Web Directory of Coin-Related Sites

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Latest added links.
Link Name / URL / Description
Serbian Medieval Coins
http://www.serbianmedievalcoins.com

This website is dedicated to Serbian medieval coins research, especially King Radoslav coins which are first, rarest and most valuable Serbian medieval coins today. There is much information, and some of the coins are for sale.

Medieval Serbian coinage - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_Serbian_coinage

The first mention of a "Serbian dinar" dates back to the reign of Stefan Nemanjić in 1214. Until the fall of the Serbian Despotate in 1459, most of the Serbian rulers minted silver dinar coins. The first Serbian dinars, like many other Southern European coins, replicated Venetian grosso, including characters in Latin (the word dux replaced with the word rex). For many years it was one of the main export articles of medieval Serbia, considering the relative abundance of silver coming from Serbian mines. Venetians were weary of this, and Dante Alighieri went so far as to put the Serbian king of his time, Stefan Milutin, in Hell as forgerer (along with his Portuguese and Norwegian counterparts).

Batzen - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Batzen

The batzen was a coin produced by Bern, Switzerland, from the 15th century until the mid-19th century.

East African florin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_African_florin

The Florin was the currency of the British colonies and protectorates of East Africa between 1920 and 1921. It was divided into 100 cents. It replaced the rupee at par, and was replaced in turn by the shilling at a rate of 2 shillings = 1 florin. The florin was equivalent to 2 shillings sterling.

East African rupee - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_African_rupee

The Rupee was the currency of Britain's East African colonies and protectorates between 1906 and 1920. It was divided into 100 cents.

The rupee replaced the Indian rupee, which had previously circulated. In 1920, the rupee was revalued against sterling to a peg of 1 rupee = 2 shillings (1 florin). In East Africa, this was followed in the same year by the replacement of the rupee with the East African florin at par.

The currency is noteworthy for including the world's first aluminium coin, the 1907 1 Cent.

Central Bank of Kenya
https://www.centralbank.go.ke/

The Central Bank of Kenya is responsible for formulating monetary policy to achieve and maintain price stability. The Central Bank also promotes financial stability; an effective and efficient payment, clearing and settlement system; formulates and implements foreign exchange policies; holds and manages foreign exchange reserves; issuing of currency; and is the banker for, adviser to and fiscal agent of the Government.

Central Bank of Kenya - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bank_of_Kenya

The Central Bank of Kenya (CBK) (Swahili: Banki Kuu ya Kenya) is the monetary authority of Kenya. The Bank's Head Office is located in Nairobi. CBK was founded in 1966 after the dissolution of East African Currency Board (EACB).

Pysa - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pysa

The Pysa was a Zanzibari coin that was struck in AH1299 (1882) and AH1304 (1887). The obverses of these coins have a pair of scales. The name 'Pysa' is derived from the currency units 'Pice' and 'Paisa'. The AH1299 1 Pysa often turns up in old coin collections, but the AH1304 coin very seldom turns up. The AH1299 coin was struck at the Royal Belgian Mint, Brussels, Belgium while the AH1304 coin was struck at Heaton's Mint, Birmingham, England.

Zanzibari ryal - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanzibari_ryal

The ryal (Arabic: ريال‎) was the currency of Zanzibar between 1882 and 1908. It was subdivided into 136 pysa and circulated alongside the Indian rupee and Maria Theresa thaler. The ryal was replaced by the rupee at 2⅛ rupees = 1 ryal.

Zanzibari rupee - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanzibari_rupee

The rupee (Arabic: روپيه‎) was the currency of Zanzibar from 1908 to December 31, 1935. It was subdivided into 100 cents (Arabic: سنت).

Kenyan shilling - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenyan_shilling

The shilling (Swahili: shilingi; sign: KSh; code: KES) is the currency of Kenya. It is divided into 100 cents.

Coins Art
http://www.coinsart.in

Coinsart is an Indian company based in Ahmedabad, Gujarat specializing in British India, Portuguese India and world coins. The company produces fixed price lists.

Münzkatalog-Online
http://www.muenzkatalog-online.de/

Extensive online coin catalogue, in German language.

Central Bank of Bahrain - Current Coins
https://www.cbb.gov.bh/page-p-currencyissue_currentcoins.htm

Denomination Specifications.

Central Bank of Bahrain - Currency Issue
http://www.cbb.gov.bh/page-p-currency_issue.htm

In 1964, the Bahrain Currency Board was established and issued a new family of Bahraini Dinar banknotes and coins on 7th October 1965. The new banknotes and coins, which replaced the Gulf Rupee, contained the following note denominations: BD10, BD5, BD1, BD1/2 and BD1/4 with coin denominations as follows, 100 fils, 50 fils, 25 fils, 10 fils, 5 fils and 1 fil.

Pitcairn Islands dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pitcairn_Islands_dollar

The Pitcairn Islands is a non-sovereign British overseas territory and the New Zealand dollar is used as exchange. Pitcairn Islands began issuing its first commemorative coins in 1988. Though the Pitcairn Islands dollar is not a true currency in the strict sense of the word, and is not used as a circulation coinage, it can be lawfully exchanged as tender. The Pitcairn Islands dollar exists only because of the coin collecting market, which provides a major staple for the island nation. Having a population of only 56 according to the 2013 census, and with only one island in the group of four being populated, there is no need for local coinage. Coins consist of an important part of the Pitcairn Islands' tiny economy and help raise funds for the government's largely fixed and subsidised income.

Central Bank of Malta / Numismatic Issues
https://www.centralbankmalta.org/numismatic-issues

The Central Bank of Malta issued the first non-circulating, legal tender coins for numismatic purposes in November 1972. These consisted of a set of gold and silver coins that were issued in conjunction with the Sovereign Military Order of Malta based in Rome. The coins were struck at the Order’s mint in Rome. In subsequent years, other gold and silver coin sets were issued in conjunction with the Order, which was instrumental in setting up the Malta Mint in 1973, after which coins in precious metal started being produced in Malta.

Maltese euro coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maltese_euro_coins

Maltese euro coins feature three separate designs for the three series of coins. Malta has been a member of the European Union since 1 May 2004, and is a member of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union. Malta adopted the euro as its official currency on 1 January 2008, replacing the Maltese lira. For a period of one month until 31 January, there was a dual circulation for Malta where the Euro and Maltese lira were used alongside each other. In 2008, the Monnaie de Paris (Paris Mint) was chosen to mint the coins; since 2009 the mint of Maltese euro coins is the Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt (Royal Dutch Mint).

Maltese lira - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maltese_lira

The lira (Maltese: lira Maltija, plural: liri, ISO 4217 code : MTL) was the currency of Malta from 1825 until 31 December 2007. The lira was abbreviated as Lm, although the traditional ₤ sign was often used locally. In English, the currency was still frequently called the pound because of the past usage of British currency on the islands.

The euro replaced the Maltese lira as the official currency of Malta on 1 January 2008 at the irrevocable fixed exchange rate of €1 per 0.4293 lira.

List of British banknotes and coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_British_banknotes_and_coins

List of British banknotes and coins, with commonly used terms.

Quattrino - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quattrino

The quattrino is an ancient Italian currency denomination largely used in Central Italy, especially in Tuscany and Rome. Its name derives from the Latin quater denari, because its value was equal to four denari. Consequently, its value was one third of a soldo. It disappeared after the unification of Italy in 1861, when the Italian lira was introduced as an equivalent of the french franc.

Solidus (coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solidus_(coin)

The solidus (Latin for "solid"; pl. solidi), nomisma (Greek: νόμισμα, nómisma, lit. "coin"), or bezant was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire. Under Constantine, who introduced it on a wide scale, it had a weight of about 4.5 grams. It was largely replaced in Western Europe by Pepin the Short's currency reform, which introduced the silver-based pound/shilling/penny system, under which the shilling (Latin: solidus) functioned as a unit of account equivalent to 12 pence, eventually developing into the French sou. In Eastern Europe, the nomisma was gradually debased by the Byzantine emperors until it was abolished by Alexius I in 1092, who replaced it with the hyperpyron, which also came to be known as a "bezant". The Byzantine solidus also inspired the originally slightly less pure Arab dinar.

Lira - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lira

Lira (plural lire) is the name of several currency units. It is the current currency of Turkey and also the local name of the currencies of Lebanon and Syria. It is the former currency of Italy, Malta, San Marino and the Vatican City, all of which were replaced in 2002 with the euro, and of Israel, which replaced it with the old shekel in 1980. The term originates from the value of a troy pound (Latin libra) of high purity silver. The libra was the basis of the monetary system of the Roman Empire. When Europe resumed a monetary system, during the Carolingian Empire, the Roman system was adopted, the so-called £sd (librae, solidi, denarii).

Australian one dollar coin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_one_dollar_coin

The Australian one dollar coin is the second-most-valuable circulation denomination coin of the Australian dollar after the two-dollar coin; there are also non-circulating legal-tender coins of higher denominations (five-, ten-, two-hundred-dollar coins and the one-million-dollar coin).

Banknotes of Scotland - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banknotes_of_Scotland

Banknotes of Scotland are the banknotes of the Pound Sterling that are issued by the Scottish banks and in circulation in Scotland. The issuing of banknotes by retail banks in Scotland is subject to the Bank Charter Act 1844, the Banknotes (Scotland) Act 1845, the Currency and Bank Notes Act 1928, and the Coinage Act 1971. Currently, three retail banks are allowed to print notes for circulation in Scotland: Bank of Scotland, Royal Bank of Scotland, and Clydesdale Bank.

Merk (coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merk_(coin)

The merk was a Scottish silver coin. Originally the same word as a money mark of silver, the merk was in circulation at the end of the 16th century and in the 17th century. It was originally valued at 13s 4d (exactly ​2⁄3 of a pound Scots, or about one English shilling), later raised to 14s Scots. In addition to merks, half-merk and quarter-merk coins were produced with values of, respectively, 7s and 3s 6d, as well as a four-merk coin of 56s (£2 16s).

Banknotes of the pound sterling - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banknotes_of_the_pound_sterling

Sterling banknotes are the banknotes in circulation in the United Kingdom and its related territories, denominated in pounds sterling (symbol: £; ISO 4217 currency code GBP [Great Britain pound]).

