal Canadian Mint, the official name for the coin is the 25-cent piece, but in practice and because of its similar size to an American coin of similar value, it is usually called a "quarter". The coin is produced at the Royal Canadian Mint's facility in Winnipeg.

Wikipedia: 50-cent piece (Canadian coin)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/50-cent_piece_(Canadian_coin)

The fifty-cent piece is the common name of the Canadian coin worth 50 cents. The coin's reverse depicts the coat of arms of Canada. At the opening ceremonies for the Ottawa branch of the Royal Mint, held on January 2, 1908, Governor General Earl Grey struck the Dominion of Canada’s first domestically produced coin. It was a silver fifty-cent piece bearing the effigy of King Edward VII.

Wikipedia: Shooting thaler
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shooting_thaler

A shooting thaler (German: Schützentaler, French: Écu de tir) is a commemorative coin minted to commemorate one of the Schützenfest (French: Fête de tir) or free shooting (German: Freischiessen, French: Tir libre) tournaments held in various cantons within the Swiss Confederation. Most of the designs differ from their circulating counterparts, though the pieces issued for the shooting festivals in Geneva in 1851 and Solothurn in 1855 are exceptions. Most shooting thaler designs depict strongly cantonal or patriotic themes, such as historical military leaders or heraldry. The entire series can be distinguished from shooting medals by their adherence to the specifications of circulating coinage. All but the Stans and St. Gallen issues are denominated. Other countries have minted coins in honor of shooting festivals or marksmanship competitions, but only Swiss pieces are considered shooting thalers.

Wikipedia: Voyageur dollar
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voyageur_dollar

The Voyageur Dollar was a coin of Canada struck for circulation from 1935 through 1986. Until 1968, the coin was composed of 80% silver. A smaller, nickel version for general circulation was struck from 1968 through 1986. In 1987, the coin was replaced by the loonie. However, like all of Canada's discontinued coins, the voyageur dollar coins remain legal tender.

Wikipedia: Loonie
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loonie

The Canadian one dollar coin, commonly called the loonie, is a gold-coloured one-dollar coin introduced in 1987. It bears images of a common loon, a bird which is common and well known in Canada, on the reverse, and of Queen Elizabeth II on the obverse. It is produced by the Royal Canadian Mint at its facility in Winnipeg.

Coins and Canada
http://www.coinsandcanada.com/

Rich information on Canadian coins, prices and valuations, online store, discussions and much more.

Wikipedia: Toonie
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toonie

The Canadian two dollar coin, commonly called the toonie, was introduced on February 19, 1996 by Public Works minister Diane Marleau. The toonie is a bi-metallic coin which on the reverse side bears an image of a polar bear by artist Brent Townsend. The obverse, like all other current Canadian circulation coins, has a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II. It has the words "ELIZABETH II / D.G. REGINA" in a different typeface from any other Canadian coin; it is also the only coin to consistently bear its issue date on the obverse.

Wikipedia: Vienna Philharmonic (coin)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vienna_Philharmonic_(coin)

The Vienna Philharmonic, often shortened Philharmonic, is a bullion coin of gold or silver produced by the Austrian Mint (Münze Österreich AG). It is named for the Vienna Philharmonic orchestra (Wiener Philharmoniker), which inspires the design of both sides of the coins. The one troy ounce (ozt) gold version was first introduced in 1989 with a face value of 2,000 Austrian schillings (ATS) and is generally one of the world's best selling bullion coins. In 2002, with the adoption of the euro currency, the nominal value of the one ounce coin was changed to €100. In 2008, the Mint introduced a one-ounce silver version of the coin with a nominal value of €1.50. The silver coin is also one of the top selling bullion coins, ranked third in 2013.

Wikipedia: List of people on coins of Canada
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_people_on_coins_of_Canada

This is a list of notables on coins of Canada. Members of the Monarchy of Canada are not included.

