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General information about the past and present currencies of the world.

Links (159):
Wikipedia: Australian Dollar

The Australian dollar (sign: $; code: AUD) is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru and Tuvalu.

Wikipedia: Fils (currency)

The fils (Arabic alphabet: فلس) is a subdivision of currency used in many Arab countries, such as Iraq and Bahrain; the term is a modern retranscription of fals, an early medieval Arab coin. "Fils" is the singular form in Arabic, not plural (as its final consonant might indicate to an English speaker). The plural form of fils is fulūs (فلوس); this latter term is also used to refer to small amount of money or money in general in many varieties of Arabic, particularly Egyptian.

Wikipedia: Kiribati Dollar

The dollar is the currency of Kiribati. It is pegged at 1:1 ratio to the Australian dollar. Coins were issued in 1979 and circulate alongside banknotes and coins of the Australian dollar.

Wikipedia: Afghan afghani

The afghani (sign: Afs; Pashto: افغانۍ; Dari افغانی; code: AFN) is the currency of Afghanistan. It is nominally subdivided into 100 pul (پول), although there are no pul coins currently in circulation.

Wikipedia: Alderney Pound

The island of Alderney has its own currency, which by law must be pegged to that of the United Kingdom.

Wikipedia: Japanese military yen

Japanese military yen (Chinese and Japanese: 日本軍用手票, also 日本軍票 in short), commonly abbreviated as JMY, was the currency issued to the soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army and the Imperial Japanese Navy as a salary. The Imperial Japanese government first started issuing the military yen during the Russo-Japanese War in 1904. The military yen reached its peak during the Pacific War period, when the Japanese government excessively issued to all of its occupied territories. In Hong Kong, the military yen was forced upon the local population as the sole official currency of the territory. Since the military yen was not backed by gold, and did not have a specific place of issuance, the military yen could not be exchanged for Japanese yen. Forcing local populations to use the military yen officially was one of the ways the Japanese government could dominate the local economies.

Wikipedia: CFA Franc

The CFA franc (in French: franc CFA, or colloquially franc) is the name of two currencies used in Africa which are guaranteed by the French treasury. The two CFA franc currencies are the West African CFA franc and the Central African CFA franc. Although theoretically separate, the two CFA franc currencies are effectively interchangeable.

Wikipedia: Afghan rupee

The rupee was the currency of Afghanistan until 1925. Before 1891, silver rupees circulated with copper falus and gold mohur. The three metals had no fixed exchange rate between them, with different regions issuing their own coins.

In 1891, a new currency was introduced, based on the Kabuli rupee. The rupee was subdivided into 60 paisa, each of 10 dinar. Other denominations issued included the shahi of 5 paisa, the sanar of 10 paisa, the abbasi of 20 paisa, the qiran of 30 paisa and the tilla and later the amani, both of 10 rupee. The rupee was replaced in 1925 by the Afghani, which is the currency today.

Wikipedia: Central African CFA Franc

The Central African CFA franc (French: franc CFA or simply franc, ISO 4217 code: XAF) is the currency of six independent states in central Africa: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.

Wikipedia: Czechoslovak koruna

The Czechoslovak koruna (in Czech and Slovak: Koruna československá, at times Koruna česko-slovenská; koruna means crown) was the currency of Czechoslovakia from April 10, 1919, to March 14, 1939, and from November 1, 1945, to February 7, 1993. For a brief time in 1939 and 1993, it was also the currency in separate Czech and Slovak republics.

Wikipedia: Albanian lek

The lek (Albanian: Leku Shqiptar; plural lekë) (sign: L; code: ALL) is the official currency of Albania. It is subdivided into 100 qindarka (singular qindarkë), although qindarka are no longer issued.

Wikipedia: West African CFA Franc

The West African CFA franc (French: franc CFA;Portuguese: franco CFA or simply franc, ISO 4217 code: XOF) is the currency of eight independent states in West Africa: Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Sénégal and Togo.

Wikipedia: Eco

The Eco is the proposed name for the common currency that the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) plans to introduce in the framework of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). After its introduction, the goal is to merge the new currency with the West African CFA franc (used by the French-speaking members of ECOWAS since 1945) at a later date. This will create a common currency for much of West Africa.

Wikipedia: Sahrawi Peseta

The Sahrawi peseta is the currency of the partially recognized Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. It is divided in 100 céntimos, although coins with this denomination have never been minted, nor have banknotes been printed.

Wikipedia: New Zealand Pound

The pound (symbol £, or NZ£ for distinction) was the currency of New Zealand from 1840 until 1967, when it was replaced by the New Zealand dollar. Like the British pound, it was subdivided into 20 shillings (symbol s) each of 12 pence (symbol d).

Wikipedia: New Zealand Dollar

The New Zealand dollar (sign: $; code: NZD) is the currency of the Realm of New Zealand (including New Zealand proper and the territories of the Cook Islands, Niue, the Ross Dependency, and Tokelau), as well as a single British Overseas Territory, the Pitcairn Islands. It is divided into 100 cents.

Wikipedia: Czech Republic and the euro

The Czech Republic uses the Czech koruna as its currency and does not participate in European Exchange Rate Mechanism II. It is bound by its 2003 Treaty of Accession to the European Union to join the eurozone once it has satisfied the euro convergence criteria.

Pound sterling in Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania,_New_Zealand,_and_Oceania

The pound sterling was the currency of many, but not all parts of the British Empire. This article looks at the history of the pound sterling in the Australia, New Zealand, and Pacific region.

Wikipedia: Algerian dinar

The dinar (Arabic: دينار‎) (sign: د.ج or DA; code: DZD) is the currency of Algeria and it is subdivided into 100 santeem (سنتيم).

Wikipedia: Algerian franc

The franc was the currency of Algeria between 1848 and 1964. It was subdivided into 100 centimes.

The franc replaced the budju when France occupied the country. It was equivalent to the French franc and was revalued in 1960 at a rate of 100 old francs = 1 new franc to maintain the equivalence. The new franc was replaced at par by the dinar in 1964 following Algerian independence granted by France in 1962.

Except for 20-, 50- and 100-franc coins issued between 1949 and 1956, Algeria used the same coins as metropolitan France.

Wikipedia: Algerian budju

The budju was the currency of Algeria until 1848. It was subdivided into 24 muzuna, each of 2 kharub or 29 asper. It was replaced by the franc when the country was occupied by France.

Wikipedia: Czech koruna

The koruna (sign: Kč; code: CZK) is the currency of the Czech Republic since 1993, and in English it is sometimes referred to as Czech crown. The koruna is one of European Union's 11 currencies, and the Czech Republic is legally bound to adopt the euro currency in the future.

Wikipedia: Slovak koruna

The Slovak koruna or Slovak crown (Slovak: slovenská koruna, literally meaning Slovak crown) was the currency of Slovakia between 8 February 1993 and 31 December 2008, and could be used for cash payment until 16 January 2009. It is no longer the official Slovak currency. The ISO 4217 code was SKK and the local abbreviation was Sk. The Slovak crown (koruna) was also the currency of the Nazi-era Slovak Republic between 1939 and 1945. Both korunas were subdivided into 100 haliers (abbreviated as "hal." or simply "h", singular: halier). The abbreviation is placed after the numeric value.