Unicorn (coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unicorn_(coin)

The unicorn was a gold coin that formed part of Scottish coinage between 1484 and 1525. It was initially issued in the reign of James III with a value of 18 shillings Scots, but rising gold prices during the reign of James V caused its value to increase first to 20 shillings, and then 22. The obverse of the coin shows a crowned unicorn. The significance is that the unicorn is one of the heraldic symbols of Scotland, two of them occurring, most notably, crowned and chained, as the supporters of the royal coat of arms of Scotland.

Bawbee - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bawbee

A bawbee was a Scottish halfpenny. The word means a debased copper coin, valued at six pence Scots (equal at the time to an English half-penny), issued from the reign of James V of Scotland to the reign of William II of Scotland. They were hammered until 1677, when they were produced upon screw presses.

Groat (coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groat_(coin)

The groat is the traditional name of a long-defunct English and Irish silver coin worth four pence, and also a Scottish coin originally worth fourpence, with later issues being valued at eightpence and one shilling.

Bodle - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodle

A bodle or boddle or bodwell, also known as a half groat or Turner was a Scottish copper coin, of less value than a bawbee, worth about one-sixth of an English penny, first issued under Charles II. They were minted until the coronation of Anne. Its name may derive from Bothwell (a mint-master).

Penny Scots - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penny_Scots

Penny (Scottish Gaelic: peighinn, but see below) was used in Scottish parlance for money generally; for example, a "penny-fee" was an expression for wages, a "penny-maister" would be a town treasurer, and a "penny-wedding" was one where every guest contributed to pay for the event. Meanwhile, penny-wheep was particularly poor beer.

Demy (coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demy_(coin)

The Demy was a Scottish gold coin struck under reign of James I of Scotland and based on the English half Noble coin. With a face value 9 Scottish shillings the coin was later replaced with the Lion coin by James II of Scotland.

Florin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florin

The Florentine florin was a coin struck from 1252 to 1533 with no significant change in its design or metal content standard during that time. It had 54 grains of nominally pure or 'fine' gold (3.5368 grams, 0.1125 troy ounce) with a purchasing power difficult to estimate (and variable) but ranging according to social grouping and perspective from approximately 140 to 1000 modern US dollars. The name of the coin comes from the flower of the Giglio bottonato which is represented at the head of the coin.

Hyperpyron - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperpyron

The hyperpyron (Greek: νόμισμα ὑπέρπυρον) was a Byzantine coin in use during the late Middle Ages, replacing the solidus as the Byzantine Empire's gold coinage.

בנק ישראל (Bank of Israel)
https://www.boi.org.il/

The Bank of Israel is the central bank of the State of Israel. The Bank was established in 1954. It is situated in Kiryat Ben Gurion in Jerusalem, close to the Knesset (Israel's parliament), the Supreme Court, and government ministries.

Bank of Israel
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_of_Israel

The Bank of Israel (Hebrew: בנק ישראל‎, Arabic: بنك إسرائيل‎) is the central bank of Israel. It is located in Kiryat HaMemshala in Jerusalem, with a branch office in Tel Aviv.

Israel Coins and Medals Corp.
https://www.israelmint.com/

srael Coins and Medals Corp. was established in 1958 by the Prime Minister Ben Gurion for the purpose of commemorating the historical events and milestones of the State of Israel, as well as its outstanding personalities and achievements in culture, science and art.

Until 2008, the Corporation was fully owned by the Government of Israel. During 2008, it was privatized.
Throughout the years, since its inception until the present, the Corporation has strictly maintained its original character and values, just as Ben Gurion had envisioned.

Israel Coins and Medals Corp. - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel_Coins_and_Medals_Corp.

Israel Coins and Medals Corp. is the body permitted by the Government of Israel to issue the official State Medals of Israel and under an exclusive contract with the Bank of Israel, the Corporation is the exclusive worldwide distributor of the commemorative coins and special banknote issues of the Bank of Israel. From its inception in 1958 until 2008, the Corporation was fully owned by the Government. In 2008, it was privatized. The Corporation has its own manufacturing plant, where commemorative coins for the Bank of Israel, Israel State medals and privately ordered medals are minted.

National Mint of Xuvia - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Mint_of_Xuvia

The National Mint of Xuvia (Spanish: Casa de Moneda de Jubia, Galician: Real Casa da Moeda de Xuvia) was a Spanish mint of copper coins from 1812 to 1868.

Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre (Royal Spanish Mint)
http://www.fnmt.es/

The Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre was created in 1893 from the merging of two age-old organizations, namely the Casa de la Moneda (The Mint) and the Fábrica del Sello (The Stamp Factory). These two entities, even though they were self-determining and under different managements, had been sharing the building in the Plaza de Colón since 1861. From that time forward, with security as the common thread, their scope of activity has never stopped expanding.

Royal Mint (Spain) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Mint_(Spain)

The Royal Mint of Spain (Spanish: Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre - Real Casa de la Moneda "National Coinage and Stamp Factory - Royal Mint", abbreviated as FNMT-RCM) is the national mint of Spain. The FNMT-RCM is a public corporation, managed by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Business.

Hrvatski novčarski zavod (Croatian Monetary Institute)
http://www.hnz.hr/

The Croatian Monetary Institute produces circulating coinage for Croatia to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as gold and silver medals, commemorative medallions and badges in different metals and license plates. It does not produce paper money. The Institute was created in Sveta Nedelja in 1993 and is a state-owned enterprise.

Croatian Monetary Institute - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Croatian_Monetary_Institute

The Croatian Monetary Institute produces circulating coinage for Croatia to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as gold and silver medals, commemorative medallions and badges in different metals and license plates. It does not produce paper money. The Institute was created in Sveta Nedelja in 1993 and is a state-owned enterprise.

Macanese pataca - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macanese_pataca

The Macau pataca or Macanese pataca (Chinese: 澳門圓; Portuguese: Pataca de Macau; sign: MOP$; code: MOP) is the currency of Macau. It is subdivided into 100 avos (仙; sin), with 10 avos called ho (毫) in Cantonese. The abbreviation MOP$ is commonly used.

Macau has a currency board system under which the legal tender, Macau pataca, is 100 percent backed by foreign exchange reserves, in this case currently the Hong Kong dollar. Moreover, the currency board, Monetary Authority of Macau (AMCM), has a statutory obligation to issue and redeem Macau pataca on demand against the Hong Kong dollar at a fixed exchange rate of HK$1 = MOP$1.03, and without limit.

Banco Nacional Ultramarino - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banco_Nacional_Ultramarino

Banco Nacional Ultramarino (Chinese: 大西洋銀行; English: National Overseas Bank) was a Portuguese bank with operations throughout the world, especially in Portugal's former overseas provinces. It ceased existence as an independent legal entity in Portugal following its merger in 2001 with Caixa Geral de Depósitos, the government-owned savings bank. The Chinese name's meaning is literally Great West Ocean Bank or Atlantic Bank.

The bank continues operations today under the Banco Nacional Ultramarino brand in Macau, a Chinese Special Administrative Region and former Portuguese colony, where it is also licensed to issue Macanese pataca banknotes.

National Bank of Angola - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Bank_of_Angola

The National Bank of Angola (Portuguese: Banco Nacional de Angola) is the central bank of Angola. It is state-owned and the Government of Angola is the sole shareholder. The bank is based in Luanda, was created in 1926, but traces its ancestry back to 1865. The National Bank of Angola is active in developing financial inclusion policy and is a member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion.

Escudo - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escudo

The escudo (Portuguese: "shield") is a unit of currency historically used in Portugal and in their colonies in South America, Asia, and Africa. It was originally worth 16 silver reais. The Cape Verdean escudo and the former Portuguese escudo (PTE), each subdivided into 100 centavos, are named after the historical currency. Its symbol is defined as a letter S with two vertical bars superimposed used between the units and the subdivsion.

History of the British farthing - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_British_farthing

The British farthing (derived from the Anglo-Saxon feorthing, a fourthling or fourth part)[1] was a British coin worth a quarter of an old penny (​1⁄960 of a pound sterling). It ceased to be struck after 1956 and was demonetised from 1 January 1961.

Farthing (English coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farthing_(English_coin)

A farthing (derived from the Anglo-Saxon feorthing, a fourthling or fourth part) was a coin of the Kingdom of England worth one quarter of a penny, ​1⁄960 of a pound sterling. Such coins were first minted in England in silver in the 13th century, and continued to be used until the Kingdom of England was merged into the new Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707.

Scottish coinage - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_coinage

From c.1124 until 1709 the coinage of Scotland was unique, and minted locally. A wide variety of coins, such as the plack, bodle, bawbee, dollar and ryal were produced over that time. For trading purposes coins of Northumbria and various other places had been used before that time; and since 1709 those of the Kingdom of Great Britain, and then of the UK.

Lion (coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lion_(coin)

A Lion was a Scottish gold coin ordered to be struck in 1451 which featured a lion on one side and a depiction of St. Andrew on the other. The coin weighted the same as half an English Noble and was worth six shillings and eight pence.

Plack (coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plack_(coin)

A plack (Scottish Gaelic: plang) was an ancient Scottish coin of the value of four Scots pennies or by 1707 one third of an English penny.

Pound Scots - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pound_Scots

The pound Scots (Modern Scots: Pund Scots, Middle Scots: Pund Scottis) was the unit of currency in the Kingdom of Scotland before the kingdom unified with the Kingdom of England in 1707. It was introduced by David I, in the 12th century, on the model of English and French money, divided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence. The Scottish currency was later debased relative to sterling and, by the time of James III, the pound sterling was valued at four pounds Scots.

Национальный нумизматический реестр (National numismatic register - Russia)
http://nreestr.ru/

National numismatic register is the first third-party coin certification company in Russia. NNR unites professional numismatists, specializing in expertise mainly of Russian coins, medals and tokens.

Red złoty - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_z%C5%82oty

Red złoty (Polish: czerwony złoty; also known as Polish ducats or florins) refers to circulating gold coins minted in the Kingdom of Poland (later, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) from 1526 to 1831. Whereas złoty "(adj.) gold(en)" could simply refer to the colour, czerwony (red) specified the material as gold.

Holey dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holey_dollar

Holey dollar is the name given to coins used in the early history of two British settlements: Prince Edward Island (now part of Canada) and New South Wales (now part of Australia). The middle was punched out of Spanish dollars, creating two parts: a small coin, known as a "dump" in Australia, and a "holey dollar". This coin was one of the first coins struck in Australia.