Wikipedia: Bullion coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bullion_coin

A bullion coin is a coin struck from precious metal and kept as a store of value or an investment, rather than used in day-to-day commerce. The United Kingdom defines investment coins more specifically as coins that have been minted after 1800, have a purity of not less than 900 thousandths and are, or have been, a legal tender in their country of origin (those not meeting the last requirement are not "coins" according to United States law and must be advertised as "rounds" instead). Bullion coins are usually available in gold and silver, with the exceptions of the Krugerrand and the Swiss Vreneli which are only available in gold. The American Eagle series is available in gold, silver and platinum, and the Canadian Maple Leaf series is available in gold, silver, platinum and palladium.

Wikipedia: Newfoundland 2 dollar coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_2_dollar_coin

The Newfoundland 2 dollar coin was issued in intermittent years between 1865 and 1888. It was the only circulation gold coin issued by a British colony. Although few coins were issued, it was broadly used in Newfoundland and Eastern Canada. The coin became scarce in 1894 because of hoarding following the collapse of Newfoundland's banks and monetary system.

Wikipedia: Kreuzer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kreuzer

The Kreuzer (in English usually kreutzer) was a silver coin and unit of currency existing in the southern German states prior to the unification of Germany, and in Austria. After 1760 it was made of copper.

Bnai Brith: Palestine Mandate Coins
http://www.bnaibrith.org/palestine-mandate-coins.html

Shortly after World War I, Britain took control of an area known as the Palestine Mandate. The region, which was created out of land formerly controlled by the Ottoman Empire, consisted of the territory we know of today as the nation of Israel, the Palestinian Administrations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. To effectively administer this area, a stable monetary system was required. As a result, a unique numismatic event took place, one that will never occur again. The British Palestine Mandate coins were minted.

National Bank of Austria: Money Museum
https://www.oenb.at/en/About-Us/Money-Museum.html

The Money Museum of the Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OeNB) has displays on monetary issues, including monetary history, for the general public. The exhibits highlight the development of money from its origins to the present day.

Wikipedia: Newfoundland one cent
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_one_cent

As Newfoundland did not join the Dominion of Canada until 1949, it had its own currency for many decades. It adopted its own decimal currency in 1863. Compared to other pre-Confederation British colonies, it had a wide selection of decimal coinage (including a twenty cent coin). The most important coin in Newfoundland was the Spanish American dollar (the 8-real piece), therefore, the Newfoundland government set its dollar equal in value to this coin. The new decimal cent was equal to the British halfpenny and $4.80 was equal to one pound sterling.

Wikipedia: Półtorak
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C3%B3%C5%82torak

Półtorak (lit. one-and-a-halfer) was a small coin equal to 1½ grosz struck in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 17th century, during the reign of Sigismund III Vasa and John II Casimir Vasa. Initially a silver coin, with time its value deteriorated and the coin went out of use. Augustus III of Poland unsuccessfully tried to reintroduce it as a copper coin. The name stems from the Polish word "półtora" meaning one and a half.

Wikipedia: Newfoundland five cents
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_five_cents

Work on the coinage tools for the Newfoundland five-cent coin began after the one-cent coin, so the coin has no legend. The first pattern is derived from the New Brunswick obverse with Newfoundland substituted for New Brunswick.

Wikipedia: Groschen
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groschen

Groschen (Latin: Grossus, German: Groschen, Italian: grosso or grossone, Czech: groš, Lithuanian: grašis, Estonian: kross, Polish: grosz, Albanian: grosh, Hungarian: garas, Ukrainian: грош, Russian: грош, Macedonian: грош, Bulgarian: грош, grosh, Romanian: groș) was the (sometimes colloquial) name for a coin used in various German-speaking states as well as some non-German-speaking countries of Central Europe (Bohemia, Poland), the Danubian principalities. The name, like that of the English groat, derives from the Italian denaro grosso, or large penny, via the Czech form groš. The Qirsh (also Gersh, Grush, Γρόσι (Grósi) and Kuruş), Arabic, Ethiopian, Hebrew, Greek and Turkish names for currency denominations in and around the territories formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, are derived from the same Italian origin.

