Information about Tsardom of Russia.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство or, in Hellenized form, Российское царство), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from Ivan IV's assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 until Peter the Great's foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721.
From 1550 to 1700, Russia grew 35,000 km2 (about the size of the Netherlands) a year. The period includes the upheavals of the transition from the Rurik to the Romanov dynasties, drawn-out military conflict with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as well as the Russian conquest of Siberia, leading up to the 42-year reign of Peter the Great, who ascended in 1682 and transformed the Tsardom into a major European power. After a military victory over Sweden and Poland, he implemented substantial reforms and proclaimed the Russian Empire (Russian: Российская Империя) in 1721, making it a recognized power in Europe.