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Information about Austria, Duchy and Archduchy.

Country: Austria, Duchy and Archduchy
Province ofHoly Roman Empire
From year1156
Existed to1521

The Duchy of Austria (German: Herzogtum Österreich) was a medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the Privilegium Minus, when the Margraviate of Austria (Ostarrîchi) was detached from Bavaria and elevated to a duchy in its own right. After the ruling dukes of the House of Babenberg became extinct, the German king Rudolf I took over the dominion as the first monarch of the Habsburg dynasty in 1276. Thereafter, Austria became the ancestral homeland of the dynasty and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1453, the archducal title of the Austrian rulers, invented by Duke Rudolf IV in the forged Privilegium Maius of 1359, was officially acknowledged by the Habsburg emperor Frederick III.

The Archduchy of Austria (German: Erzherzogtum Österreich) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy. With its capital at Vienna, the archduchy was centered at the Empire's southeastern periphery.

The Archduchy developed out of the Bavarian Margraviate of Austria, elevated to the Duchy of Austria according to the 1156 Privilegium Minus by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. The House of Habsburg came to the Austrian throne in Vienna in 1282 and in 1453 Emperor Frederick III, also Austrian ruler, officially adopted the archducal title. From the 15th century onwards, all Holy Roman Emperors but one were Austrian archdukes and with the acquisition of the Bohemian and Hungarian crown lands in 1526, the Habsburg "hereditary lands" became the centre of a major European power.

Monarch reigns
Herzog Heinrich II. (Duke Henry II) 17 August 1156 13 January 1177
Herzog Luitpold V. (Duke Leopold V) 13 January 1177 31 December 1194
Herzog Friedrich I. (Duke Frederick I the Catholic) 31 December 1194 16 April 1198
Herzog Luitpold VI. (Duke Leopold VI) 16 April 1198 28 July 1230
Herzog Friedrich II. (Duke Frederick II) 28 July 1230 15 June 1246
Margrave Vladislaus III of Moravia, claimant 1246 3 January 1247
Margrave Herman VI of Baden, claimant 1248 4 October 1250
Margrave Frederick I of Baden, claimant 4 October 1250 29 October 1268
King Ottokar II of Bohemia, claimant 1251 November 1276
Herzog Rudolf I. (Duke Rudolf I), King of Germany 26 August 1278 27 December 1282
Duke Albert I and Duke Rudolf II, joint rule 27 December 1282 1 June 1283
Herzog Albrecht I. (Duke Albert I), first sole reign 1 June 1283 21 November 1298
Duke Albert I and Duke Rudolf III (King of Bohemia as Rudolf I), joint rule 21 November 1298 4 July 1307
Herzog Albrecht I. (Duke Albert I), second sole reign 4 July 1307 1 May 1308
Duke Frederick I and Duke Leopold I, joint rule 1 May 1308 28 February 1326
Herzog Friedrich I. (Duke Frederick I) 28 February 1326 13 January 1330
Duke Albert II and Duke Otto, joint rule 13 January 1330 17 February 1339
Herzog Albrecht II. (Duke Albert II) 17 February 1339 16 August 1358
Herzog Rudolf IV. (Duke Rudolf IV) 16 August 1358 27 July 1365
Duke Albert III and Duke Leopold III, joint rule 27 July 1365 25 September 1379
Herzog Leopold III. (Duke Leopold III of Inner and Further Austria) 25 September 1379 9 July 1386
Herzog Albrecht III. (Duke Albert III of Lower Austria) 25 September 1379 29 August 1395
Herzog Leopold IV. (Duke Leopold IV of Inner and Further Austria) November 1386 3 June 1411
Herzog Wilhelm (Duke William of Inner and Further Austria) November 1386 15 July 1406
Herzog Albrecht IV. (Duke Albert IV of Lower Austria) 29 August 1395 14 September 1404
Herzog Friedrich IV. (Duke Frederick IV of Upper Austria) 1402 24 June 1439
Herzog Albrecht V. (Duke Albert V of Lower Austria) 14 September 1404 27 October 1439
Erzherzog Ernst (Archduke Ernest of Inner and Further Austria) 1406 10 June 1424
Herzog Albrecht VI. (Duke Albert VI of Inner Austria) 10 June 1424 23 November 1457
Erzherzog Siegmund (Archduke Sigismund of Upper Austria) 24 June 1439 16 March 1490
Herzog Ladislaus (Duke Ladislaus of Lower Austria), King of Hungary as Ladislaus V 15 May 1440 23 November 1457
Erzherzog Albrecht VI. (Archduke Albert VI) 23 November 1457 2 December 1463
Herzog Friedrich V. (Duke Frederick V of Lower Austria), Holy Roman Emperor as Frederick III 23 November 1457 19 August 1493
Duke Matthias Corvinus (contested) 14 August 1487 6 April 1490
Erzherzog Maximilian I. (Archduke Maximilian I), Holy Roman Emperor 16 March 1490 12 January 1519
Erzherzog Karl I. (Archduke Charles I), King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor 12 January 1519 28 April 1521