Wikipedia: Newfoundland ten cents
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_ten_cents

The Newfoundland ten cent coins exist as a bronze pattern with the adopted obverse from the New Brunswick coin (the words Newfoundland substitute New Brunswick). This design adoption is similar to that used for Newfoundland five cent coins.

Wikipedia: Gold coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gold_coin

A gold coin is a coin made mostly or entirely of gold. In modern times, most gold coins are intended either to be sold to collectors, or to be used as bullion coins - coins whose nominal value is irrelevant and which serve primarily as a method of investing in gold.

Wikipedia: Newfoundland twenty cents
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_twenty_cents

The first known pattern for the Newfoundland 20-cent piece is a bronze strike with an obverse derived from a New Brunswick coin. The reverse is from the die for the 1864 New Brunswick 20-cents. The twenty-cent denomination was very popular in Newfoundland and was minted on a consistent basis throughout the reign of Queen Victoria. Over the years the piece became unpopular with Canadians as it was easily confused with the Canadian 25-cent piece, which was similar in size and shape. Pressured by Canada, the government replaced it with a twenty-five cent coin during World War I.

Wikipedia: Newfoundland twenty-five cents
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_twenty-five_cents

Although twenty-cent coins were required during the reign of King George V, arrangements were being made to replace the denomination. The Ottawa Mint was going to start producing Newfoundland’s coins and Canadians did not like the Newfoundland twenty-cent piece. Newfoundland coins circulated throughout Canada as well and the Newfoundland twenty-cent coin was often confused with Canadian twenty-five cent coins. The Canadian government convinced Newfoundland’s government to discontinue the twenty-cent coin. A twenty-five coin was introduced and struck on the same standard as the corresponding Canadian coin. The obverse of the coin was exactly the same as that of the Canadian twenty-five cent coin.

Wikipedia: Newfoundland fifty cents
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_fifty_cents

The Newfoundland fifty cent piece was the last denomination to be added to the Victorian coinage. Its first year of issue was 1870. The laureate portrait is stylistically unlike anything used for the rest of British North America. The denomination became very popular and assumed importance after the failure of the Commercial and Union Banks of Newfoundland during the financial crisis of 1894.

Wikipedia: Coins of the Newfoundland dollar
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Newfoundland_dollar

The coins of Newfoundland are of historical importance as Newfoundland was a British colony until 1907, and a Dominion until 1949, when Newfoundland and Labrador became the tenth province of Canada.

Wikipedia: Platinum coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platinum_coin

Platinum coins are a form of currency. Platinum has an international currency symbol under ISO 4217 of XPT. The issues of legitimate platinum coins were initiated by Spain in Spanish-colonized America in the 18th century and continued by the Russian Empire in the 19th century. As a form of currency, these coins proved to be impractical: platinum resembles many less expensive metals, and, unlike the more malleable and ductile silver and gold, it is very difficult to work. Several commemorative coin sets have been issued starting from 1978 and became popular among coin collectors. The major platinum bullion coins include the American Platinum Eagle, the Canadian Platinum Maple Leaf, the Australian Platinum Koala, the Isle of Man Noble, the Chinese Platinum Panda and several series by the Soviet Union and later by the Russian Federation.

Wikipedia: Greek lepton
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_lepton

The lepton, plural lepta (Greek: λεπτόν, pl. λεπτά) is the name of various fractional units of currency used in the Greek-speaking world from antiquity until today. The word means "small" or "thin", and during Classical and Hellenistic times a lepton was always a small value coin, usually the smallest available denomination of another currency. The lepton was first minted under Alexander Jannaeus prior to 76 B.C.E.

