Information about Golden Horde.
The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Алтан Орд, Altan Ordu, Зүчийн улс, Züchii-in Uls; Russian: Золотая Орда, translit: Zolotaya Orda; Tatar: Алтын Урда Altın Urda) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originated as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. The khanate is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi.
After the death of Batu Khan in 1255, the prosperity of his dynasty lasted for a full century, until 1359, though the intrigues of Nogai did instigate a partial civil war in the late 1290s. The Horde's military power peaked during the reign of Uzbeg (1312-41), who adopted Islam. The territory of the Golden Horde at its peak included most of Eastern Europe from the Urals to the bank of the Danube River, extending east deep into Siberia. In the south, the Golden Horde's lands bordered on the Black Sea, the Caucasus Mountains, and the territories of the Mongol dynasty known as the Ilkhanate.
The khanate experienced violent internal political disorder beginning in 1359, before it was briefly reunited under Tokhtamysh in 1381. However, soon after the 1396 invasion of Timur who founded the Timurid Empire, it broke into smaller Tatar khanates that declined steadily in power. At the start of the 15th century the Horde began to fall apart. By 1466 it was being referred to simply as the Great Horde. Within its territories there emerged numerous, predominantly Turkic-speaking, khanates. These internal struggles allowed the northern vassal state of Muscovy to rid itself of the "Tatar Yoke" at the Great stand on the Ugra river in 1480. The Crimean Khanate and the Kazakh Khanate, the last remnants of the Golden Horde, persisted until 1783 and 1847, respectively.