Kraków złoty - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krak%C3%B3w_z%C5%82oty

The Kraków złoty (Polish: złotówka krakowska) - was a currency issued in the independent Free City of Kraków in 1835. It was subdivided into 30 groszy. The coins were minted in the Imperial Mint in Vienna.

Polish rubel - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_rubel

The rubel was the currency of Poland from 1841 until 1917. It consisted of Russian ruble coins and banknotes, together with notes issued by the Bank Polski. The rubel replaced the złoty at a rate of 1 rubel = ​6 2⁄3 złotych (1 złoty = 15 kopecks). It was replaced by the Polish marka in 1917.

Bank of Poland - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_of_Poland

The Bank of Poland (Bank Polski) is the name of two former banks in Poland, each of which acted as a central bank. The first was founded by Prince Francis Xavier Drucki-Lubecki in 1828 in the Congress Kingdom of Poland and functioned until 1885, when it was absorbed by the State Bank of the Russian Empire. The second was founded in 1924 in the Second Polish Republic by Prime Minister Władysław Grabski and was liquidated in 1952.

Neapolitan lira - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neapolitan_lira

The lira was the currency of the mainland part of the Kingdom of the Sicily, known as the Kingdom of Naples, between 1812 and 1813. The currency was issued by Joachim Murat, who claimed the title of "King of the Two Sicilies" but only controlled the mainland part of the kingdom. Consequently, the currency is referred to as the "Neapolitan lira". It was subdivided into 100 centesimi (singular: centesimo) and was equal to the Italian lira and French franc. It replaced the piastra, which circulated again following the restoration of Bourbon rule.

Armenian ruble - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenian_ruble

The ruble (Armenian: ռուբլի, Russian: рубль) was the independent currency of the First Republic of Armenia and the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic between 1919 and 1923. It replaced the first Transcaucasian ruble at par and was replaced by the second Transcaucasian ruble after Armenia became part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic. No subdivisions of the ruble were issued and the currency existed only as banknotes.

Azərbaycan Respublikasının Mərkəzi Bankı (Central Bank of Azerbaijan)
https://www.cbar.az/

On October 18, 1991, Azerbaijan restored its state independence. It is interesting that the legal basis for establishment of a banking system of the independent Azerbaijan Republic, including the National Bank was formed a short while before. Thus Article 14 of the Constitution Act on the Basis for Economic Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan, dated May 25, 1991, called “Banking System and Money Turnover” covered these issues as a whole. This article alongside with stipulation of legal basis of independent banking system and turnover of national monetary unit of Azerbaijan, as well established the status and authorities of the National Bank of Azerbaijan. Thus, the National Bank was declared a supreme emission agency that pursues the state policy in the sphere of credit, money turnover, settlements and foreign exchange relations, regulates overall activity of the banking system as a whole and fulfills duties of reserve bank functions.

Central Bank of Azerbaijan - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bank_of_Azerbaijan

The Central Bank of Azerbaijan (CBA, Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Mərkəzi Bankı) is the central bank of Azerbaijan Republic. The headquarters of the bank are located in the capital city Baku. Is established on the basis of the State Bank, the former USSR Promstroybank, the Agroprombank of the USSR pursuant to the Decree of President of the Republic of Azerbaijan on the Launch of the National Bank of the Republic of Azerbaijan, dated 11 February 1992.

Gosbank - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gosbank

Gosbank (Russian: Госбанк, Государственный банк СССР, Gosudarstvenny bank SSSR - the State Bank of the USSR) was the central bank of the Soviet Union and the only bank whatsoever in the entire Union from the 1930s to 1987. Gosbank was one of the three Soviet economic authorities, the other two being "Gosplan" (the State Planning Committee) and "Gossnab" (the State Committee for Material Technical Supply). The Gosbank closely collaborated with the Ministry of Finance of the USSR to prepare the national state budget.

Azerbaijani manat - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azerbaijani_manat

The manat (code: AZN) is the currency of Azerbaijan. It is subdivided into 100 qəpik. The Azerbaijani manat symbol was assigned to Unicode U+20BC in 2013. A lowercase m can be used as a substitute for the manat symbol.

Artsakh dram - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artsakh_dram

The Artsakh dram (Armenian: Արցախյան դրամ) is a monetary unit of the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh. Although it is legal tender, it is not as widely used as the Armenian dram.

Leipziger Edelmetallverarbeitung
http://www.leipziger-edelmetallverarbeitung.de/

The Leipziger Edelmetallverarbeitung produces high-quality products made from gold, silver, platinum, palladium and copper. Our company offers the full range of a modern mint - from design of the investment products to the realization.

Noah's Ark silver coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noah%27s_Ark_silver_coins

The Noah's Ark silver coins are Armenian bullion coins issued since 2011. They are available in various sizes with a fine weight between ¼ ounce and 5 kg in silver of 999/1000 fineness. The coin has a nominal value of 500 Dram (1 ounce) and is legal tender in Armenia, although it is not minted there but is produced by the Leipziger Edelmetallverarbeitungs GmbH, an affiliate company of Geiger Edelmetalle. The motif of the coin remains constant, similar to other bullion coins such as the Canadian Silver Maple Leaf, the Vienna Philharmonic, or the American Silver Eagle.

Հայաստանի Հանրապետության Կենտրոնական Բանկ Central Bank of Armenia)
https://www.cba.am/

The Central Bank of Armenia is the central bank of Armenia with its headquarters in Yerevan. The CBA is an independent institution responsible for issuing all banknotes and coins in the country, overseeing and regulating the banking sector and keeping the government's currency reserves. The CBA is also the sole owner of the Armenian Mint.

Central Bank of Armenia - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bank_of_Armenia

The Central Bank of Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստանի Հանրապետության Կենտրոնական Բանկ) is the central bank of Armenia with its headquarters in Yerevan. The CBA is an independent institution responsible for issuing all banknotes and coins in the country, overseeing and regulating the banking sector and keeping the government's currency reserves. The CBA is also the sole owner of the Armenian Mint.

Armenian dram - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenian_dram

The dram (Armenian: դրամ; sign: ֏; code: AMD) is the monetary unit of Armenia and the neighboring unrecognized Republic of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh). It is subdivided into 100 luma (Armenian: լումա). The word "dram" translates into English as "money" and is cognate with the Greek drachma and the Arabic dirham, as well as the English weight unit dram. The first instance of a dram currency was in the period from 1199 to 1375, when silver coins called dram were issued.

Bolivian sol - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolivian_sol

The sol was the currency of Bolivia between 1827 and 1864. There were no subdivisions of the sol but 16 soles were equal to 1 scudo. The sol replaced the Spanish colonial real at par and was replaced by the boliviano at a rate of 8 soles = 1 boliviano. Only coins were issued.

Bolivian boliviano (1864–1963) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolivian_boliviano_(1864%E2%80%931963)

The first Bolivian boliviano was the currency of Bolivia from 1864 to 1963. Due to rising inflation, it was replaced with the Bolivian peso at an exchange rate of 1000 bolivianos to 1 peso. The peso was later replaced by the second Bolivian boliviano.

Banco Central de Bolivia (Central Bank of Bolivia)
https://www.bcb.gob.bo/

The Central Bank of Bolivia (Spanish: Banco Central de Bolivia) is the central bank of Bolivia, responsible for monetary policy and the issuance of banknotes.

Central Bank of Bolivia - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bank_of_Bolivia

The Central Bank of Bolivia (Spanish: Banco Central de Bolivia) is the central bank of Bolivia, responsible for monetary policy and the issuance of banknotes.

Bolivian peso - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolivian_peso

The peso boliviano (ISO 4217 code: BOP), divided into 100 centavos, was the currency of Bolivia from January 1, 1963 until December 31, 1986. It was replaced by the boliviano at 1,000,000 pesos bolivianos = 1 boliviano. "$b." was the currency symbol for the peso boliviano.

Bolivian boliviano - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolivian_boliviano

The boliviano (sign: Bs ISO 4217 code: BOB) is the currency of Bolivia. It is divided into 100 cents or centavos in Spanish. Boliviano was also the name of the currency of Bolivia between 1864 and 1963.

Argentine peso (1983–1985) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentine_peso_(1983%E2%80%931985)

The peso argentino was the currency of Argentina between June 1, 1983 and June 14, 1985. It was subdivided into 100 centavos. The symbol was $a. The ISO 4217 code was ARP.

Argentine peso ley - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentine_peso_ley

The peso ley 18.188, usually known as either peso or, to distinguish it from the earlier peso moneda nacional, informally as peso ley, was the currency of Argentina between January 1, 1970 and May 5, 1983. It was subdivided into 100 centavos. Its symbol was $, sometimes $L. Its name comes from law 18188 which established it, effective April 5, 1969. Its ISO 4217 code was ARL.

Argentine real - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentine_real

The real was the currency of Argentina until 1881. From 1822, it was subdivided into 10 décimos. The sol was also issued during this period and was equal to the real, whilst the peso was worth 8 reales and the escudo was worth 16 reales.

Argentine peso moneda nacional - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentine_peso_moneda_nacional

The peso moneda nacional was the currency of Argentina from November 5, 1881 to January 1, 1970, the date in which the Argentine peso ley was issued to the Argentine public. It was subdivided into 100 centavos, with the argentino worth 5 pesos. Its symbol was m$n or $m/n. Its ISO 4217 code was ARM.

Collector coins | Eesti Pank
https://www.eestipank.ee/en/notes-and-coins/collector-coins

Collector coins are minted from precious metals with the aim of celebrating very important persons and events. Collector coins are not intended for circulation and they are legal tender only in the country that has issued them. As a rule, the selling price of collector coins minted from precious metal exceeds the nominal value.

Estonian kroon banknotes | Eesti Pank
https://www.eestipank.ee/en/notes-and-coins/estonian-kroon-banknotes

Eesti Pank will exchange Estonian banknotes and coins for euros indefinitely. From the beginning of 2012 kroons can be exchanged for euros at the Eesti Pank Museum at the central exchange rate (1 euro = 15.6466 Estonian kroons) and without any service fee, in unlimited amounts and for an unlimited period of time.