In modern Greece, lepton (modern form: lepto, λεπτό) is the name of the 1/100 denomination of all the official currencies of the Greek state: the phoenix (1827–1832), the drachma (1832–2001) and the euro (2002–current) – the name is the Greek form of "euro cent". Its unofficial currency sign is Λ (lambda). Since the late 1870s, and until the introduction of the euro in 2001, no Greek coin had been minted with a denomination lower than 5 lepta.

Bulgarian Coins
http://www.bulgariancoins.com/

Bulgarian Coins is the complete online resource dedicated to Bulgarian gold, silver, circulation and commemorative coins.

Wikipedia: Louis d'or
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_d%27or

The Louis d'or is any number of French coins first introduced by Louis XIII in 1640. The name derives from the depiction of the portrait of King Louis on one side of the coin; the French royal coat of arms is on the reverse. The coin was replaced by the French franc at the time of the revolution and later the similarly valued Napoleon, although a limited number of Louis were also minted during the "Bourbon Restoration" under Louis XVIII. The actual value of the coins fluctuated according to monetary and fiscal policy (see livre tournois), but in 1726 the value was stabilised.

Cayman Islands Monetary Authority: Circulating Notes and Coins
http://www.cimoney.com.ky/currency/currency.aspx?id=68

The legal tender in the Cayman Islands is the Cayman Islands currency, issued under section 28 of the Monetary Authority Law (2013 Revision). Previous laws were the 1971 Currency Law, followed by the Currency Law of 1974, which was repealed and replaced by the 1983 Currency Law Revised.

Wikipedia: Silver coin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silver_coin

Silver coins are possibly the oldest mass-produced form of coinage. Silver has been used as a coinage metal since the times of the Greeks; their silver drachmas were popular trade coins. The ancient Persians used silver coins between 612-330 BC. Before 1797, British pennies were made of silver. As with all collectible coins, many factors determine the value of a silver coin, such as its rarity, demand, condition and the number originally minted. Ancient silver coins coveted by collectors include the Denarius and Miliarense, while more recent collectible silver coins include the Morgan Dollar and the Spanish Milled Dollar.

Te Ara Encyclopaedia of New Zealand: Coins and banknotes: Varied coins and banknotes, 1840s to 1930s
http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/coins-and-banknotes/page-1

In the early 19th century a range of foreign coins circulated in New Zealand. In 1847 new exchange rates were fixed. From that year British coins dominated circulation as the exchange rate was unfavourable for other foreign coinage. British coin became legal tender (currency that has to be accepted to immediately clear a debt) in New Zealand in 1858. Gold coins minted in Australia by branches of the Royal Mint were also legal tender. From 1897 British coin minted by the Royal Mint in London was the only legal-tender coin.

The first New Zealand coins were issued in 1933.

Swissmint: Numismatic Reports
http://www.swissmint.ch/e/dokumentation/numisma_bericht.php

Technical data of legal tender Swiss coins. List of the Swiss coins having legal tender and withdrawn from circulation.

Swissmint: Circulation coins
http://www.swissmint.ch/e/produkte/umlauf.php

With most of us, circulation coins conjure up ambivalent feelings. On the one hand, they hold an inexplicable attraction for us - as, indeed, all forms of money do - an attraction which probably harks back to fond childhood memories of all the treasures we could buy with our allowance of coins. On the other hand, however, coins can also be a nuisance. For instance, when too many of them make wallets heavy and bulky so that we take the first opportunity of getting rid of them only to find ourselves afterwards without the right change for the ticket or cigarette machine. Nevertheless, coins will continue to hold their ground as a convenient, cheap, and, above all, universally accepted form of currency.

Romanian Coins
http://www.romaniancoins.org/

Huge and most complete numismatic site on Romanian coins.

Wikipedia: Rai stones
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rai_stones

Rai, or stone money (Yapese: raay), are large, circular stone disks carved out of limestone formed from aragonite and calcite crystals. Rai stones were quarried on several of the Micronesian islands, mainly Palau, but briefly on Guam as well, and transported for use as money to the island of Yap. They have been used in trade by the Yapese as a form of currency.