Czechoslovak koruna

The Czechoslovak koruna (in Czech and Slovak: Koruna československá, at times Koruna česko-slovenská; koruna means crown) was the currency of Czechoslovakia from April 10, 1919, to March 14, 1939, and from November 1, 1945, to February 7, 1993. For a brief time in 1939 and 1993, it was also the currency in separate Czech and Slovak republics.

On February 8, 1993, it was replaced by the Czech koruna and the Slovak koruna, both at par.

Wikipedia: Bohemian and Moravian koruna

The Bohemian and Moravian koruna, known as the Protectorate crown (in Czech: Protektorátní koruna), was the currency of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia between 1939 and 1945. It was subdivided into 100 haléřů.

Central Bank of Cyprus: Banknotes & Coins: Cyprus pound

Prior to the introduction of the euro, the monetary unit of the Republic of Cyprus was the Cyprus pound which was initially divided into 1.000 mils. In 1983 the mil was replaced by the cent and the Cyprus pound became denominated into 100 cent. On 1 January 2008, the euro replaced the Cyprus pound as the Republic’s monetary unit.

Wikipedia: Two Sicilies ducat

The ducat was the main currency of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies between 1816 and 1860. When the Congress of Vienna created the kingdom merging the Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of Sicily, the ducat became at par a continuation of the Neapolitan ducat and the Sicilian piastra issued prior to 1816, although the Sicilian piastra had been subdivided into 240 grana. In the mainland part of the kingdom, the ducat also replaced the Napoleonic lira.

New Zealand Post: A brief history of New Zealand currency

The use of coins in New Zealand dates back to the early 1800's when currencies from around the world were traded based on their metal content.

Wikipedia: Italian lira

The lira (plural lire) was the currency of Italy between 1861 and 2002 and of the Albanian Kingdom between 1941 and 1943. Between 1999 and 2002, the Italian lira was officially a national subunit of the euro. However, cash payments could be made in lira only, as euro coins or notes were not yet available. The lira was also the currency of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy between 1807 and 1814.

Wikipedia: Neapolitan piastra

The piastra was the most common silver coin of the mainland Kingdom of Sicily, also known as the Kingdom of Naples. In order to distinguish it from the piastra issued on the island of Sicily, it is referred to as the "Neapolitan piastra" as opposed to the "Sicilian piastra". These two piastra were equal but were subdivided differently. The Neapolitan piastra was divided into 120 grana (singular: grano), each of 2 tornesi (singular: tornese) or 12 cavalli (singular: cavallo). There were also the carlino worth 10 grana and the ducato worth 100 grana.

Wikipedia: Sicilian piastra

The piastra was the distinct currency of the Kingdom of Sicily until 1815. In order to distinguish it from the piastra issued on the mainland Kingdom of Sicily (also known as the Kingdom of Naples), it is referred to as the "Sicilian piastra" as opposed to the "Neapolitan piastra". These two piastra were equal but were subdivided differently. The Sicilian piastra was subdivided into 12 tari, each of 20 grana or 120 piccoli. The oncia was worth 30 tari (2½ piastra).

In 1815, a single piastra currency was introduced for the Two Sicilies, see Two Sicilies piastra.

Te Ara: Coins and banknotes

In the early 19th century a range of foreign coins circulated in New Zealand. In 1847 new exchange rates were fixed. From that year British coins dominated circulation as the exchange rate was unfavourable for other foreign coinage. British coin became legal tender (currency that has to be accepted to immediately clear a debt) in New Zealand in 1858. Gold coins minted in Australia by branches of the Royal Mint were also legal tender. From 1897 British coin minted by the Royal Mint in London was the only legal-tender coin.

The first New Zealand coins were issued in 1933.

Wikipedia: Danish krone

The krone (plural: kroner; sign: kr.; code: DKK) is the official currency of Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, introduced on 1 January 1875. Both the ISO code "DKK" and currency sign "kr." are in common use; the former precedes the value, the latter in some contexts follows it. The currency is sometimes referred to as the Danish crown in English, since krone literally means crown. Historically, krone coins have been minted in Denmark since the 17th century.

Wikipedia: Faroese króna

The króna (plural: krónur; sign: kr) is the currency of the Faroe Islands. It is issued by the Danish National Bank. It is not an independent currency but a version of the Danish krone. Consequently, it does not have an ISO 4217 currency code and instead shares that of the Danish krone, DKK. The króna is subdivided into 100 oyru(r).

Wikipedia: Greenlandic rigsdaler

The rigsdaler was the currency of Greenland until 1874. It was equal to the Danish rigsdaler which circulated in Greenland alongside distinct banknotes from 1803.

In 1803, the Kongel. Grønlandske Handel introduced notes in denominations of 12 and 24 skilling, 1⁄2 and 1 rigsdaler courant. The next year, the Handelsstederne i Grønland took over the issuance of paper money and introduced notes for 6 and 12 skilling, 1⁄4, 1⁄2, 1 and 5 rigsdaler courant.

In 1819, following the currency reform, notes were introduced in denominations of 6, 12 and 24 skilling and 1 rigsbankdaler. These were replaced in 1856 by notes for the same amounts but in the new denominations of skilling rigsmønt and rigsdaler.

Wikipedia: Travancore rupee

The Travancore rupee was the currency of the State of Travancore. Unlike the Indian rupee issued by the British, the rupee of Travancore was subdivided into 7 panam, each of 4 chakram, each of 16 cash. The Travancore currency was issued until 1949 before being replaced by the Indian rupee.

As of 1901, silver coins were issued in the denominations or 2 chakrams, 4 chakrams, 7 chakram (1/4 rupee), 14 chakram (1/2 rupee). Copper coins were struck in the denominations of 1 cash, 4 cash, 8 cash, and 1 chakram (=16 cash). The exchange rate with the British Indian rupee was set at 1 British Indian rupee = 28 chakram, 8 cash; equivalently, 1 Tranvancore rupee = 15 annas, 8.63 pies of a British Indian rupee.

Wikipedia: Danish rigsdaler

The rigsdaler was the name of several currencies used in Denmark until 1875. The similarly named Reichsthaler, riksdaler and rijksdaalder were used in Germany and Austria-Hungary, Sweden and the Netherlands, respectively. These currencies were often Anglicized as rix-dollar or rixdollar.

Wikipedia: Jersey pound

The pound is the currency of Jersey. Jersey is in currency union with the United Kingdom, and the Jersey pound is not a separate currency but is an issue of banknotes and coins by the States of Jersey denominated in pound sterling, in a similar way to the banknotes issued in Scotland and Northern Ireland. It can be exchanged at par with other sterling coinage and notes.