Eesti Pank (Bank of Estonia)
https://www.eestipank.ee/

Eesti Pank (Bank of Estonia) is the central bank of the Republic of Estonia and a member of the European System of Central Banks, and it abides by the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia, the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, the Statute of the European System of Central Banks and European Central Bank, the legal acts of the European Central Bank, the Eesti Pank Act, other laws and this Statute.

Bank of Estonia - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_of_Estonia

The Bank of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Pank) is the central bank of Estonia as well as a member of the Eurosystem organisation of euro area central banks.

Estonian euro coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estonian_euro_coins

Estonian euro coins feature a single design for all eight coins. This is a design by Lembit Lõhmus and features a silhouette map of Estonia together with the word Eesti (Estonia) and twelve stars, symbolic of the European Union, surrounding the map. This was the winning design in a public vote of ten announced in December 2004.

Estonian kroon - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estonian_kroon

The kroon (sign: kr; code: EEK) was the official currency of Estonia for two periods in history: 1928 -1940 and 1992 - 2011. Between 1 January and 14 January 2011, the kroon circulated together with the euro, after which the euro became the sole legal tender in Estonia. The kroon was subdivided into 100 cents (senti; singular sent). The word kroon is related to that of the Nordic currencies (such as the Swedish krona and the Danish and Norwegian krone) and derived from the Latin word corona ("crown"). The kroon succeeded the mark in 1928 and was in use until the Soviet invasion in 1940 and Estonia's subsequent incorporation into the Soviet Union when it was replaced by the Soviet ruble. After Estonia regained its independence, the kroon was reintroduced in 1992.

Estonian mark - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estonian_mark

The Estonian mark (Estonian: Eesti mark) was the currency of Estonia between 1918 and 1927. It was initially equivalent to the German ostmark, which had been circulating alongside the Russian ruble since the German occupation. It was divided into 100 penns (in Nominative case: penn). It was replaced in 1928 by the Estonian kroon at a rate of 1 kroon = 100 marka.

Until 1919 there were also Russian rubles, German ostrubles and Finnish marks in circulation.

German ostruble - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_ostruble

Ostruble (German and Polish: Ostrubel; Latvian and Lithuanian: Ostrublis; Russian: Острубль) is the name given to a currency denominated in kopeck and ruble, which was issued by Germany in 1916 for use in the eastern areas under German occupation (Ober Ost and the Government General of Warsaw). It was initially equal to the Russian ruble. The reason for the issue was a shortage of rubles. The banknotes were produced by the Darlehnskasse in Posen (now Poznań) on 17 April 1916.

German ostmark - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_ostmark

Ostmark is the name given to a currency denominated in Mark which was issued by Germany in 1918 for use in a part of the eastern areas under German control at that time, the Ober Ost area. The currency consisted of paper money issued on 4 April 1918 by the Darlehnskasse in Kowno (Kaunas) and was equal to the German Papiermark. The Ostmark circulated alongside the Russian ruble and the Ostruble, with two Ostmark equal to one Ostruble.

Argentine peso moneda corriente - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentine_peso_moneda_corriente

The peso moneda corriente was a non-convertible Argentine paper currency which circulated between 9 January 1826, and 4 November 1881. Its symbol was $m/c. It was also known as the peso papel (paper money).

Latvian lats - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latvian_lats

The lats (plural: lati (2-9), latu (10 and more)), ISO 4217 currency code: LVL or 428) was the currency of Latvia until it was replaced by the euro on 1 January 2014. A two-week transition period during which the lats was in circulation alongside the euro ended on 14 January 2014. It is abbreviated as Ls and was subdivided into 100 santīmi (singular: santīms; from French centime).

Latvijas Banka (Bank of Latvia)
https://www.bank.lv/

Latvijas Banka is the central bank of Latvia – an independent institution and a member of the Eurosystem. The primary objective of Latvijas Banka is the same as that of the central banks of other euro area countries and the European Central Bank: price stability (inflation rates below, but close to, 2% over the medium term). This is an essential precondition for a strong and growth-oriented economy. To achieve that, Latvijas Banka participates in the formulation and implementation of the Eurosystem's monetary policy.

Bank of Latvia - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_of_Latvia

The Bank of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Banka) is the central bank of Latvia. It is one of the key public institutions and carries out economic functions as prescribed by law. It was established in 1922.

Latvian rublis - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latvian_rublis

The Latvian rublis (Latvian: Latvijas rublis) was the currency of Latvia from 1919 to 1922 and again from 1992 to 1993.

Lithuanian auksinas - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithuanian_auksinas

The auksinas (derived from auksas, Lithuanian for gold) was the name of two currencies of Lithuania: silver coin minted in 1564 equal to 30 Lithuanian groschens and paper German ostmark banknotes that circulated in Lithuania in the aftermath of World War I.

Lithuanian talonas
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithuanian_talonas

The talonas (ISO 4217 code LTT) was a temporary currency issued in Lithuania between 1991 and 1993. It replaced the Soviet ruble at par and was replaced by the litas at a rate of 100 talonas = 1 litas. The talonas was only issued as paper money.

Lithuanian litas - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithuanian_litas

The Lithuanian litas (ISO currency code LTL, symbolized as Lt; plural litai (nominative) or litų (genitive)) was the currency of Lithuania, until 1 January 2015, when it was replaced by the euro. It was divided into 100 centų (genitive case; singular centas, nominative plural centai). The litas was first introduced on 2 October 1922 after World War I, when Lithuania declared independence and was reintroduced on 25 June 1993, following a period of currency exchange from the ruble to the litas with the temporary talonas then in place. The name was modeled after the name of the country (similar to Latvia and its lats). From 1994 to 2002, the litas was pegged to the U.S. dollar at the rate of 4 to 1. The litas was pegged to the euro at the rate of 3.4528 to 1 since 2002. The euro was expected to replace the litas by 1 January 2007, but persistent high inflation and the economic crisis delayed the switch. On 1 January 2015 the litas was switched to the euro at the rate of 3.4528 to 1.

Malagasy franc - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malagasy_franc

The franc (French: franc malgache, ISO 4217 code MGF) was the currency of Madagascar until January 1, 2005. It was subdivided into 100 centimes. The Banque de Madagascar was created on July 1, 1925 by the French government. The currency was issued by the government-owned Banque de Madagascar and was pegged at par to the French franc. Only banknotes were issued with French coins continuing to circulate. When the Comoro Islands became a separate French territory, the name of the issuing bank was changed to Banque de Madagascar et des Comores. The Madagascar-Comores CFA franc (XMCF) replaced the franc of Madagascar on December 26, 1945, with the creation of the other CFA francs.

Banque Centrale de Madagascar (Central Bank of Madagascar)
http://www.banque-centrale.mg/

The Central Bank of Madagascar (Malagasy: Banky Foiben'i Madagasikara; French: Banque Centrale de Madagascar, BCM) is the central bank of Madagascar.

Central Bank of Madagascar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bank_of_Madagascar

The Central Bank of Madagascar (Malagasy: Banky Foiben'i Madagasikara; French: Banque Centrale de Madagascar, BCM) is the central bank of Madagascar.

Malagasy ariary
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malagasy_ariary

The ariary (sign: Ar; ISO 4217 code MGA) is the currency of Madagascar. It is subdivided into 5 iraimbilanja and is one of only two non-decimal currencies currently circulating (the other is the Mauritanian ouguiya). The names ariary and iraimbilanja derive from the pre-colonial currency, with ariary (from the Spanish word "real") being the name for a silver dollar. Iraimbilanja means literally "one iron weight" and was the name of an old coin worth ​1⁄5 of an ariary.

Italian East African lira - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_East_African_lira

The lira AOI was a special banknote circulating in Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI) between 1938 and 1941.

Eritrean tallero - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eritrean_tallero

The tallero was the currency of Eritrea between 1890 and 1921. It was subdivided into 5 lire, each of 100 centesimi. The lira was equivalent to the Italian lira.

Italian Somaliland lira - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Somaliland_lira

The Italian Somaliland lira also called the Somali lira, was a special version of the Italian lira minted in Italian Somaliland between 1925 and 1926.

Banca d'Italia (Bank of Italy)
https://www.bancaditalia.it/

The Bank of Italy is the central bank of the Republic of Italy. It is a public-law institution regulated by national and European legislation. It is an integral part of the Eurosystem, which is made up of the national central banks of the euro area and the European Central Bank. The Eurosystem and the central banks of the member states of the European Union that have not adopted the euro make up the European System of Central Banks.

Bank of Italy - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_of_Italy

The Bank of Italy, known in Italian as [La] Banca d'Italia, also known as Bankitalia, is the central bank of Italy and part of the European System of Central Banks. It is located in Palazzo Koch, via Nazionale, Rome.

Italian Somaliland rupia - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Somaliland_rupia

The Somali rupia (plural: rupie, Somali: روپيا) was the currency in Italian Somaliland from 1909 to 1925. It was subdivided into 100 bese (singular: besa, Somali: بيزا).

Angolan real - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angolan_real

The real (plural réis) was the currency of Portuguese Angola until 1914. It was equal to the Portuguese real. No subdivisions existed, but some coins were issued denominated in macutas, worth 50 réis. The real was replaced by the escudo in 1914.

Angolan angolar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angolan_angolar

The angolar (plural: angolares) was the currency of Portuguese Angola between 1928 and 1958. It was subdivided into 100 centavos or 20 macutas. Angolar is Portuguese for "of Angola".

Angolan escudo - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angolan_escudo

The escudo was the currency of Angola between 1914 and 1928 and again between 1958 and 1977. It was subdivided into 100 centavos with the macuta worth 5 centavos and was equivalent to the Portuguese escudo.

Tuvan akşa - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuvan_ak%C5%9Fa

The akşa was the currency of the Tuvan People's Republic (Tannu-Tuva) between 1934 and 1944. It was subdivided into 100 kɵpejek (cf. kopeck). Akşa in the Tuvan language (akça in many other Turkic languages) simply means "money".

Prior to the introduction of the akşa, Tuva issued overprinted Russian and Soviet banknotes. The first series (issued in 1924) was overprinted with denominations in lan, with the number of lan equal to the face value of the (otherwise obsolete) Russian notes. The second series (issued 1933) carried overprints on Soviet notes in rubles and chervonets.