Wikipedia: Coins of the Republic of Ireland
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Republic_of_Ireland

There have been three sets of coins in Ireland. In all three, the coin showed a Celtic harp on the obverse. The pre-decimal coins of the Irish pound had realistic animals on the reverse; the decimal coins retained some of these but featured ornamental birds on the lower denominations; and the euro coins used the common design of the euro currencies. The pre-decimal and original decimal coins were of the same dimensions as the same-denomination British coins, as the Irish pound was in currency union with the British pound sterling. British coins were widely accepted in Ireland, and conversely to a lesser extent. In 1979 Ireland joined the Exchange Rate Mechanism and the "punt" left parity with sterling; coin designs introduced after this differed between the two countries.

Sveriges Riksbank: Coins
http://www.riksbank.se/en/Notes--coins/Coins/

The new 1-, 2- and 5-krona is now legal tender. The 10-krona coin remains unchanged. The older 1-, 2- and 5-krona coins will become invalid in June 2017.

Sveriges Riksbank: Invalid coins
http://www.riksbank.se/en/Notes--coins/Coins/Invalid-coins/

The final date on which coins in the respective denomination were legal tender.

South African Mint Company / South African Coins / Five Rand (R5)
http://www.samint.co.za/R5.aspx

The Black Wildebeest or Gnu, is portrayed on the reverse of the R5 coin. They are found in the northern grassveld regions of the Cape Province, throughout the Orange Free State to KwaZulu-Natal and the southern regions of Gauteng. Wildebeest hides were at one stage an important commodity in Kwa-Zulu-Natal. Although South Africa's first decimal coin series was released in 1961, no R5 coins were minted until 1994.

South African Mint Company / South African Coins / Two Rand (R2)
http://www.samint.co.za/R2.aspx

As part of the third decimal series, it was agreed that the Kudu be portrayed on South Africa's first R2 circulation coin. Initially, a leopard design was considered for the R2 but it was decided that designs for the R1, R2 and R5 should be the antelope. The Kudu is known as the "King of the Antelope" because of its magnificent horns.

South African Mint Company / South African Coins / One Rand (R1)
http://www.samint.co.za/R1.aspx

The first Springbok appeared as long ago as 1947 as a true South African symbol on our silver crown size coins. The original design is still viewed as one of the best designs in the world. Based on the original artwork of one of South Africa's famous sculptors, Coert Steynberg, the Springbok was used on various other South African coins. These were the gold one-pound and ½ pound coins, and later the gold R1 and R2 coins. From 1960 to 1964, the Springbok reappeared on the reverse of the 50c. This prancing buck was also chosen to be the symbol on the Krugerrand from 1967 to date. The Springbok was also depicted on the R1 nickel coins from 1977 - 1990. When introducing the current coin series in 1989, the Springbok was once again the chosen design for the reverse of the new smaller R1 coin. The words "SOLI DEO GLORIA" ("To God alone the Glory") appear on the R1 coins. In 2002, The Johannesburg World Summit (a United Nations Convention) was held in South Africa. To commemorate this prestigious event, a couple of million "World Summit" R1 circulation coins were manufactured and put into circulation.

South African Mint Company / South African Coins / Fifty Cent (50c)
http://www.samint.co.za/50c.aspx

The Strelitzia (Strelitzia Reginae) Crane Flower or Bird-of-Paradise flower, occurs in the warm valleys of Zululand near the sea. With its long lasting, brilliant orange and blue flowers, this indigenous plant was introduced into cultivation in England towards the end of the 18th century and became a popular florist plant. This South African native has adapted so happily to foreign climates that it has even been adopted as the civic emblem of the American City of Los Angeles. The Strelitzia, together with the arum lily and blue agapanthus, first appeared on the 50c coin that was introduced in 1965 as part of the second decimal series. Representing the national flag, this flower design was modelled by Tommy Sasseen from a drawing by Cynthna Letty. With the introduction of South Africa's third and current coin series, the Strelitzia is once again portrayed on the 50c coin. Die-sinker, Linda Lotriet modelled the design.