Wikipedia: Greenlandic krone

The Greenlandic krone (Greenlandic: koruuni) was a planned currency for Greenland. Currently, the Danish krone circulates. The Greenland krone was not intended to be an independent currency but a version of the Danish krone. Consequently, it was not intended to have its own ISO 4217 currency code, but to use the same ISO 4217 code as the Danish krone, which is DKK. Even if the currency was to have been adopted, the (regular) Danish krone would have continued to circulate separately.

Reserve Bank of Australia: Museum of Australian Currency Notes

The Museum of Australian Currency Notes tells the story of Australian currency notes against the background of Australia's economic and social development, through a number of stages from colonial settlement through to the current era of polymer banknotes.

Wikipedia: Falkland Islands pound

The pound is the currency of the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory in the South Atlantic Ocean. The symbol is the pound sign, £, or alternatively FK£, to distinguish it from other pound-denominated currencies. The ISO 4217 currency code is FKP.

Wikipedia: Gibraltar pound

The Gibraltar pound (currency sign: £; banking code: GIP) is the currency of Gibraltar. It is pegged to - and exchangeable with - the British pound sterling at par value. The central bank controlling the GIP, with responsibility of minting coins and printing notes, is the Government of Gibraltar.

Wikipedia: Guernsey pound

The pound is the currency of Guernsey. Since 1921, Guernsey has been in currency union with the United Kingdom and the Guernsey pound is not a separate currency but is a local issue of banknotes and coins denominated in pound sterling, in a similar way to the banknotes issued in Scotland and Northern Ireland.

Wikipedia: Polish marka

The marka (Polish: marka polska, Polish mark, abbreviated mp, Polish-language plural declensions: marki, marek) was the currency of the Kingdom of Poland and of the Republic of Poland between 1917 and 1924. It was subdivided into 100 fenigs (a Polish spelling of German "pfennig"), much like its German original after which it was modelled.

Wikipedia: Sarawak dollar

The dollar was the currency of Sarawak from 1858 to 1953. It was subdivided into 100 cents. The dollar remained at par with the Straits dollar and its successor the Malayan dollar, the currency of Malaya and Singapore, from its introduction until both currencies were replaced by the Malaya and British Borneo dollar in 1953.

Wikipedia: Norwegian rigsdaler

The rigsdaler was the unit of currency used in Norway until 1816 and in Denmark until 1873. The similarly named Reichsthaler, riksdaler and rijksdaalder were used in Germany and Austria-Hungary, Sweden and the Netherlands, respectively.

Wikipedia: Norwegian speciedaler

The speciedaler was the currency of Norway between 1816 and 1875. It replaced the rigsdaler specie at par and was subdivided into 120 skilling (called skilling species on some issues). It was replaced by the Norwegian krone when Norway joined the Scandinavian Monetary Union. An equal valued krone/krona of the monetary union replaced the three currencies at the rate of 1 krone/krona = 1⁄2 Danish rigsdaler = 1⁄4 Norwegian speciedaler = 1 Swedish riksdaler.

Wikipedia: Skilling (currency)

The skilling (pronounced approx. like English shilling) was the Scandinavian equivalent of the schilling or shilling. It was used as a subdivision of the Swedish riksdaler, the Danish rigsdaler, the Norwegian rigsdaler, and the Norwegian speciedaler.

Wikipedia: Swedish riksdaler

The riksdaler was the name of a Swedish coin first minted in 1604. Between 1777 and 1873, it was the currency of Sweden. The daler, like the dollar, was named after the German Thaler. The similarly named Reichsthaler, rijksdaalder, and rigsdaler were used in Germany and Austria-Hungary, the Netherlands, and Denmark-Norway, respectively. Riksdaler is still used as a colloquial term for kronor in Sweden.

Wikipedia: New Guinean mark

The Mark (German plural: Mark, English plural: marks) was the currency of the colony of German New Guinea between 1884 and 1911. It was equal to the German Mark, which was also legal tender in the colony.

Wikipedia: German gold mark

The Goldmark (officially just Mark, sign: ℳ) was the currency used in the German Empire from 1873 to 1914. The Papiermark refers to the German currency from 4 August 1914 when the link between the Mark and gold was abandoned.

Wikipedia: Manx pound

The Manx pound (Manx: Punt Manninagh) is the currency of the Isle of Man, in parity with the pound sterling. The Manx pound is divided into 100 pence. Government notes and coins, denominated in pounds and pence, are issued by the Isle of Man Government.

Wikipedia: Saint Helena pound

The Saint Helena pound (also called simply "pound") is the currency of the Atlantic islands of Saint Helena and Ascension, which are constituents of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. It is fixed at parity with the pound sterling and is subdivided into 100 pence.

Wikipedia: Pound sterling in the South Atlantic and the Antarctic

The United Kingdom possesses a number of islands in the South Atlantic Ocean as well as a section of the Antarctic continent. These territories are St. Helena with Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and the British Antarctic Territory. The official currency in these territories is either Pound sterling or a local currency that evolved from sterling and is at a fixed one-to-one parity with sterling.

Deutsche Bundesbank: Bird of paradise from New Guinea

Birds of paradise are regarded as strange, exotic creatures – quite out of the ordinary. And to European eyes, the idea of using the dried skins of these birds as a currency, as was common in New Guinea both before and during part of the 20th century, seems equally strange and exotic.

In the world of money, birds of paradise have not only featured in the flesh as a form of currency in certain cultural contexts but also as a motif on banknotes and coins. In 1894 the German New Guinea Company, which governed the German New Guinea protectorate at that time, was awarded the right to mint coins for the colony; the reverse sides of the 10 pfennig, half, one, two, five, ten and 20 Mark coins all bore the image of a bird of paradise. This colonial currency was produced at the mint in Berlin, but was only recognised as legal tender within the German New Guinea protectorate.

Wikipedia: Jersey livre

The livre was currency of Jersey until 1834. It consisted entirely of French coins.

Wikipedia: French livre

The livre was the currency of France from 781 to 1794. Several different livres existed, some concurrently. The livre was the name of both units of account and coins.

Wikipedia: Livre tournois

The livre tournois (Tours pound) was one of numerous currencies used in France in the Middle Ages, and also a unit of account (i.e., a monetary unit used in accounting) used in France in the Middle Ages and the early modern period.

Wikipedia: Fijian pound

The pound was the currency of Fiji between 1873 and 1969. It was subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence.

Wikipedia: Fijian dollar

The Fijian dollar (currency sign: $; currency code: FJD) has been the currency of Fiji since 1969 and was also the currency between 1867 and 1873. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively FJ$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents.

Wikipedia: Livre parisis

The livre parisis (Paris pound) was a standard for minting French coins and a unit of account. Like the livre tournois, which was divided into 20 sols tournois each of 12 deniers tournois, the livre parisis was also divided into 20 sols parisis each of 12 deniers parisis, but the livre parisis was worth 25 sols tournois (i.e., the livre tournois was worth 4/5 of the livre parisis). Each sol parisis was thus worth 15 deniers tournois, and each denier parisis worth 11⁄4 deniers tournois.

