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Information about Holy See.

Country: Holy See
From year30

The Holy See (Italian: Santa Sede; Latin: Sancta Sedes) is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity. It serves as the central point of reference for the Catholic Church everywhere and the focal point of communion due to its position as the pre-eminent episcopal see of the universal church. It traces its origin to the 1st century during the apostolic era, when Saint Peter arrived in Rome to evangelise and formed a significant early Christian community of believers there. Today, it is responsible for the governance of all Catholics, organised in their Particular Churches, Patriarchates and religious institutes.

As an independent sovereign entity, holding the Vatican City enclave in Rome as sovereign territory, it maintains diplomatic relations with other states. It is viewed as analogous to a state while administered by the Roman Curia (Latin for Roman Court), similar to a centralised government with the Cardinal Secretary of State as its chief administrator, and various dicasteries, comparable to ministries and executive departments.

Diplomatically, the Holy See acts and speaks for the whole church. It is also recognised by other subjects of international law as a sovereign entity, headed by the Pope, with which diplomatic relations can be maintained. Often informally referred to as "the Vatican", the "Holy See" is not the same entity as the "Vatican City State", which came into existence only in 1929 because of the Lateran Treaty; the Holy See, the episcopal see of Rome, dates back to antiquity. Ambassadors are officially accredited not to the Vatican City State but to "the Holy See", and Papal representatives to states and international organizations are recognized as representing the Holy See, not the Vatican City State. The creation of the Vatican City state was meant to ensure the diplomatic and spiritual independence of the Pope.

Monarch reigns
Saint Peter 1 April 33 29 June 67
Papa Linus (Pope Linus) 29 June 67 23 September 76
Papa Anacletus (Pope Anacletus) 23 September 76 26 April 88
Papa Clemens Romanus (Pope Clement I) 26 April 88 23 November 99
Papa Evaristus (Pope Evaristus) 23 November 99 27 October 107
Papa Alexander (Pope Alexander I) 27 October 107 3 May 115
Papa Xystus (Pope Sixtus I) 3 May 115 3 April 125
Papa Telesphorus (Pope Telesphorus) 3 April 125 5 January 136
Papa Hyginus (Pope Hyginus) 5 January 136 11 January 140
Papa Pius (Pope Pius I) 11 January 140 11 July 155
Papa Anicetus (Pope Anicetus) 11 July 155 20 April 166
Papa Soterius (Pope Soter) 20 April 166 22 April 174
Papa Eleutherius (Pope Eleuterus) 22 April 174 26 May 189
Papa Victor (Pope Victor I) 26 May 189 28 July 199
Papa Zephyrinus (Pope Zephyrinus) 28 July 199 20 December 217
Papa Callistus (Pope Callixtus I) 218 223
Papa Urbanus (Pope Urban I) 223 23 May 230
Papa Pontianus (Pope Pontian) 21 July 230 28 September 235
Papa Anterus (Pope Anterus) 21 November 235 3 January 236
Papa Fabianus (Pope Fabian) 10 January 236 20 January 250
Papa Cornelius (Pope Cornelius) 6 March 251 June 253
Papa Lucius (Pope Lucius I) 25 June 253 5 March 254
Papa Stephanus (Pope Stephen I) 12 May 254 2 August 257
Papa Xystus Secundus (Pope Sixtus II) 31 August 257 6 August 258
Papa Dionysius (Pope Dionysius) 22 July 259 26 December 268
Papa Felix (Pope Felix I) 5 January 269 30 December 274
Papa Eutychianus (Pope Eutychian) 4 January 275 7 December 283
Papa Caius (Pope Caius) 17 December 283 22 April 296
Papa Marcellinus (Pope Marcellinus) 30 June 296 304