South African Mint Company / South African Coins / Twenty Cent (20c)
http://www.samint.co.za/20c.aspx

The remarkable South African flower, the Protea cynaroids was one of the first distinctive South African symbols that appeared on the tickey and sixpence coins from 1925 to 1960. With the introduction of South Africa's first decimal series (1961 - 1964) the Protea was again depicted on the 2½c and 5c coins which were designed by the die-cutter, Kruger Gray. With the second decimal coin series (1965 - 1989), an outstanding South African horticultural artist, Cynthna Letty was responsible for the artwork. The new Protea design depicted the Protea plant with three flowers in various stages on the nickel 20c coin. Die-sinker Tommy Sasseen modelled the design from the original watercolour painting which can be viewed at the South African Mint museum. In 1989 the third decimal coin series was introduced and the Protea was selected for the new bronze plated 20c coin. Die-sinker, Susan Erasmus developed the design from the first artwork. In 1996, the design underwent a slight modification to accommodate a larger "20c" numeral on the coin.

South African Mint Company / South African Coins / Ten Cent (10c)
http://www.samint.co.za/10c.aspx

The Arum Lily (Zantedeschia Aethiopica) is a distinguished South African flower. It originally appeared on the 50c coin from 1965 to 1989, as part of South Africa's second decimal series. In 1989 the third decimal coin series was introduced and the Arum Lily was selected for the 10c coin. The design was developed from the original artwork by Cynthna Letty. The Arum Lily is also known as the white calla lily, aronskelk or varkblom (pig lily). The latter name is due to the fact that the plant's nutritious rootstock is favoured by pigs and to some extent by porcupines. The plant is also used medicinally in various ways. The white Arum Lily can be evergreen or deciduous, depending on how much water is gets. The spathe (flower) varies in colour from white to cream and a green and white variation is also found in semi shaded areas.

South African Mint Company / South African Coins / Five Cent (5c)
http://www.samint.co.za/5c.aspx

The Blue Crane (Anthropoides Paradisea) is our national bird and is found throughout the large Savannah areas of South Africa, usually near water. Each bird is about 105 cm tall with both sexes identical. Identification is easy because of the large head with dark brown irises and a pinkish bill. Nesting pairs seem to mate for life and use the same nesting sites. The Blue Crane population is thriving. As the Blue Crane is more-or-less confined to South Africa, it has been used only on South African coins. Our second decimal series. 1965 to 1990, had the Blue Crane on the nickel 5c and it was retained on the copper plated 5c on the third decimal series, but with a redesigned image. The Blue Crane portrayed on the reverse of the South African 5c was modeled by G Richard; the obverse was modeled by A Sutherland. The design was developed from an original artwork by the well-known artist, Dick Findley. The artwork is on display at the South African Mint's museum.

Bermuda Monetary Authority: Coins Issued And Redeemed
http://www.bma.bm/statistics/currency/SitePages/Currency%20Coins%20Issued%20And%20Redeemed.aspx

Yearly statistics of coins issued and redeemed by the Bermuda Monetary Authority.

South African Mint Company / South African Coins / Two Cent (2c)
http://www.samint.co.za/2c.aspx

The Fish Eagle (Haliaetus Vocifer). The call of the fish eagle is probably one of the most familiar sounds associated with Southern African wildlife. The fish eagle is found in the region south of the Sahara down to the southern Cape in areas with suitable habitat such as rivers, dams and estuaries. The greatest concentration of fish eagles is found along the Chobe River and in the Okavango Delta. There are approximately 500 breeding pairs in South Africa. The fish eagle is approximately 70 cm long, the female being slightly larger than her mate. The birds have an unmistakable white head, breast and mantle, black back and wings and chestnut belly. The immature bird is brown, gradually becoming darker on attaining adulthood. Now retired after 40 years, Arthur Sutherland Chief Engraver of the South African Mint Company, modelled the fish eagle, portrayed on the reverse of the South African 2c.