Coins were issued in 1934 in denominations of 1-, 2, 3-, 5-, 10-, 15 and 20 kɵpejek, a Tuvanized name for the Russian kopeck, with banknotes issued in 1935 and 1940 in denominations of 1 to 25 akşa. The names kɵpejek and akşa are spelled in Jaꞑalif.

Argentine austral - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentine_austral

The austral was the currency of Argentina between June 15, 1985 and December 31, 1991. It was subdivided into 100 centavos. The symbol was an uppercase A with an extra horizontal line: ₳. This symbol appeared on all coins issued in this currency (including centavos), to distinguish them from earlier currencies. The ISO 4217 code is ARA.

Argentine peso - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentine_peso

The peso (established as the peso convertible) is the currency of Argentina, identified by the symbol $ preceding the amount in the same way as many countries using dollar currencies. It is subdivided into 100 centavos. Its ISO 4217 code is ARS.

Banco Nacional de Angola (National Bank of Angola)
http://www.bna.ao/

One year after the independence of Angola, and through the Law No. 69/76 published in the Official Gazette No. 266 - 1st Series of 10 of November of 1976, the National Bank of Angola was created and its Organic Law was approved.

In addition to ensuring the preservation of the value of the national currency, the BNA is essentially responsible for: acting as sole banker of the State, advising the State on monetary, financial and exchange matters, collaborating in the definition and execution of exchange policy, as well as the respective market, manage the external resources of the country or those affected, act as an intermediary in the international monetary relations of the State, ensure the stability of the national financial system, thereby ensuring the role of financier of last recourse.

National Bank of Angola
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Bank_of_Angola

The National Bank of Angola (Portuguese: Banco Nacional de Angola) is the central bank of Angola. It is state-owned and the Government of Angola is the sole shareholder. The bank is based in Luanda, was created in 1926, but traces its ancestry back to 1865. The National Bank of Angola is active in developing financial inclusion policy and is a member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion.

Angolan kwanza - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angolan_kwanza

The kwanza (sign: Kz; ISO 4217 code: AOA) is the currency of Angola. Four different currencies using the name kwanza have circulated since 1977. The currency derives its name from the Kwanza River (Cuanza, Coanza, Quanza).

Abkhazian apsar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abkhazian_apsar

The apsar (Abkhazian: аҧсар, āpsār) is a currency of Abkhazia. So far, only coins in denominations of 10, 25 and 50 apsars have been issued. While the coins are legal tender in the Republic of Abkhazia, their usage is very limited, and the coins are mostly made for collectors. In Abkhazia, the Russian ruble is used in practice. The first apsar coins were introduced in 2008. The name derives from the Apsars, a tribe mentioned in The Georgian Chronicles who inhabited the region in the Middle Ages and who are believed to be the ancestors of the Abkhaz people.

National Bank of the Republic of Abkhazia - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Bank_of_the_Republic_of_Abkhazia

The National Bank of the Republic of Abkhazia (Abkhaz: Аҧсны Аҳәынҭқарра Амилаҭтә Банк, Russian: Национальный банк Республики Абхазия), also known by the short form of Bank of Abkhazia (Russian: Банк Абхазии) is the central bank of the disputed region and partly recognized state of Abkhazia on the eastern coast of the Black Sea. It was established on February 28, 1991 since the adoption of the laws "On the National Bank of the Abkhaz SSR" and "On Banks and Banking of the Abkhaz SSR" passed by the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz SSR on February 28, 1991.

Ukrainian karbovanets
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_karbovanets

The karbovanets or karbovanet (Ukrainian: карбованець, translit. karbovanets, plural: карбованці, karbovantsi for 2-4, or карбованців, karbovantsiv for 5 or more), also known as kupon (Ukrainian: купон, translit. kupon, plural: купони, kupony) or coupon, has been a distinct unit of currency in Ukraine during three separate periods of the 20th century. It is also a predecessor currency of today's Ukrainian hryvnia.

Coins of the Ukrainian hryvnia - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Ukrainian_hryvnia

Coins of the Ukrainian hryvnia were first minted in 1992. Coins were first struck in 1992 for the new currency but were not introduced until September 1996. Initially coins valued between 1 and 50 kopecks were issued. In March 1997, 1 hryvnia coins were added; they are however rarely seen in circulation. The note of the same value is far more commonly used. Since 2004 several commemorative 1 hryvnia coins have been struck. New coins have been produced annually since then and they make up a valuable aspect of the Ukrainian currency system. Today, circulating coins exist in denominations of 1 kopiyka (i.e. or ₴0.01), 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 kopiyok, ₴1.00 and ₴2.00.

Banknotes of the Ukrainian hryvnia - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banknotes_of_the_Ukrainian_hryvnia

Banknotes of Ukrainian hryvnia are the banknotes or bills (in common lexicon) of Ukraine, denominated in Ukrainian hryvnias (UAH, ₴). Currently, they are issued in denominations of ₴1, ₴2, ₴5, ₴10, ₴20, ₴50, ₴100, ₴200, ₴500. All current notes are issued by the National Bank of Ukraine, which released its first series of notes in 1991. The current series of hryvnia banknotes were introduced into circulation between 2004 and 2006. Banknotes issued in Ukraine can be viewed at the Currency Museum of the National Bank of Ukraine in Kiev.

Canadian Bank Note Company
http://www.cbnco.com/

Canadian Bank Note dates back to 1897, when it started out as Canada’s trusted security printer. Today, we apply the highest standards to the design, development and integration of secure, leading-edge technology for governments across the globe. Together, we have deployed complex solutions that secure borders, protect national currencies and generate revenue for government social initiatives.

Canadian Bank Note Company - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_Bank_Note_Company

The Canadian Bank Note Company (CBNC) is a Canadian security printing company. It is best known for holding the contract with the Bank of Canada to supply it with Canada's banknotes. The company's other clients include private businesses, national and sub-national governments, central banks, and postal services from around the world. In addition to bank notes, the company produces passports, driver's licences, birth certificates, postage stamps, coupons, and many other security-conscious document-related products. It also prints and provides document reading systems for identification cards, lottery tickets, stamps, and bank notes.

Нацiональний банк України (National Bank of Ukraine)
https://www.bank.gov.ua/

The National Bank of Ukraine is the central bank of Ukraine, a special central body of the state administration, whose legal status, objectives, functions, powers and principles for organization are determined by the Constitution of Ukraine, Law of Ukraine "On the National Bank of Ukraine" and other laws of Ukraine.

According to the Constitution of Ukraine, the main function of the National Bank is to ensure stability of the monetary unit of Ukraine. When exercising its main function the National Bank shall proceed from the priority of achievement and retention of the price stability in the country. The National Bank shall within its terms of reference promote the banking system stability and sustainability of the economic growth and second the economic policy of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.

National Bank of Ukraine - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Bank_of_Ukraine

National Bank of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Національний банк України) or NBU (Ukrainian: НБУ) is the central bank of Ukraine - a government body responsible for unified state policy in the field of country's monetary circulation, including strengthening of national currency unit - hryvnia. It regulates and supervises activities, functions and legal status of government and commercial banks based on principles of the Constitution of Ukraine and the law of Ukraine "About the National Bank of Ukraine".

Ukrainian hryvnia - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_hryvnia

The hryvnia, sometimes hryvnya (Ukrainian: гривня, abbr.: грн (hrn in the Latin alphabet)); sign: ₴, code: UAH), has been the national currency of Ukraine since 2 September 1996. The hryvnia is subdivided into 100 kopiyky. It is named after a measure of weight used in medieval Kievan Rus'.

Coins of Malta
http://coinsofmalta.com

This site features images and history of all the coins in John Gatt's collection, which includes coins from the Roman period when Malta and Gozo were called Melita and Gaulos, and coins of the Knights of Malta, that were minted in Malta between 1530 and 1798.

AJW Coins
http://www.ajw-coins.com/

Established in 2011 and based in Taunton Deane, Somerset, UK; trading mainly in British milled coins but can also stock and source others. AJW Coins also offers a full valuation service for insurance or probate purposes.

James Butler (artist) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Butler_(artist)

James Walter Butler MBE RA (born 25 July 1931 in London) is a British sculptor.

James Butler - Historical Royal Mint Artists | The Royal Mint Museum
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/history/people/artists/james-butler/index.html

A professional sculptor, James Butler MBE RA designed the 2004-dated 50p celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of the first four-minute mile by Roger Bannister and the 2005-dated crown commemorating the bicentenary of Lord Nelson's death at the Battle of Trafalgar. He also designed the new Great Seal of the Realm adopted in July 2001 and still in use today.

Mary Milner Dickens - Historical Royal Mint Artists | The Royal Mint Museum
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/history/people/artists/mary-milner-dickens/index.html

The first coin design by sculptor Mary Milner Dickens was the 50p of 1992-1993 celebrating the United Kingdom’s presidency of the European Council of Ministers and the completion of the Single Market. Her characteristically thoughtful designs were also chosen for the 50p of 2000 commemorating the 150th anniversary of the Public Libraries Act, the crown of 2001 marking the centenary of the death of Queen Victoria and the 50p of 2003 for the centenary of the foundation of the Women’s Social and Political Union. Medal commissions include the emotive Battle of Britain 50th anniversary medal of 1990 and the Royal Mint’s Fleur de Coin Club medal issued in 1994.

Christopher Ironside - Historical Royal Mint Artists | The Royal Mint Museum
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/history/people/artists/christopher-ironside/index.html

Having won a public competition, Christopher Ironside prepared the reverse designs for all six new denominations, 50p to halfpenny, introduced at the time of decimalisation and for which he was awarded an OBE in 1971. Making their first appearance in 1968, when 5p and 10p coins were issued alongside shillings and florins, the Ironside designs remained in use for 40 years – until the new designs by Matthew Dent were introduced in 2008.

Arnold Machin - Historical Royal Mint Artists | The Royal Mint Museum
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/history/people/artists/arnold-machin/index.html

Arnold Machin designed the royal portrait which featured on United Kingdom decimal coins from 1968 to 1984. The reverse of the crown issued in 1972 to mark the Silver Wedding of the Queen and Prince Philip was also his work, as were the obverse and reverse of the Silver Jubilee crown of 1977. In addition, he designed the royal portrait which has appeared on definitive British stamps since 1967.