Wikipedia: French franc

The franc (sign: F, commonly also FF or Fr) was a currency of France. Between 1360 and 1641, it was the name of coins worth 1 livre tournois and it remained in common parlance as a term for this amount of money. It was re-introduced (in decimal form) in 1795 and remained the national currency until the introduction of the euro in 1999 (for accounting purposes) and 2002 (coins and banknotes). It was a commonly held international reserve currency in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Wikipedia: Samoan tālāālā

The tālā is the currency of Samoa. It is divided into 100 sene. The terms tālā and sene are the equivalents or transliteration of the English words dollar and cent, in the Samoan language.

Central Bank of Samoa: Samoan Currency in Use

One of the Central Bank's key obligations is to meet the currency needs of the public. Therefore, as the sole provider of the currency, it has to ensure that stocks of all currency denominations (notes and coins) are in adequate supply and of high quality to meet the transactional needs of the public. No other person is allowed to print or issue currency. And, it is an offense to deface any currency by means of writing, stamping, erasure or any other actions that would change the features of the currency.

Central Bank of Samoa: Currency Collectibles

The Currency Collectibles Section of the Central Bank of Samoa issues legal tender currency products for collectors. Most of these collector's products have low mintage or production volume, and have a Samoan theme to their design.

Wikipedia: Guyanese dollar

The Guyanese dollar (currency sign: $, G$ and GY$; ISO: GYD) has been the unit of account in Guyana (formerly British Guiana) since 29 January 1839. Originally it was intended as a transitional unit to facilitate the changeover from the Dutch guilder system of currency to the British pound sterling system. The Spanish dollar was already prevalent throughout the West Indies in general, and from 1839, the Spanish dollar unit operated in British Guiana in conjunction with British sterling coins at a standard conversion rate of one dollar for every four shillings and twopence. In 1951 the British sterling coinage was replaced with a new decimal coinage which was simultaneously introduced through all the British territories in the Eastern Caribbean. When sterling began to depreciate in the early 1970s, a switch to a US dollar peg became increasingly attractive as an anti-inflationary measure and the Eastern Caribbean Currency Authority (of which Guyana was a member) made the switch in October 1975. The Guyanese dollar is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively G$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies.

Wikipedia: Belgian franc

The Belgian franc (French: Franc belge, Dutch: Belgische frank, German: Belgischer Franken) was the currency of the Kingdom of Belgium from 1832 until 2002 when the Euro was introduced. It was subdivided into 100 subunits, known as centimes (French), centiem (Dutch) or Centime (German).

Wikipedia: Montenegrin perper

The perper (Serbian Cyrillic: Перпер; plural перпери) was the currency of Montenegro between 1906 and 1918. The name was adopted in accordance to the earlier Serbian perper, the currency of the Serbian Empire, to which the Principality, later Kingdom of Montenegro, consider itself a successor. It was divided into 100 pare (singular para, Serbian: паре, пара) and was equivalent to the Austro-Hungarian krone. The perper was replaced by the dinar when Montenegro became part of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia).

Wikipedia: Montenegrin perun

The perun (Serbian Cyrillic: Перун, older spelling: Перунъ) was the currency that was planned for introduction in Montenegro by Petar II Petrović Njegoš in 1851. However, he died the same year, and Montenegro remained without a currency until the 1906 introduction of the perper by Nicholas I of Montenegro. It was named after Perun, whom Njegoš considered to be the supreme god of Slavic mythology. If introduced, one Perun would have had equal value to two thalers. Montenegro later used the Austrian currencies until 1906 when Montenegro started using the Montenegrin perper.

BBC: A short history of the pound

With a credible claim to be the oldest living currency in the world, the pound has accompanied Britons through much of their march through history. But is Scotland soon to end its use of the unit?


The dirham (Arabic: درهم‎) (sign: د.إ; code: AED) is the currency of the United Arab Emirates. The ISO 4217 code (currency abbreviation) for the United Arab Emirates dirham is AED. Unofficial abbreviations include DH or Dhs. The dirham is subdivided into 100 fils (فلس).

Reserve Bank of New Zealand: Notes & coins frequently asked questions

Notes and coins frequently asked questions.

Wikipedia: Para (currency)

The para (Cyrillic: пара, from Turkish para, from Persian pārah, "piece") was a former currency of the Ottoman Empire, Turkey, Montenegro, Albania and Yugoslavia and is the current subunit, although rarely used, of the Serbian dinar.

Wikipedia: Ottoman lira

The Ottoman lira was the currency of Ottoman Empire between 1844 and 29 October 1923. It replaced the kuruş as the principal unit of currency, with the kuruş continuing to circulate as a subdivision of the lira, with 100 kuruş = 1 lira. The para also continued to be used, with 40 para = 1 kuruş.

Wikipedia: British North Borneo dollar

The British North Borneo dollar was the currency of British North Borneo from 1882 to 1953. It was subdivided into 100 cents. The dollar had remained at par with the Straits dollar (and its successor the Malayan dollar), the currency of Malaya and Singapore, at the value of one dollar to 2 shillings 4 pence sterling from its introduction until both currencies were replaced by the Malaya and British Borneo dollar in 1953. Both coins and banknotes are issued by the British North Borneo Company.

Wikipedia: Malaya and British Borneo dollar

The Malaya and British Borneo dollar (known as the ringgit in Malay, Jawi: رڠڬيت) was the currency of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, North Borneo, Brunei and Riau archipelago from 1953 to 1967 and was the successor of the Malayan dollar and Sarawak dollar, replacing them at par. The currency was issued by the Board of Commissioners of Currency, Malaya and British Borneo. Prior to 1952, the board was known as the Board of Commissioners of Currency, Malaya.

Wikipedia: Belize dollar

The Belize dollar is the official currency in Belize (currency code BZD). It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively BZ$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents. The official value is pegged at 2 BZ$ = 1 US$ since 1978.

The Royal Mint: Decimalisation

The story of the process of Decimalisation of the British Pound sterling currency.

Wikipedia: South Sudanese pound

The South Sudanese pound is the official currency of the Republic of South Sudan. It is subdivided into 100 piasters. It was approved by the Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly before secession on 9 July 2011 from Sudan. It was introduced on 18 July 2011, and replaced the Sudanese pound at par.

Wikipedia: Sudanese pound

The Sudanese pound (Arabic: جنيه سوداني Junaih Sudani) is the currency of Sudan and was also used in South Sudan until finalisation of the introduction of the South Sudanese pound. Both Arabic and English names for the denominations appear on the country's banknotes and coins.

Wikipedia: Sudanese dinar

The dinar was the currency of Sudan between 1992 and 2007. Its ISO 4217 code is "SDD".

Wikipedia: Malaysian ringgit

The Malaysian ringgit (plural: ringgit; symbol: RM; currency code: MYR; formerly the Malaysian dollar) is the currency of Malaysia. It is divided into 100 sen (cents). The ringgit is issued by the Bank Negara Malaysia.

Wikipedia: Thai baht

The baht (Thai: บาท, sign: ฿; code: THB) is the currency of Thailand. It is subdivided into 100 satang (สตางค์). The issuance of currency is the responsibility of the Bank of Thailand. According to SWIFT, as of October 2014, the Thai baht ranked as the tenth most frequently used world payment currency.