Note: Production of the 2c coin ceased in 2002 but it remains legal tender.

South African Mint Company / South African Coins / One Cent (1c)
http://www.samint.co.za/1c.aspx

The design of two sparrows on a mimosa branch was drawn by Kruger Gray and was depicted on the farthing from 1923 to 1960 and on the ½ cent between 1961 and 1964. A new design appeared on the 1 cent from 1965 to 1990. With the launch of the new coin series in 1991, a design by William Lumley, based on the Kruger Gray original, was approved for the 1 cent. The Cape Sparrow (Passer Melaniurus) is found throughout South Africa - except in the extreme east - in grasslands, cultivated land and near human habitation. Sparrows breed throughout the year, the incubation period being 12 - 14 days. Their characteristic call is a clear, piercing "chirrup-chirrup" and "chissk". During the Anglo-Boer War (1899 -1902) a group of women in the Bethulie concentration camp adopted the following Bible text as their motto for survival: "Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing and one of them shall not fall to the ground without your Father knowing it?" - Matthew 10:29. These women vowed that if South Africa ever issued a farthing (1/4 penny), Ha'penny or cent, they would endeavour to have the sparrow - a symbol of faith and hope - depicted on the coin. The women succeeded and since 1923, the sparrow has been portrayed on South Africa's lowest denomination.

Note: Production of the 1c coin was stopped in 2002 but it remains legal tender.

Bulgarian National Bank: Currency out of Circulation for Which the Term of Exchange has not Expired
http://www.bnb.bg/NotesAndCoins/NACOutOfCirculation/index.htm

List of coins which are no longer in circulation in Bulgaria but can still be exchanged for current coinage at the Bulgarian National Bank .

Bulgarian National Bank:Catalogue of Bulgarian Coins (PDF file download - large!)
http://www.bnb.bg/bnbweb/groups/public/documents/bnb_publication/pub_np_catalogues_coins_en.pdf

A full catalogue of coins issued in Bulgaria between 1879 and 2014, with coin specifications, photos and (not for all) mintage figures.

National Printing House and Mint, Portugal: Circulation Coins
https://www.incm.pt/portal/mpm_mcr.jsp?lang=en

The minting of circulation coins in order to meet the needs of the Portuguese State in terms of monetary circulation is an activity that has a tradition of seven centuries, as well as a mission that forms part of the INCM identity.

National Printing House and Mint, Portugal: Euro
https://www.incm.pt/portal/mpm_euro.jsp?lang=en

The creation of a single currency was an historic moment of capital importance for the future of the European Union and Portugal. Its minting was an industrial and technical challenge, reachable only by internationally recognized Mints among which is the INCM.

National Printing House and Mint, Portugal: Annual Series
https://www.incm.pt/portal/mpm_seriesa.jsp?lang=en

Continuing our country's strong tradition of collecting, INCM mints and commercialises on special packages and properly certified the annual series of euro circulation coins, with three different kinds of special finishing: uncirculated (FDC), brilliant uncirculated (BU) or numismatical proof (Proof).

Museos Banco Central de Costa Rica (Museums of the Central Bank of Costa Rica)
http://www.museosdelbancocentral.org/

The Pre-Colombian Gold Museum possesses an extraordinary collection of gold objects which reflect the world view, social structure and gold-working techniques of the pre-Columbian peoples of Costa Rica. The exhibition showcases the use and function of the pieces, the technology of their fabrication, as well as their relationship to the natural world and the daily life of these societies.