Humphrey Paget - Historical Royal Mint Artists | The Royal Mint Museum
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/history/people/artists/humphrey-paget/index.html

One of the best remembered designs of the pre-decimal coinage was the old sailing ship on the halfpenny. Based on Francis Drake’s Golden Hind, it was the work of one of the most prolific coin designers of the 20th century.

William Wyon - Historical Royal Mint Artists | The Royal Mint Museum
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/history/people/artists/william-wyon/index.html

If the many thousands of coin collectors in the United Kingdom were asked to nominate the three finest engravers ever to produce designs for the coinage of Britain it is likely that William Wyon would find a place in everyone’s list.

Benedetto Pistrucci - Historical Royal Mint Artists | The Royal Mint Museum
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/history/people/artists/benedetto-pistrucci/index.html

The association of Benedetto Pistrucci with the Royal Mint began soon after the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. Arguably the most mercurial and temperamental engraver ever to work at the Royal Mint, Pistrucci had been born in Rome in 1783 and had established for himself a considerable reputation as a gem engraver. He had been in France during the final days of Napoleon’s regime and it may well be that William Wellesley Pole, the Master of the Royal Mint, was among those who tempted him to come to England.

Classical Numismatic Group
https://www.cngcoins.com/

Since 1975, Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CNG) have dedicated themselves to serving the needs of their customers in the fields of ancient, medieval and British numismatics. They aim to help you build your collection at reasonable prices, to supply the books that enable you to increase your knowledge and understanding, and - when the time comes - to help you sell individual items or your entire collection.

NumisBids
https://www.numisbids.com/

NumisBids was created to serve the needs of collectors. Its mission is to help collectors find coins that interest them in auctions offered by the world's top numismatic dealers.

Marc R. Breitsprecher
https://mrbcoins.com/

Coin dealer in Fort Worth, TX (US) who offers a large selection of interesting ancient coins at fair prices.

Surinamese guilder - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surinamese_guilder

The guilder (Dutch: gulden; ISO 4217 code: SRG) was the currency of Suriname until 2004, when it was replaced by the Surinamese dollar. It was divided into 100 cents. Until the 1940s, the plural in Dutch was cents, with centen appearing on some early paper money, but after the 1940s the Dutch plural became cent.

Surinamese dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surinamese_dollar

The Surinamese dollar (ISO 4217 code SRD) has been the currency of Suriname since 2004. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively Sr$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents.

Monégasque franc - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monégasque_franc

The franc (ISO 4217: MCF) was the official currency of the Principality of Monaco until 1995 (de facto, 1996 de jure), when it changed to the French Franc. The franc was subdivided into 100 centimes or 10 décimes. The Monégasque franc circulated alongside the French franc with the same value. Like the French franc, the Monégasque franc was revalued in 1960 at a rate of 100 old francs = 1 new franc. The official euro-to-franc exchange rate was MCF 6.55957 to EUR 1.

Today, Monégasque coins have only numismatic value, including the fleurs de coins, or proof-like coins. The period for exchange of the coins for euros has expired.

The Monégasque franc was legal tender in Monaco, France and Andorra.

Monégasque euro coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monégasque_euro_coins

Monégasque euro coins feature two separate designs for the first two series of coins, and also two separate designs for the €1 and €2 coins for the first series. All the coins are inscribed with the word "Monaco" and the twelve stars of Europe. The Monégasque euro coins are minted by the Monnaie de Paris (Paris Mint).

Japanese government-issued currency in the Dutch East Indies - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_government-issued_currency_in_the_Dutch_East_Indies

The Netherlands Indies gulden, later the Netherlands Indies roepiah, was the currency issued by the Japanese occupiers in the Dutch East Indies between 1942 and 1945. It was subdivided into 100 sen and replaced the gulden at par.

Stiver - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stiver

The word stiver is derived from the Dutch Stuiver. It was a currency denomination in use in Ceylon from 1801 until 1821. It was also a denomination that formed part of the currency system of Demerara-Essequibo (later British Guiana, now Guyana). A stiver had a value of one sixth of a shilling.

Stuiver - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stuiver

The stuiver was a pre-decimal coin used in the Netherlands. It was worth 16 penning or 8 duit. Twenty stuivers equalled a guilder. It circulated until the Napoleonic Wars. After the conflict, the Netherlands decimalised its guilder into 100 cents. Two stuivers equalled a dubbeltje - the ten cent coin.

Dime (United States coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dime_(United_States_coin)

The dime, in U.S. usage, is a ten-cent coin, one tenth of a United States dollar, labeled formally as "one dime". The denomination was first authorized by the Coinage Act of 1792. The dime is the smallest in diameter and is the thinnest of all U.S. coins currently minted for circulation, being .705 inches (17.91 mm) in diameter and .053 inches (1.35 mm) in thickness. The obverse of the coin depicts the profile of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the reverse boasts an olive branch, a torch, and an oak branch, from left to right respectively. As of 2011, the dime coin cost 5.65 cents to produce.

Dubbeltje - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dubbeltje

A dubbeltje is a small former Dutch coin, originally made of silver, with a value of a tenth of a Dutch guilder. The 10-euro-cent coin is currently also called a dubbeltje in the Netherlands.

The name "dubbeltje" is the diminutive form of the Dutch word "dubbel" (Dutch for "double") because it was worth two stuivers. When the decimal system came to the Netherlands (about 1800) the 10-cent coin was named a "dubbeltje". Before the euro came, the dubbeltje was the world's smallest coin in use - it weighed 1.5 grams. Formerly in the Netherlands the silver stuiver (0.685 gram) and the halfje (1.25 grams) were smaller.

Netherlands Indies gulden - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netherlands_Indies_gulden

The gulden was the unit of account of the Dutch East Indies from 1602 under the United East India Company (Dutch: Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie; VOC), following Dutch practice first adopted in the 15th century (gulden coins were not minted in the Netherlands between 1558 and 1681 and none circulated in the Indies until a century later). A variety of Dutch, Spanish and Asian coins were in official and common usage. After the collapse of the VOC at the end of the 18th century, control of the islands reverted to the Dutch government, which issued silver 'Netherlands Indies' gulden and fractional silver and copper coins until Indonesian independence in 1948.

Netherlands Antillean guilder - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netherlands_Antillean_guilder

The Netherlands Antillean guilder (Dutch: gulden) is the currency of Curaçao and Sint Maarten, which until 2010 formed the Netherlands Antilles along with Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius. It is subdivided into 100 cents (Dutch plural form: centen). The guilder was replaced by the US dollar on 1 January 2011 on Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius. On Curaçao and Sint Maarten, the Netherlands Antillean guilder was proposed to be replaced by a new currency, the Caribbean guilder, but this has been stalled indefinitely by negotiations over the establishment of a separate central bank for Curaçao.

Commemorative Coins - Central Bank of Curaçao and Sint Maarten
http://www.centralbank.cw/commemorative-coins

During the past years the Bank issued among others the following commemorative coins. For questions regarding this coins, please contact our currency department.

Coin Sets - Central Bank of Curaçao and Sint Maarten
http://www.centralbank.cw/coin-sets

This set contains the 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 cent, and the 1, 2½ and 5 guilder coins.

Coins - Central Bank of Curaçao and Sint Maarten
http://www.centralbank.cw/coins

The 1-cent coin is made of aluminum and has a diameter of 14 millimeters. This little coin weighs 0.7 grams. On the front side are the words ‘Netherlands Antilles’ and a double circle with a fruit-bearing orange branch. On the reverse side is the value of the coin ‘1c’ within a beaded edge with shells and the year in which the coin was minted. The coin has a milled edge. One hundred cents form a guilder.

Bank Notes - Central Bank of Curaçao and Sint Maarten
http://www.centralbank.cw/banknotes

The Centrale Bank van Curacao en Sint Maarten 1998 bank-note series is largely based on the well-received 'bird' series, which was brought into circulation in 1986.

The advancing counterfeiting technology prompted for an added number of security features. In this improved 1998 series, a number of new features have been introduced while trying to maintain - as much as possible - the original design.

Centrale Bank van Curaçao en Sint Maarten (Central Bank of Curaçao and Sint Maarten)
http://www.centralbank.cw/

The Bank’s most important objectives are to maintain the external stability of the Netherlands Antillean guilder (NAf.) and to promote the efficient functioning of the financial system in the Countries Curacao and St. Maarten. To realize these objectives, the Bank, as supervisory authority, has frequently recurred to credit control measures and/or to changing the discount rate.

Central Bank of Curaçao and Sint Maarten - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bank_of_Curaçao_and_Sint_Maarten

The Central Bank of Curaçao and Sint Maarten (Dutch: Centrale Bank van Curaçao en Sint Maarten, previously the Bank of the Netherlands Antilles) is the central bank for the Netherlands Antillean guilder and administers the monetary policy of Curaçao and Sint Maarten. The bank dates to 1828 making it the oldest central bank in the Americas.

Aruban florin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aruban_florin

The florin (sign: Afl.; code: AWG) is the currency of Aruba. It is subdivided into 100 cents. The florin was introduced in 1986, replacing the Netherlands Antillean guilder at par. Although the Aruban florin is pegged with $1.79 USD, the commonly used street value is at $1.75 USD.

Centrale Bank van Aruba: Commemorative Coins
http://www.cbaruba.org/cba/getPage.do?page=NOTES_AND_COINS_COMMEMORATIVE

During the past years the CBA issued, on behalf of the Government of Aruba, among others the following commemorative coins.

Centrale Bank van Aruba: Banknotes and Coins
http://www.cbaruba.org/cba/getPage.do?page=NOTES_AND_COINS_BANK_NOTES

When Aruba obtained its Status Aparte within the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1986, the florin, which was pegged to the U.S. dollar, became the official currency of the island. Pursuant to the Central Bank Ordinance, the Centrale Bank van Aruba was entrusted with the responsibility for the issuance of the florin bank notes. During the period 1986 to 1989, transitorial bank notes were issued by the Bank. In 1990 and 1993, new sets of florin bank notes were issued, which were designed by Mr. Evelino Fingal and printed at "Joh. Enschedé en Zonen" in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the Bank issues coins on behalf of the government. The coins are also designed by Mr. Fingal and minted by the "Nederlandse Munt N.V.". The copyright on Aruban banknotes is owned by the Centrale Bank van Aruba.

Central Bank of Aruba - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bank_of_Aruba

The Central Bank of Aruba (Dutch: Centrale Bank van Aruba) is the central bank in Aruba responsible for implementation of monetary policy of the Aruban florin.