The Royal Mint Museum: All Change: Decimalisation

In the early 1960s Britain still used a currency system of twelve pennies to the shilling and twenty shillings to the pound. It was a system whose origins stretched back to Anglo-Saxon times and beyond, and which besides its enduring practical function of oiling the wheels of daily commerce had enriched the very language and literature of the nation. Tanners and bobs, ha’pennies and threepenny bits, were instantly recognisable descriptions, and the romance of the coinage was enhanced by the presence of coins of Queen Victoria, some of them 100 years old. Long familiarity had inevitably generated a deep-rooted affection: a beautiful and venerable currency, certainly; cherished, too; but undoubtedly baffling to those not born to its complexities.

Wikipedia: Palestine pound

The Palestine pound (Arabic: جُنَيْه فِلَسْطَينِيّ‎‎, junyah filastini; Hebrew: פֿוּנְט פַּלֶשְׂתִינָאִי א"י), funt palestina'i (eretz-yisra'eli), also Hebrew: לירה א"י lira eretz-yisra'elit) was the currency of the British Mandate of Palestine from 1927 to May 14, 1948, and of the State of Israel between May 15, 1948, and August 1948, when it was replaced with the Israeli lira. It was divided into 1000 mils (Arabic: Arabic: مِل‎‎, Hebrew: Hebrew: מִיל‎‎). The Palestine pound was also the currency of Transjordan until 1949 and remained in usage in the West Bank portion of Palestine until 1950.

Wikipedia: Egyptian pound

The Egyptian pound (Arabic: جنيه مصري‎‎ sign: E£ or ج.م; customary abbreviation LE; code: EGP) is the currency of Egypt. It is divided into 100 piastres, or ersh (قرش; plural قروش), or 1,000 millimes (Arabic: مليم‎‎; French: Millime).

Wikipedia: Brazilian real

The real (pl. reais) is the present-day currency of Brazil. Its sign is R$ and its ISO code is BRL. It is subdivided into 100 centavos ("Cents"). In Portuguese the word real means both "royal" and "real".

Wikipedia: CFP franc

The CFP franc (called the franc in everyday use) is the currency used in the French overseas collectivities (collectivités d’outre-mer, or COM) of French Polynesia, New Caledonia and Wallis and Futuna. The initials CFP originally stood for Colonies Françaises du Pacifique ("French colonies of the Pacific"). This was later changed to Communauté Financière du Pacifique ("Pacific Financial Community") and then to the present term, Change Franc Pacifique ("Pacific Franc Exchange"). The ISO 4217 currency code is XPF.

Wikipedia: New Hebrides franc

The New Hebrides franc was the currency of the Anglo-French Condominium of the Pacific island group of the New Hebrides (which became Vanuatu in 1980). It circulated alongside British and later Australian currency. The New Hebrides franc was nominally divided into 100 Centimes, although the smallest denomination was the 1 franc. Between 1945 and 1969, it was part of the CFP franc.

Wikipedia: New Caledonian franc

The franc is the currency of New Caledonia and Wallis and Futuna. It is subdivided into 100 centimes. Since 1945, it has been part of the CFP franc.

Wikipedia: Brazilian cruzeiro real

The cruzeiro real (plural: cruzeiros reais) was the short-lived currency of Brazil between August 1, 1993 and June 30, 1994. It was subdivided in 100 centavos, however, this unit was used only for accounting purposes. The currency had the ISO 4217 code BRR. The cruzeiro real was replaced with the current Brazilian real as part of the Plano Real.

Wikipedia: Egyptian piastre

The piastre (Arabic: qirsh‎‎, قرش, pronounced irsh) was the currency of Egypt until 1834. It was subdivided into 40 para, each of 3 akçe.

Wikipedia: French Polynesian franc

The franc is the currency of French Polynesia. It is subdivided into 100 centimes. Since 1945, it has been part of the CFP franc.

Wikipedia: Brazilian real (old)

The first official currency of Brazil was the real (pl. réis). Its sign was Rs$. As the currency of the Portuguese empire it was in use in Brazil from the earliest days of the colonial period, and remained in use until 1942, when it was replaced by the cruzeiro.

The name real was resurrected in 1994 for the new currency unit (but with the new plural form reais). This currency is still in use. One modern real is equivalent to 2.75 × 1018 (2.75 quintillion) of the old réis.

Wikipedia: Indian Rupee

The rupee, or more specifically the Indian rupee (symbol: ₹; ISO code: INR) is the official currency of the Republic of India. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India. It is named after the silver coin, rupiya, first issued by Sher Shah Suri in the 16th century later continued by the Mughal Empire.

The modern rupee is subdivided into 100 paise (singular paisa), though as of 2011 only 50 paise coins are legal tender. Banknotes in circulation come in denominations of ₹1, ₹2, ₹5, ₹10, ₹20, ₹50, ₹100, ₹500 and ₹1000. Rupee coins are available in denominations of ₹1, ₹2, ₹5, ₹10.

The Indian rupee symbol '₹' (officially adopted in 2010) is derived from the Devanagari consonant "र" (ra) and the Latin letter "R". The first series of coins with the rupee symbol was launched on 8 July 2011.

Wikipedia: Brazilian cruzeiro

The cruzeiro was the currency of Brazil from 1942 to 1986 (two distinct currencies) and again between 1990 and 1993. In 1994 it was replaced with the real. The name refers to the constellation of the Southern Cross, known in Brazil as Cruzeiro do Sul, or simply Cruzeiro. Visible only in the Southern Hemisphere, the Southern Cross is the main astronomical reference to identify the south and is a common cultural icon in Brazilian history.

Wikipedia: Bhutanese rupee

The rupee was the currency of Bhutan until 1974. It was equivalent to the Indian rupee. Until 1957, it was subdivided into 64 paisa. Bhutan then followed India in decimalising, with the rupee subdivided into 100 naya paisa. The rupee was replaced by the ngultrum at par.

Wikipedia: History of the rupee

The history of the rupee traces back to Ancient India in circa 6th century BC. Ancient India was the earliest issuers of coins in the world, along with the Chinese wen and Lydian staters. The word rūpiya is deived from a Sanskrit word rūpa, which means "wrought silver, a coin of silver", in origin an adjective meaning "shapely", with a more specific meaning of "stamped, impressed", whence "coin". It is derived from the noun rūpa "shape, likeness, image". The word rūpa is being further identified as having sprung from the Dravidian.

Wikipedia: History of the Canada dollar

Canada has an extensive history with regard to its currency. Beginning in the early 16th century, items such as wampum and furs were actually considered currency. With the colonization by France and England, various coins were introduced in the 18th and 19th centuries. In the 20th century, it has issued many commemorative coins into circulation, temporarily replacing current coinage designs. There also exists a long history of numismatic coin issues.

Wikipedia: Canadian dollar

The Canadian dollar (symbol: $; code: CAD) is the currency of Canada. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or sometimes C$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents.

