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Information about Holy See.

Country: Holy See
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Description

The Holy See (Italian: Santa Sede; Latin: Sancta Sedes) is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity. It serves as the central point of reference for the Catholic Church everywhere and the focal point of communion due to its position as the pre-eminent episcopal see of the universal church. It traces its origin to the 1st century during the apostolic era, when Saint Peter arrived in Rome to evangelise and formed a significant early Christian community of believers there. Today, it is responsible for the governance of all Catholics, organised in their Particular Churches, Patriarchates and religious institutes.

As an independent sovereign entity, holding the Vatican City enclave in Rome as sovereign territory, it maintains diplomatic relations with other states. It is viewed as analogous to a state while administered by the Roman Curia (Latin for Roman Court), similar to a centralised government with the Cardinal Secretary of State as its chief administrator, and various dicasteries, comparable to ministries and executive departments.

Diplomatically, the Holy See acts and speaks for the whole church. It is also recognised by other subjects of international law as a sovereign entity, headed by the Pope, with which diplomatic relations can be maintained. Often informally referred to as "the Vatican", the "Holy See" is not the same entity as the "Vatican City State", which came into existence only in 1929 because of the Lateran Treaty; the Holy See, the episcopal see of Rome, dates back to antiquity. Ambassadors are officially accredited not to the Vatican City State but to "the Holy See", and Papal representatives to states and international organizations are recognized as representing the Holy See, not the Vatican City State. The creation of the Vatican City state was meant to ensure the diplomatic and spiritual independence of the Pope.

Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_See
Monarch reigns
NameFromTo
Saint Peter 1 April 33 29 June 67
Papa Linus (Pope Linus) 29 June 67 23 September 76
Papa Anacletus (Pope Anacletus) 23 September 76 26 April 88
Papa Clemens Romanus (Pope Clement I) 26 April 88 23 November 99
Papa Evaristus (Pope Evaristus) 23 November 99 27 October 107
Papa Alexander (Pope Alexander I) 27 October 107 3 May 115
Papa Xystus (Pope Sixtus I) 3 May 115 3 April 125
Papa Telesphorus (Pope Telesphorus) 3 April 125 5 January 136
Papa Hyginus (Pope Hyginus) 5 January 136 11 January 140
Papa Pius (Pope Pius I) 11 January 140 11 July 155
Papa Anicetus (Pope Anicetus) 11 July 155 20 April 166
Papa Soterius (Pope Soter) 20 April 166 22 April 174
Papa Eleutherius (Pope Eleuterus) 22 April 174 26 May 189
Papa Victor (Pope Victor I) 26 May 189 28 July 199
Papa Zephyrinus (Pope Zephyrinus) 28 July 199 20 December 217
Papa Callistus (Pope Callixtus I) 218 223
Papa Urbanus (Pope Urban I) 223 23 May 230
Papa Pontianus (Pope Pontian) 21 July 230 28 September 235
Papa Anterus (Pope Anterus) 21 November 235 3 January 236
Papa Fabianus (Pope Fabian) 10 January 236 20 January 250
Papa Cornelius (Pope Cornelius) 6 March 251 June 253
Papa Lucius (Pope Lucius I) 25 June 253 5 March 254
Papa Stephanus (Pope Stephen I) 12 May 254 2 August 257
Papa Xystus Secundus (Pope Sixtus II) 31 August 257 6 August 258
Papa Dionysius (Pope Dionysius) 22 July 259 26 December 268
Papa Felix (Pope Felix I) 5 January 269 30 December 274
Papa Eutychianus (Pope Eutychian) 4 January 275 7 December 283
Papa Caius (Pope Caius) 17 December 283 22 April 296
Papa Marcellinus (Pope Marcellinus) 30 June 296 26 April 304
Papa Marcellus (Pope Marcellus I) 27 May 308 16 January 309
Papa Eusebius (Pope Eusebius) 18 April 309 17 August 309
Papa Miltiades (Pope Miltiades) 2 July 311 10 January 314
Papa Silvester (Pope Sylvester I) 31 January 314 31 December 335
Papa Marcus (Pope Mark) 18 January 336 7 October 336
Papa Iulius (Pope Julius I) 6 February 337 12 April 352
Papa Liberius (Pope Liberius) 17 May 352 24 September 366
Papa Damasus (Pope Damasus I) 1 October 366 11 December 384
Papa Siricius (Pope Siricius) 17 December 384 26 November 399
Papa Anastasius (Pope Anastasius I) 27 November 399 19 December 401
Papa Innocentius (Pope Innocent I) 22 December 401 12 March 417
Papa Zosimus (Pope Zosimus) 18 March 417 26 December 418
Papa Bonifatius (Pope Boniface I) 28 December 418 4 September 422
Papa Coelestinus (Pope Celestine I) 10 September 422 26 July 432
Papa Xystus Tertius (Pope Sixtus III) 31 July 432 18 August 440
Papa Leo Magnus (Pope Leo I the Great) 29 September 440 10 November 461
Papa Hilarius (Pope Hilarius) 19 November 461 29 February 468
Papa Simplicius (Pope Simplicius) 3 March 468 10 March 483
Papa Felix Tertius (Pope Felix III) 13 March 483 1 March 492
Papa Gelasius (Pope Gelasius I) 1 March 492 19 November 496
Papa Anastasius Secundus (Pope Anastasius II) 24 November 496 19 November 498
Papa Symmachus (Pope Symmachus) 22 November 498 19 July 514
Papa Hormisdas (Pope Hormisdas) 20 July 514 6 August 523
Papa Ioannes (Pope John I) 13 August 523 18 May 526
Papa Felix Quartus (Pope Felix IV) 12 July 526 22 September 530
Papa Bonifatius Secundus (Pope Boniface II) 22 September 530 17 October 532
Papa Ioannes Secundus (Pope John II) 2 January 533 8 May 535
Papa Agapetus (Pope Agapetus I) 13 May 535 22 April 536
Papa Silverius (Pope Silverius) 8 June 536 11 March 537
Papa Vigilius (Pope Vigilius) 29 March 537 7 June 555
Papa Pelagius (Pope Pelagius I) 16 April 556 4 March 561
Papa Ioannes Tertius (Pope John III) 17 July 561 13 July 574
Papa Benedictus (Pope Benedict I) 2 June 575 30 July 579
Papa Pelagius Secundus (Pope Pelagius II) 26 November 579 7 February 590
Papa Gregorius Magnus (Pope Gregory I the Great) 3 September 590 12 March 604
Papa Sabinianus (Pope Sabinian) 13 September 604 22 February 606
Papa Bonifatius Tertius (Pope Boniface III) 19 February 607 12 November 607
Papa Bonifatius Quartus (Pope Boniface IV) 25 September 608 8 May 615
Papa Adeodatus (Pope Adeodatus I) 19 October 615 8 November 618
Papa Bonifatius Quintus (Pope Boniface V) 23 December 619 25 October 625
Papa Honorius (Pope Honorius I) 27 October 625 12 October 638
Papa Severinus (Pope Severinus) 28 May 640 2 August 640
Papa Ioannes Quartus (Pope John IV) 24 December 640 12 October 642
Papa Theodorus (Pope Theodore I) 24 November 642 14 May 649
Papa Martinus (Pope Martin I) 21 July 649 16 September 655
Papa Eugenius (Pope Eugene I) 10 August 654 2 August 657
Papa Vitalianus (Pope Vitalian) 30 July 657 27 January 672
Papa Adeodatus Secundus (Pope Adeodatus II) 11 April 672 17 June 676
Papa Donus (Pope Donus) 2 November 676 11 April 678
Papa Agatho (Pope Agatho) 27 June 678 10 January 681
Papa Leo Secundus (Pope Leo II) 17 August 682 28 June 683
Papa Benedictus Secundus (Pope Benedict II) 26 June 684 8 May 685
Papa Ioannes Quintus (Pope John V) 23 July 685 2 August 686
Papa Conon (Pope Conon) 21 October 686 21 September 687
Papa Sergius (Pope Sergius I) 15 December 687 8 September 701
Papa Ioannes Sextus (Pope John VI) 30 October 701 11 January 705
Papa Ioannes Septimus (Pope John VII) 1 March 705 18 October 707
Papa Sisinnius (Pope Sisinnius) 15 January 708 4 February 708
Papa Constantinus (Pope Constantine) 25 March 708 9 April 715
Papa Gregorius Secundus (Pope Gregory II) 19 May 715 11 February 731
Papa Gregorius Tertius (Pope Gregory III) 11 February 731 28 November 741
Papa Zacharias (Pope Zachary) 3 December 741 15 March 752
Papa Stephanus Secundus (Pope Stephen II) 26 March 752 26 April 757
Papa Paulus (Pope Paul I) 29 May 757 28 June 767
Papa Stephanus Tertius (Pope Stephen III) 7 August 768 1 February 772
Papa Hadrianus (Pope Adrian I) 1 February 772 25 December 795
Papa Leo Tertius (Pope Leo III) 27 December 795 12 June 816
Papa Stephanus Quartus (Pope Stephen IV) 22 June 816 24 January 817
Papa Paschalis (Pope Paschal I) 25 January 817 11 February 824
Papa Eugenius Secundus (Pope Eugene II) 4 June 824 27 August 827
Papa Valentinus (Pope Valentine) 31 August 827 10 October 827
Papa Gregorius Quartus (Pope Gregory IV) 20 December 827 25 January 844