Centrale Bank van Aruba
http://www.cbaruba.org/

The Centrale Bank van Aruba (the CBA) is a legal entity in itself within the public sector. Its main purpose is to maintain the internal and external value of the Aruban florin, and to promote the soundness and integrity of the financial system. The CBA is not a commercial banking institution.

Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan: Commemorative Bank Notes
https://www.rma.org.bt/commerativebanknotes.jsp

The Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan has issued ngultrum 100 denomination banknotes to commemorate the 13 October 2011 royal wedding of King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck and Queen Ashi Jetsun Pema wangchuck. The notes is available for sale.

Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan: Commemorative Coins
https://www.rma.org.bt/commerative_coins.jsp

Aside from circulation coins, the RMA also issues commemorative coins which are also legal tender. Commemorative coins are produced in limited quantities and are issued to commemorate special events or persons and also to cater to the collectors.

Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan: Coins in Circulation
https://www.rma.org.bt/coinsincirculationtp.jsp

Minting of Chetrum 10 & 5 has been discontinued, as per the recommendation of Board of Directors.

Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan: Old Banknotes
https://www.rma.org.bt/oldnotestp.jsp

Watermark: Running along the border of notes at the top and bottom showing part of the wording "Royal Monetary Authority.
Intaglio Printing: The name of the Issuing Authority ie Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan on the face of the note in Dzongkha and in English on the reverse, denomination in English and Dzongkha, guarantee and promise clause, RMA Chairman's signature are printed in intaglio i.e. in raised prints, which can be felt by touch. Fluorescence: Fluorescence fiber yellow which is not visible to naked eye but visible only under ultraviolet light.

Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan: Contemporary Circulation Banknotes
https://www.rma.org.bt/CONTEMPORARYCIRCULATIONBANKNOTEStp.jsp

Paper quality: 100% Cotton paper for the notes bearing the series no. 2006 and Hybrid substrate (cotton + Polymer) for the notes bearing series no. 2013.

Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan (RMA)
https://www.rma.org.bt/

The basic functions of the Royal Monetary Authority are to formulate and implement necessary monetary policy with a view to achieving and maintaining price stability; developing, regulating and supervising banking and financial system, including payments system, to support macro-economic objectives of the Royal government, bring in international best practices and to protect it against systemic risks and thereby enhance its credibility at the national and international levels.

Indian anna - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_anna

An anna was a currency unit formerly used in India and Pakistan, equal to 1/16 rupee. It was subdivided into 4 paisa or 12 pies (thus there were 64 paise in a rupee and 192 pies). The term belonged to the Muslim monetary system. The ānā was demonetised as a currency unit when India decimalised its currency in 1957, followed by Pakistan in 1961. It was replaced by the 5-paise coin, which was itself discontinued in 1994 and demonetised in 2011. Even today, though, a 50 paise coin is sometimes colloquially referred to as 8 ānās and a 25-paise coin as 4 ānās.

Gulf rupee - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_rupee

The Gulf rupee (Arabic: روبيه or روبيه خليجيه), also known as the Persian Gulf rupee, was a currency used in the countries of the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula between 1959 and 1966. It was issued by the Government of India and the Reserve Bank of India and was equivalent to the Indian rupee.

Central Bank of Bahrain
http://www.cbb.gov.bh/

The Central Bank of Bahrain ('CBB') is a public corporate entity established by the Central Bank of Bahrain and Financial Institutions Law 2006. It was created on 6th September 2006. The CBB is responsible for maintaining monetary and financial stability in the Kingdom of Bahrain. It is also the single integrated regulator of Bahrain's financial industry.

Central Bank of Bahrain - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bank_of_Bahrain

The Central Bank of Bahrain was established in 1973 as the Bahrain Monetary Agency, shortly after Bahrain gained its independence from the United Kingdom. As per Decree No. 64 of 2006 with respect to promulgating the Central Bank of Bahrain and Financial Institutions Law, the Bahrain Monetary Agency is now the Central Bank of Bahrain.

Bahraini dinar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahraini_dinar

The dinar (Arabic: دينار‎ Dīnār Baḥrēnī) (sign: .د.ب or BD; code: BHD) is the currency of Bahrain. It is divided into 1000 fils (فلس). The name dinar derives from the Roman denarius. The dinar was introduced in 1965, replacing the Gulf rupee at a rate of 10 rupees = 1 dinar. The Bahraini dinar is abbreviated .د.ب (Arabic) or BD (Latin). It is usually represented with three decimal places denoting the fils.

Coins of the Hawaiian dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Hawaiian_dollar

In 1847, the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, under the reign of King Kamehaheha III, issued its first official coinage - a large one-cent copper penny - to alleviate the chronic shortage of small denomination coins circulating in the Hawaiian Islands. The next and last official coinage of the Hawaiian Islands was minted in 1883, by King Kalākaua I; however during the intervening period, the changing needs of the Hawaiian Islands were met by circulating private-issued tokens and the coins of the United States of America.

Hawaiian dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawaiian_dollar

The dollar or dala was the currency of Hawaii between 1847 and 1898. It was equal to the United States dollar and was divided into 100 cents or keneta. Only sporadic issues were made, which circulated alongside United States currency.

Bolognino - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolognino

The Bolognino was a coin minted in Bologna and other cities of medieval Italy from the late 12th century to the 17th century.

Bank Negara Malaysia: Third Series of Malaysian Coins
http://www.bnm.gov.my/index.php?ch=en_commemorative_currency&pg=en_commemorative_currency_all&ac=256&lang=en

Bank Negara Malaysia issued commemorative coins to mark the Third Series of Malaysian coins which were circulated in early 2012. The commemorative coins issued were in denominations of 5 sen, 10 sen, 20 sen and 50 sen.

The coins series draws inspiration from distinctive features that define the nation's rich culture and heritage. The design motifs were crafted in the form of nature, flora and fauna and traditional handicraft from Malaysia.

Bank Negara Malaysia: Circulation Coinage
http://www.bnm.gov.my/index.php?lang=en&ch=en_circulation_currency&pg=en_circulation_coin

The ‘sulur kacang’ (pea tendrils) motif featured on the new 50 sen coin is popular among traditional woodcarvers and silversmiths.

Bank Negara Malaysia: Circulation Banknotes
http://www.bnm.gov.my/index.php?ch=en_circulation_currency&pg=en_circulation_banknotes&lang=en

The latest series of Malaysian banknotes draws its inspiration from elements which distinctively define the country's diverse culture, heritage and nature. Themed 'Distinctively Malaysia', the fourth series of Malaysian banknotes features traditional expressions in the art and craft, natural wonders, flora and fauna, economy and tradition.

Banco Central de Venezuela (Central Bank of Venezuela)
http://www.bcv.org.ve/

The Central Bank of Venezuela (Spanish: Banco Central de Venezuela, BCV) is the central bank of Venezuela. It maintains a fixed exchange rate for the Venezuelan bolívar.

Central Bank of Venezuela - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bank_of_Venezuela

The Central Bank of Venezuela (Spanish: Banco Central de Venezuela, BCV) is the central bank of Venezuela. It maintains a fixed exchange rate for the Venezuelan bolívar.

Currency of Spanish America - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Currency_of_Spanish_America

This article provides an outline of the currency of Spanish America (las Indias, the Indies) from Spanish colonization in the 15th century until Spanish American independencies in the 19th. This great realm was divided into the Viceroyalty of New Spain (capital: Mexico City), which came to include all Spanish territory north of Panama, the West Indies, Venezuela, and the Philippines, and the Viceroyalty of Peru (capital: Lima), which included Panama and all Spanish territory in South America except Venezuela. The monetary system of Spanish America, originally identical to that of Spain, soon diverged and took on a distinctive character of its own, which it passed on to the independent nations that followed after.

Currency of Venezuela - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Currency_of_Venezuela

This article provides a historical summary of the currency used in Venezuela since the end of the 18th century.

Hong Kong Dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hong_Kong_dollar

The Hong Kong dollar (Chinese: 港幣; Cantonese Yale: Góng bàih; lit. "Harbour Currency"; sign: HK$; code: HKD) is the official currency of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. It is subdivided into 100 cents. The Hong Kong Monetary Authority is the governmental currency board and also the de facto central bank for the Hong Kong dollar.

Under the licence from the Hong Kong Monetary Authority, three commercial banks are licensed to issue their own banknotes for general circulation in Hong Kong. The three commercial banks, HSBC, Bank of China and Standard Chartered issue their own designs of banknotes in denominations of HK$20, HK$50, HK$100, HK$500 and HK$1000, with all designs being similar to the other in the same denomination of banknote. However, the HK$10 banknote and all coins are issued by the Government of Hong Kong.

中国印钞造币总公司 - China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation
http://www.cbpm.cn/

China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation (CBPM), with a staff of nearly 20,000,is under the direct leadership of the People's Bank of China. Its 22 enterprises and one technical center are specialized in banknote printing, minting, banknote paper making, machinery of banknote printing and minting, credit cards, high-purity gold and silver refining, printing of value-added fax invoices, negotiable securities, banking vouchers, high-level anti-counterfeiting certificates. The corporation has a net asset of 66 billion Yuan.

China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China_Banknote_Printing_and_Minting_Corporation

China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation (CBPMC), (simplified Chinese: 中国印钞造币总公司; traditional Chinese: 中國印鈔造幣總公司; pinyin: Zhōngguó Yìnchāo Zàobì Zǒnggōngsī) is a state-owned corporation which carries out the minting of all renminbi coins and printing of renminbi banknotes for the People's Republic of China headquartered in Beijing.

Western Xia coinage - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Xia_coinage

The Western Xia Empire ruled over what what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of Ningxia, Gansu, eastern Qinghai, northern Shaanxi, northeastern Xinjiang, southwest Inner Mongolia, and southernmost Outer Mongolia from 1032 until 1227 when they were destroyed by the Mongols.

Coinage of Nepal - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coinage_of_Nepal

The earliest coin minted in today's territory of Nepal was in Shakya Mahajanapada which was along the India-Nepal border around 500 BCE . Shakya coins were an example of a coin invented in Indian subcontinent and continued to be used in Nepal alongside India for over 1500 years.