Wikipedia: Maltese scudo

The scudo (plural scudi) is the official currency of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and was the currency of Malta during the rule of the Order over Malta, which ended in 1798. It is subdivided into 12 tari (singular taro), each of 20 grani with 6 piccioli to the grano. It is pegged to the euro (at a rate of 1 scudo : €0.24).

Wikipedia: Pakistani rupee

The Pakistani rupee (Urdu: روپیہ‎ ISO code: PKR) is the official currency of Pakistan. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the State Bank of Pakistan, the central bank of the country. The most commonly used symbol for the rupee is Rs, used on receipts when purchasing goods and services. In Pakistan, the rupee is referred to as the "rupees", "rupaya" or "rupaye". As standard in Pakistani English, large values of rupees are counted in terms of thousands, lakh (100 thousand) and crore (10 million), 1 Arab (1 billion), 1 Kharab (1/10 trillion), 100 Kharab.

Wikipedia: Zimbabwean dollar

The Zimbabwean dollar (sign: $, or Z$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies) was the official currency of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 12 April 2009, with a period of inflation, followed by hyperinflation.

The Zimbabwe dollar was introduced in 1980 to directly replace the Rhodesian dollar at par (1:1) and at a similar value to the US dollar. Hyperinflation in Zimbabwe reduced it to one of the lowest valued currency units in the world. It was redenominated three times (in 2006, 2008 and 2009), with denominations up to a $100 trillion banknote. The final redenomination produced the "fourth dollar" (ZWL), which was worth 1025 ZWD (first dollars).

Use of the Zimbabwean dollar as an official currency was effectively abandoned on 12 April 2009.

Wikipedia: Rhodesian dollar

The dollar (R$) was the currency of Rhodesia between 1970 and 1980. It was subdivided into 100 cents.

Wikipedia: Rhodesian pound

The pound was the currency of Southern Rhodesia from 1964 to 1965 and Rhodesia from 1965 until 1970. It was subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence.

Wikipedia: Rhodesia and Nyasaland pound

The pound was the currency of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. It was subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence.

Wikipedia: Independent State of Croatia kuna

The kuna was the currency of the Independent State of Croatia in the period between 1941 and 1945 during World War II. The word "kuna" means "marten" in Croatian and the same word is used for the current Croatian kuna currency. This kuna was subdivided into 100 banica. It was preceded and replaced by the Yugoslav dinar.

Wikipedia: Serbian dinar

The dinar (Serbian Cyrillic: динар) is the currency of Serbia. The earliest use of the dinar dates back to 1214.

Wikipedia: Yugoslav krone

The krone was a short-lived, provisional currency used in parts of the then newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes which had previously been part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Wikipedia: Reichsmark

The Reichsmark (sign: ℛℳ) was the currency in Germany from 1924 until 20 June 1948 and in Austria from 1938 to 1945. The Reichsmark was subdivided into 100 Reichspfennig. The Mark is an ancient Germanic weight measure, traditionally a half pound, later used for several coins. From 1871 to 1918 Germany was called the Kaiserreich or the Deutsches Reich. Although Germany became a republic in 1919, the term "Reich" remained part of the country's official name.

Wikipedia: Georgian lari

The lari (Georgian: ლარი; ISO 4217: GEL) is the currency of Georgia. It is divided into 100 tetri. The name lari is an old Georgian word denoting a hoard, property, while tetri is an old Georgian monetary term (meaning 'white') used in ancient Colchis from the 6th century BC. Earlier Georgian currencies include the maneti and abazi.

Wikipedia: Soviet ruble

The Soviet ruble or rouble (Russian: рубль) was the currency of the Soviet Union. One ruble was divided into 100 kopeks, (also transliterated as kopecks or copecks Russian: копе́йка, pl. копе́йки – kopeyka, kopeyki).

In addition to standard banknotes, the Soviet ruble was available in the form of foreign rubles (Russian: инвалютный рубль); also, several forms of virtual rubles were used for inter-enterprise accounting and international settlement in the Comecon zone. Many of the ruble designs were created by Ivan Dubasov. The production of Soviet rubles was the responsibility of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise, or Goznak, which was in charge of the printing of and materials production for banknotes and the minting of coins in Moscow and Leningrad.

National Bank of Georgia: Georgian Money

The Georgian lari is the sole legal tender on the territory of Georgia except for cases envisaged by the Law of Georgia on Free Industrial Zones. Only the NBG is authorized to issue banknotes on the territory of Georgia. The NBG also has the exclusive right to produce commemorative coins for circulation and for other purposes.

Wikipedia: Polish złoty

The złoty (sign: zł; code: PLN), which literally means "golden", is the currency of Poland. The modern złoty is subdivided into 100 groszy (singular: grosz, alternative plural forms: grosze; groszy). The recognized English form of the word is zloty, plural zloty or zlotys. The currency sign, zł, is composed of Polish small letters z and ł. As a result of inflation in the early 1990s, the currency underwent redenomination. Thus, on January 1, 1995, 10,000 old złotych (PLZ) became one new złoty (PLN). Since then, the currency has been relatively stable, with an exchange rate fluctuating between 3-5 złoty for a United States dollar.

Wikipedia: Georgian maneti

The maneti (მანეთი) was the currency of the Democratic Republic of Georgia and the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic between 1919 and 1923. It replaced the first Transcaucasian ruble at par and was subdivided into 100 kapeiki (კაპეიკი). It was replaced by the second Transcaucasian ruble after Georgia became part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic.

Wikipedia: Transcaucasian rublei

The ruble (Russian: рубль, Armenian: ռուբլի), manat (Azerbaijani: منات) or maneti (Georgian: მანეთი) was the currency of both Transcaucasian states, the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic and the Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic.

Wikipedia: Georgian abazi

Abazi (Georgian: აბაზი) was a Georgian silver coin, deriving its name and existence from the Iranian abbasi, which was in use from the early 17th century into the early 19th.

The name abazi derives from the Persian abbasi, a silver coin first issued by the Safavid shah Abbas I (1581–1629), who was responsible for consolidating the Iranian influence over Georgia. It was subdivided into 200 dinar. Other denominations were the puli ("copper") of 5 dinar and the bisti of 20 dinar.

Wikipedia: Abbasi (currency)

ʿAbbāsī was a name applied to gold and silver coins in Iran first issued by the Safavid shah Abbas I (r. 1581–1629). It was in use until the early 20th century. These coins bore no face values and were passed by weight.

While the Iranian abbasi was also widespread in eastern Georgia, which was under the Iranian sway, the coin soon after also came to be minted at the mint in Tiflis (Tbilisi), where they were colloquially known as abazi.

After the Russian annexation of eastern Georgia in 1801, abbasi demonitions (one-half abbasi--Muhammad; one quarter abbasi--shahi; one-tenth abbasi--bisti; 1/200th abbasi--dinar) influenced production of the new currency, the Georgian silver (kartuli tetri).

