Bahawalpur was a princely state, currently part of Punjab province, stretching along the southern bank of the Sutlej and Indus Rivers, with its capital city at Bahawalpur. The state was counted amongst the Punjab states. In 1941, it had a population of 1,341,209, living in an area of 45,911 km².
The state was founded in 1802 by Nawab Mohammad Bahawal Khan Abbasi after the breakup of the Durrani Empire. His successor was Nawab Mohammad Bahawal Khan Abbasi III, a great devotee of Syed Mohammad Abdullah Shah Madni Jilani. He signed the state's first subsidiary alliance with the British on 22 February 1833, guaranteeing the internal rule of the Nawab under British suzerainty. The alliance meant British control of Bahawalpur's external relations, but the state was never a British possession and until the Independence of Pakistan in 1947 was ruled by its own Nawabs.
After one century of such relations, they were dissolved by the departure of the British, when the state opted to accede to the new dominion of Pakistan, with effect from 7 October 1947, becoming a princely state of Pakistan. It was merged into the province of West Pakistan on 14 October 1955.