The Numismatic Museum Currently exhibiting the show "From the 'Real' to the 'Colón': a History of Costa Rican Currency," which presents the evolution of the different means of exchange from 1502 to the present.

Banco de Portugal: Euro Coins
http://www.bportugal.pt/en-US/NotaseMoedas/MoedasEuro/Pages/default.aspx

The legal tender status of euro coins differs depending on their category. Current coins and commemorative coins intended for circulation are legal tender throughout the euro area. Collector coins are legal tender solely in the territory of the issuing Member State.

Banco de Portugal: Current Coins
http://www.bportugal.pt/en-US/NotaseMoedas/MoedasEuro/MoedasCorrentes/Pages/default.aspx

Current coins have a european common side and a national side. The national sides of euro coins minted in Portugal were designed by Vítor Manuel Fernandes dos Santos, who drew inspiration from Portuguese historical symbols, and depict the 3 royals seals of the first king of Portugal, Afonso Henriques.

Czech National Bank: Exhibition People & Money
http://www.cnb.cz/en/public/cnb_exhibition/

The Czech National Bank exhibition "People & Money" opened to the public on 2 January 2002 in the beautiful spaces of the former strong-room at the CNB's headquarters, Na Příkopě 28, Prague 1.

Wikipedia: Portuguese euro coins
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portuguese_euro_coins

Portuguese euro coins show three different designs for each of the three series of coins. However, they are quite similar in that all contain old Portuguese royal mints and seals within a circle of seven castles and five escutcheons with silver bezants (all similar to what can be seen in the coat of arms and flag of Portugal) and the word "Portugal". Also featured in the designs, all done by Vítor Manuel Fernandes dos Santos, are the 12 stars of the EU and the year of minting.

Czech National Bank: Czech coins
http://www.cnb.cz/en/banknotes_coins/coins/

Detailed information on individual coins in circulation in the Czech Republic.

Czech National Bank: 50 CZK
http://www.cnb.cz/en/banknotes_coins/coins/coin_50czk.html

Detailed information about the 50 CZK (Czech Koruna) coins issued by the Czech National Bank.

Czech National Bank: 20 CZK
http://www.cnb.cz/en/banknotes_coins/coins/coin_20czk.html

Detailed information about the 20 CZK (Czech Koruna) coins issued by the Czech National Bank.

Czech National Bank: 10 CZK
http://www.cnb.cz/en/banknotes_coins/coins/coin_10czk.html

Detailed information about the 10 CZK (Czech Koruna) coins issued by the Czech National Bank.

Czech National Bank: 5 CZK
http://www.cnb.cz/en/banknotes_coins/coins/coin_5czk.html

Detailed information about the 5 CZK (Czech Koruna) coins issued by the Czech National Bank.

Czech National Bank: 2 CZK
http://www.cnb.cz/en/banknotes_coins/coins/coin_2czk.html

Detailed information about the 2 CZK (Czech Koruna) coins issued by the Czech National Bank.

Wikipedia: Fals
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fals

The fals (plural fulus) was a copper coin produced by the Umayyad caliphate (661-750) and the Abbasid caliphate (750-1258) beginning in the late 7th century. The name is a corruption of follis, a Roman and later Byzantine copper coin. The fals usually featured ornate Arabic script on both sides. Various copper fals were produced until the 19th century.

Czech National Bank: 1 CZK
http://www.cnb.cz/en/banknotes_coins/coins/coin_1czk.html

Detailed information about the 1 CZK (Czech Koruna) coins issued by the Czech National Bank.

Wikipedia: Falus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falus

The falus was a bronze/copper currency of Morocco. Minted between 1672–1901, denominations of ¼, ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 falus are recorded in the Standard Catalogue.

Wikipedia: Zimbabwean bond coins
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zimbabwean_bond_coins

The Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe began to release Zimbabwean bond coins on 18 December 2014. The coins are supported by a US$50 million facility extended to the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe by AFREXIM Bank.