Wikipedia: Ionian obol

The obol (plural oboli) was the currency of the United States of the Ionian Islands between 1819 and 1863. Until 1834, 1 obol = 4 lepta (singular lepton), after which 1 obol = 5 lepta. Throughout its existence, the obol was equal to a British half penny. The obol replaced a series of countermarked coins denominated in Turkish paras and copper gazete coins. The obol was issued by the British and was replaced by the Greek drachma when the Ionian Islands were given to Greece, at a rate of 1 drachma = 20 oboli.

The strangest denomination was the silver 30 Lepta coin.

Wikipedia: Phoenix (currency)

The phoenix (Greek: φοίνιξ) was the first currency of the modern Greek state. It was introduced in 1828 by Governor Ioannis Kapodistrias and was subdivided into 100 lepta. The name was that of the mythical phoenix bird and was meant to symbolize the rebirth of Greece during the still ongoing Greek War of Independence. The phoenix replaced the Ottoman kuruş (called grosi γρόσι, plural γρόσια grosia by the Greeks) at a rate of 6 phoenixes = 1 kuruş.

Wikipedia: Newfoundland pound

The pound was the currency of Newfoundland until 1865. It was subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence. The Newfoundland pound was equal to the British pound and British coins circulated, supplemented by locally produced tokens and banknotes. In 1865, the dollar was introduced at a rate of 1 dollar = 4 shillings 2 pence, with the significance being 1 dollar was equal to exactly 50d (i.e. 50 old pence) for precise ease of exchange.

Wikipedia: Greek drachma

Drachma (Greek: δραχμή pl. drachmae or drachmas) was the currency used in Greece during several periods in its history.

An ancient Greek currency unit issued by many Greek city states during a period of ten centuries, from the Archaic period throughout the Classical period, the Hellenistic period up to the Roman period under Greek Imperial Coinage.

Three modern Greek currencies, the first introduced in 1832 and the last replaced by the euro in 2001 (at the rate of 340.751 drachma to the euro). The euro did not begin circulating until 2002 but the exchange rate was fixed on 19 June 2000, with legal introduction of the euro taking place in January 2002.

It was also a small unit of weight.

Wikipedia: Canadian pound

The pound (symbol £ or C£) was the unit of account for currency of the Canadas until 1858. It was subdivided into 20 shillings (s), each of 12 pence (d). In Lower Canada, the sou was used, worth 1⁄2 penny. Although the pounds, shillings, and pence accounting system had its origins in the British pound sterling, the Canadian pound was never linked to British currency.

Wikipedia: Ionian gazeta

The gazeta (plural gazetes, Greek: γαζέτα, plural γαζέτες) was a currency issued in the Ionian Islands in 1801 during the Russia and the Ottoman Empire protectorate. It replaced the Venetian lira at a rate of 1 gazeta = 2 soldi, and continued to be used through the existence of the Septinsular Republic. After the British took possession of the islands, coins were countermarked in Turkish kuruş for use on the islands before the obol was introduced in 1819 for the United States of the Ionian Islands.

Bank of Greece: Drachma

The drachma has been Greece's national currency since 1833. Upon the establishment of the Bank of Greece, the issuance privilege was handed over by the National Bank to the Bank of Greece, which, until the introduction of euro banknotes and coins, issued drachma banknotes and coins that circulated as legal tender in Greece.

The drachma was the national currency of Greece up to 1 January 2002. On 28 February 2002, drachma banknotes and coins ceased to be legal tender and were replaced by euro banknote and euro coins.

Wikipedia: Netherlands New Guinean gulden

The gulden was the currency of Netherlands New Guinea until 1963. Until 1950, issues of the Netherlands Indies circulated. A separate currency came into being when West New Guinea became the only part of the Netherlands Indies to remain in Dutch control. The currency was fixed at parity with the Dutch gulden. It circulated until Netherlands New Guinea became part of Indonesia as West Irian in 1963. That year, the West Irian rupiah replaced the gulden at par.

Wikipedia: West Irian rupiah

The rupiah was a distinct currency of West Irian (formerly West New Guinea) between 1963 and 1973. It replaced the West New Guinea gulden at par and was replaced by the Indonesian rupiah at the rate of 1 West Irian rupiah = 18.9 Indonesian rupiah.

Wikipedia: New Guinean pound

The pound was the currency of the Australia territory of New Guinea between 1915 and 1966. It replaced the mark when Australia occupied the former German colony at the end of World War I. It was equal to the Australian pound and Australian currency circulated, alongside coins issued specifically for New Guinea between 1929 and 1945. The pound was subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence.

Wikipedia: Japanese government-issued Oceanian Pound

The Japanese government-issued Oceanian Pound was one of several issues of Japanese invasion money used during World War II. Consisting of only four denominations, the Oceanian Pound was the shortest set (i.e., total number of denominations) issued.

Reserve Bank of New Zealand: History of New Zealand Coinage

In early 1840, Captain William Hobson, RN, the first Governor of New Zealand, extended British laws to New Zealand. This meant that certain sections of the Imperial Coinage Act, 1816 (UK) became relevant to the new colony. This allowed for the standard gold, silver and bronze British coins to circulate freely in New Zealand alongside the existing variety of foreign coins. British coins were made legal tender in terms of the above act by the passing of the English Laws Act in 1858.

Cayman Islands Monetary Authority: Currency

After careful deliberation by a committee, which was formed to consider the introduction of Cayman currency to the Islands, it was recommended that a local currency would be to the economic and political advantage of the Cayman Islands. This recommendation was accepted by Her Majesty's Government, in view of the rapid progress of the Cayman economy.

Te Ara Encyclopaedia of New Zealand: Coins and banknotes: A national currency, 1930s to 1960s

New Zealand was the last British dominion to issue a national currency, in the early 1930s.

Two factors led to the issuing of a New Zealand currency. In the 1920s there was a move throughout the world towards the establishment of central banks to, among other things, issue a single national currency. In 1930 the New Zealand government decided to establish a central bank, and the Reserve Bank of New Zealand opened in 1934.

Swissmint: The 160 Years of swiss franc

A brief historical discourse.

Te Ara Encyclopaedia of New Zealand: Coins and banknotes: Decimal currency, 1960s to 2000s

Changing New Zealand’s currency to a decimal system was suggested from the early 1900s. A government-appointed currency committee considered decimalisation in 1933, but decided against it because of costs associated with the change, and the depressed economic conditions.

Te Ara Encyclopaedia of New Zealand: Coins and banknotes: Commemorative currency and collecting

Commemorative coins, and occasionally banknotes, are issued by the state-owned Reserve Bank and New Zealand Post to mark special occasions or to honour individuals. They are legal tender, but are mainly purchased by collectors.

New Zealand Post has been the only issuer of legal-tender commemorative coins since 2002. The private company New Zealand Mint also produces commemorative coins, though its New Zealand-themed coins are not legal tender.

Wikipedia: Cook Islands dollar

The dollar is the currency of the Cook Islands. The dollar is subdivided into 100 cents, although some 50 cent coins carry the denomination as "50 tene".

Wikipedia: Niue dollar

Niue, a sovereign state in free association with New Zealand, uses two official legal tender currencies. While they use the New Zealand dollar, the government also issues legal tender coins using the Niue dollar for collector's purposes.

Wikipedia: Irish pound

The Irish Pound (Irish: Punt Éireannach) was the currency of Ireland until 2002. Its ISO 4217 code was IEP, and the usual notation was the prefix £ (or IR£ where confusion might have arisen with the pound sterling or other pounds). The Irish pound was superseded by the euro on 1 January 1999. Euro currency did not begin circulation until the beginning of 2002.

Wikipedia: Indonesian Rupiah

The rupiah (Rp) is the official currency of Indonesia. Issued and controlled by the Bank of Indonesia, the ISO 4217 currency code for the Indonesian rupiah is IDR. The name "rupiah" is derived from the Hindustani word rupiyaa (روپیہ), ultimately from Sanskrit rupya (wrought silver). Informally, Indonesians also use the word "perak" ('silver' in Indonesian) in referring to rupiah. The rupiah is subdivided into 100 sen, although inflation has rendered all coins and banknotes denominated in sen obsolete.

The Riau islands and the Indonesian half of New Guinea (Irian Barat) had their own variants of the rupiah in the past, but these were subsumed into the national rupiah in 1964 and 1971 respectively.

Wikipedia: History of the Indonesian Rupiah

The currency of Indonesia, rupiah, has a long history that stretch back to colonial period. Due to periods of uncertain economy and high inflation, the currency has been re-valued several times.

Wikipedia: Seychellois rupee

The rupee is the currency of the Seychelles. It is subdivided into 100 cents. In the local Seychellois Creole (Seselwa) language, it is called the roupi. The international currency code is SCR. The abbreviations SR and SRe are sometimes used.

Wikipedia: Ceylonese rixdollar

The rixdollar was the currency of British Ceylon until 1828. It was subdivided into 48 stivers, each of 4 duit. Units called the fanam and larin were also used, worth 4 and 9½ stiver, respectively. The currency derived from the Dutch rijksdaalder and stuiver, although the rijksdaalder was worth 50 stuiver. The rixdollar was replaced by the British pound at a rate of 1 rixdollar = 1 shilling 6 pence.

Wikipedia: Sri Lankan rupee

The rupee (Sinhalese: රුපියල්, Tamil: ரூபாய்) (signs: රු, Rs; code: LKR) is the currency of Sri Lanka, divided into 100 cents. It is issued by the Central Bank of Sri Lanka. The abbreviation is generally Rs., but SLRs. is occasionally used to distinguish it from other currencies also called rupee.

Wikipedia: Cayman Islands dollar

The Cayman Islands Dollar (currency code KYD) is the currency of the Cayman Islands. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively CI$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is subdivided into 100 cents.

Wikipedia: Jamaican dollar

The dollar has been the currency of Jamaica since 1969. It is often abbreviated "J$", the J serving to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents.

Bank of Jamaica | History of our Currency

Up until the early 16th century, when the Spaniards colonized Jamaica, there had been little occasion for the use of a regular currency. Although there was a small amount of gold on the; island, the Taino Indians, Jamaica's first inhabitants, used it; for decorative purposes rather than for trade, which was conducted by barter.

Wikipedia: Portuguese escudo

The escudo (sign $; code: PTE) was the currency of Portugal prior to the introduction of the euro on 1 January 1999 and its removal from circulation on 28 February 2002. The escudo was subdivided into 100 centavos.

Wikipedia: Bahamian dollar

The dollar (sign: $; code: BSD) has been the currency of The Bahamas since 1966. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively B$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents.

Wikipedia: Tongan paʻanga

The paʻanga is the currency of Tonga. It is controlled by the National Reserve Bank of Tonga (Pangikē Pule Fakafonua ʻo Tonga) in Nukuʻalofa. The paʻanga is not convertible and is pegged to a basket of currencies comprising the Australian, New Zealand, United States dollars and the Japanese yen.

Wikipedia: Portuguese real

The real (meaning "royal", plural: réis or [archaic] reais) was the unit of currency of Portugal from around 1430 until 1911. It replaced the dinheiro at the rate of 1 real = 840 dinheiros and was itself replaced by the escudo (as a result of the Republican revolution of 1910) at a rate of 1 escudo = 1000 réis. The escudo was further replaced by the euro at a rate of 1 euro = 200.482 escudos in 2002.

Czech National Bank: Currency in circulation

Statistical data on the volume and structure of currency in circulation in the Czech Republic.

Wikipedia: Portuguese dinheiro

The dinheiro was the currency of Portugal from around the late 12th century until approximately 1502. For accounting purposes, twelve dinheiros equalled one soldo and twenty soldos equal one libra. The basis of the monetary system was that of the Roman Empire (denarii, solidi, librae).

Wikipedia: Assignat

Assignat was a type of a monetary instrument used during the time of the French Revolution, and the French Revolutionary Wars.

Wikipedia: Assignation ruble

Assignation ruble (Russian: ассигнационный рубль; assignatsionny rubl) was the first paper currency of Russia. It was used from 1769 until 1849. Assignation ruble had a parallel circulation with the silver ruble; there was an ongoing market exchange rate for these two currencies. In later period, the value of the Assignation ruble was considerably below that of the silver ruble.

Wikipedia: Spanish dinero

The dinero was the currency of the Christian states of Spain from the 10th century. It was copied from the French denier and served in turn as the model for the Portuguese dinheiro.

Wikipedia: Mandats territoriaux

Mandats territoriaux were paper bank notes issued as currency by the French Directory in 1796 to replace the assignats which had become virtually worthless. They were land-warrants supposedly redeemable in the lands confiscated from royalty, the clergy and the church after the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789. In February 1796, 800,000,000 francs of mandats were issued as legal tender to replace the 24,000,000,000 francs of assignats then outstanding. In all about 2,500,000,000 francs of mandats were issued. They were heavily counterfeited and their value depreciated rapidly within six months. In February 1797, they lost their legal tender quality and by May were worth virtually nothing.

Wikipedia: Roman scudo

The Roman scudo (plural: scudi romani) was the currency of the Papal States until 1866. It was subdivided into 100 baiocchi (singular: baiocco), each of 5 quattrini (singular: quattrino). Other denominations included the grosso of 5 baiocchi, the carlino of 7½ baiocchi, the giulio and paoli both of 10 baiocchi, the testone of 30 baiocchi and the doppia of 3 scudi.

Wikipedia: Roman currency

Roman currency for most of Roman history consisted of gold, silver, bronze, and copper coinage. From its introduction to the Republic, during the third century BC, well into Imperial times, Roman currency saw many changes in form, denomination, and composition. A persistent feature was the inflationary debasement and replacement of coins over the centuries. Notable examples of this followed the reforms of Diocletian. This trend continued into Byzantine times.

Wikipedia: Dirham

Dirham or dirhem or "Dirhm" (درهم) is a unit of currency in several Arab states and formerly, the related unit of mass (the Ottoman dram) in the Ottoman Empire and Persian states. The name derives from the Greek currency drachma or didrachm (2 drachmae).