Bangladesh Bank
https://www.bb.org.bd/

Bangladesh Bank, the central bank and apex regulatory body for the country's monetary and financial system, was established in Dhaka as a body corporate vide the Bangladesh Bank Order, 1972 (P.O. No. 127 of 1972) with effect from 16th December, 1971. At present it has ten offices located at Motijheel, Sadarghat, Chittagong, Khulna, Bogra, Rajshahi, Sylhet, Barisal, Rangpur and Mymensingh in Bangladesh.

Bangladesh Bank - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangladesh_Bank

Bangladesh Bank (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংক) is the central bank of Bangladesh and is a member of the Asian Clearing Union.

The bank is active in developing green banking and financial inclusion policy and is an important member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion. Bangladesh Financial Intelligence Unit (BFIU), a department of Bangladesh Bank, has got the membership of Egmont Group.

Bangladesh Bank is the first central bank in the world to introduce a dedicated hotline (16236) for the general populace to complain any banking related problem. Moreover, the organisation is the first central bank in the world to issue a "Green Banking Policy". To acknowledge this contribution, then-governor Dr. Atiur Rahman was given the title 'Green Governor' at the 2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference, held at the Qatar National Convention Centre in Doha .

Paisa - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paisa

The paisa (Nepali/Hindi: पैसा, Urdu: پیسہ‎‎), poisha (Bengali: পয়সা) or baisa (Omani: بيسة) is a monetary unit in several countries. In India, Nepal and Pakistan, the paisa currently equals  1⁄100 of a rupee. In Bangladesh, the poisha equals  1⁄100 of a Bangladeshi taka. In Oman, the baisa equals  1⁄1000 of an Omani rial.

Bangladeshi taka - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangladeshi_taka

The Bangladeshi taka (Bengali: টাকা, sign: ৳ or Tk, code: BDT) is the currency of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. Issuance of banknotes ৳10 and larger is controlled by Bangladesh Bank, and for the ৳1, ৳2 and ৳5 banknotes, which are the responsibility of the Ministry of Finance of the government of Bangladesh. The most commonly used symbol for the taka is "৳" and "Tk", used on receipts while purchasing goods and services. ৳1 is subdivided into 100 poisha.

Dam (Indian coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dam_(Indian_coin)

A Dam was a small Indian copper coin. The coin was first introduced by Sher Shah Suri during his rule of India between 1540 and 1545, along with Mohur, the gold coin and Rupiya the silver coin Later on, the Mughal Emperors standardised the coin along with other silver (Rupiya) and gold (Mohur) coins in order to consolidate the monetary system across India.

Tibetan skar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan_skar

The Tibetan skar was a weight unit representing a 100th part of one srang or the 10th part of one sho (i.e. about 0.37 g). The term was also used to refer to monetary units in the first half of the 20th century when copper coins were issued by Tibet (now People's Republic of China) which had the denominations 1/2, 1, 2 and half, 5 and 7 and half skar. One unit is referred to as skar gang in Tibetan.

Tibetan srang - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan_srang

The srang (pronounced "sang"; in Tibetan often referred to as "dngul srang" i.e. "silver srang") was a currency of Tibet between 1909 and 1959. It circulated alongside the tangka until the 1950s. It was divided into 10 sho, each of 10 skar, with the tangka equal to 15 skar (1 srang = 6⅔ tangka).

Tibetan tangka - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan_tangka

The tangka (Tibetan: Tam or dngul Tam = silver tangka) was a currency of Tibet until 1941. It was subdivided into 15 skar or 1½ sho and, from 1909, it circulated alongside the srang, worth 10 sho.

Historical money of Tibet - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical_money_of_Tibet

The use of historical money in Tibet started in ancient times, when Tibet had no coined currency of its own. Bartering was common, gold was a medium of exchange, and shell money and stone beads were used for very small purchases. A few coins from other countries were also occasionally in use.

Coinage of Nepal - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coinage_of_Nepal

The earliest coin minted in today's territory of Nepal was in Shakya Mahajanapada which was along the India-Nepal border around 500 BCE . Shakya coins were an example of a coin invented in Indian subcontinent and continued to be used in Nepal alongside India for over 1500 years.

Nepalese mohar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepalese_mohar

The mohar was the currency of Kingdom of Nepal and parts of Kingdom of Videha from the second half of the 17th century until 1932. Silver and gold mohars were issued, each subdivided into 128 dams. Copper dams were also issued, together with copper paisa worth 4 copper dams. The values of the copper, silver and gold coinages relative to one another were not fixed until 1903. In that year, the silver mohar became the standard currency, divided into 50 paisa. It was replaced in 1932 by the rupee, also called the mohru(Moru), at a rate of 2 mohars = 1 rupee.

Nepalese rupee - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepalese_rupee

The Nepalese rupee (Nepali: रुपैयाँ, symbol: रु, Rs.; code: NPR) is the official currency of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. The Nepalese rupee is subdivided into 100 paisa. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Nepal Rastra Bank, the central bank of Nepal. The Nepalese rupee was introduced in 1932, when it replaced the Nepalese mohar at the rate 2:1.

Prior to 1994, the Nepalese rupee (रु) was pegged to the Indian rupee (₹) at the rate रु1.45 = ₹1, however since then it has been pegged at the rate रु1.60 = ₹1 currently.

Staatsbank - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staatsbank

The State Bank of the GDR (German: Staatsbank der DDR) was the central bank of East Germany. It was established on 1 January 1968 from the Deutsche Notenbank and took over the majority of the same tasks.

The State Bank of the GDR was responsible for the administration of the internal account settlement and banking system, the issue of money and control of money circulation within the GDR, administration of the exchange control regulations and settlement of foreign currency accounts with overseas companies and governments (Zahlungsverkehr by transfer). In addition, the bank bought and sold financial securities and administered the purchase, sale and holding of precious metals for foreign exchange purposes.

East German mark - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_German_mark

The East German mark, commonly called the eastern mark (Ostmark) in West Germany and after the reunification, in East Germany only Mark, was the currency of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Its ISO 4217 currency code was DDM. The currency was known officially as the Deutsche Mark from 1948 to 1964, Mark der Deutschen Notenbank from 1964 to 1967, and from 1968 to 1990 as the Mark der DDR (Mark of the GDR); it was referred to colloquially as simply the Mark. It was divided into 100 Pfennig (Pf).

Deutsche Rentenbank - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deutsche_Rentenbank

The Deutschen Rentenbank was a bank established in Germany by a regulation of 15 October 1923 as a state-owned monetary authority authorised to issue Rentenmark currency notes following the collapse of the private Reichsbank's Papiermark currency. The Rentenbank reserves consisted of mortgages against leading industrial properties and the German public accepted these reserves as being sound. This meant that the monetary crisis caused by the public's lack of confidence in the currency of the Reichsbank waned and the hyperinflation ceased. The Rentenmarks continued to be accepted as currency in Germany until 1947.

German Rentenmark - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Rentenmark

The Rentenmark (RM) was a currency issued on 15 October 1923 to stop the hyperinflation of 1922 and 1923 in Weimar Germany. It was subdivided into 100 Rentenpfennig.

German Papiermark - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Papiermark

The name Papiermark (English: "paper mark", officially just Mark, sign: ℳ) is applied to the German currency from 4 August 1914 when the link between the Goldmark and gold was abandoned, due to the outbreak of World War I. In particular, the name is used for the banknotes issued during the hyperinflation in Germany of 1922 and especially 1923.

Deutsche Bundesbank
http://www.bundesbank.de/

The Deutsche Bundesbank was established as the central bank of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1957. The Central Office is located in Frankfurt am Main. There are Regional Offices in nine German cities. They in turn have 35 branches.

Deutsche Bundesbank - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deutsche_Bundesbank

The Deutsche Bundesbank is the central bank of the Federal Republic of Germany and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Due to its strength and former size, the Bundesbank is the most influential member of the ESCB. Both the Bundesbank and the European Central Bank (ECB) are located in Frankfurt, Germany. It is sometimes referred to as "Buba" for Bundesbank, while its official abbreviation is BBk.

Deutsche Mark - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deutsche_Mark

The Deutsche Mark (German mark), abbreviated "DM", was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002. It was first issued under Allied occupation in 1948 to replace the Reichsmark, and served as the Federal Republic of Germany's official currency from its founding the following year until the adoption of the euro. In English, but not in German, it is commonly called the "Deutschmark".

South German gulden - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_German_gulden

The Gulden was the currency of the states of southern Germany between 1754 and 1873. These states included Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Frankfurt and Hohenzollern. This specific Gulden was based on the Gulden or florin used in the Holy Roman Empire during the Late Middle Ages and Early Modern period.

Danzig gulden - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danzig_gulden

The gulden was the currency of the Free City of Danzig between 1923 and 1939. It was divided into 100 pfennige.

Bosnia and Herzegovina dinar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bosnia_and_Herzegovina_dinar

The Bosnia and Herzegovina dinar was the independent currency of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1998.

The Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina - KM Banknotes
http://cbbh.ba/Content/Read/19

The monetary unit of Bosnia and Herzegovina is “convertible mark” (KM).

The Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina - KM Coins
http://cbbh.ba/Content/Read/1072

The monetary unit of Bosnia and Herzegovina is “convertible mark” (KM).

The Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina
http://cbbh.ba/

The Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina was established in accordance with the Law adopted at the Parliament of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 20 June 1997. The Central Bank started its operation on 11 August 1997.

Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bank_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina

The Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: Centralna banka Bosne i Hercegovine / Централна банка Босне и Херцеговине) is the central bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in the capital city, Sarajevo.

Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bosnia_and_Herzegovina_convertible_mark

The Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian: konvertibilna marka, Cyrillic: конвертибилна марка) is the currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is divided into 100 pfenigs or fenings (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian: pfenig/fening; Cyrillic: пфениг/фенинг), and locally abbreviated KM.

Mark (currency) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_(currency)

The mark was a currency or unit of account in many nations. It is named for the mark unit of weight. The word mark comes from a merging of three Teutonic/Germanic words, Latinised in 9th century post-classical Latin as marca, marcha, marha or marcus. It was a measure of weight mainly for gold and silver, commonly used throughout Western Europe and often equivalent to eight ounces. Considerable variations, however, occurred throughout the Middle Ages.

Pfennig - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pfennig

The pfennig; pl. pfennigs or pfennige is a former German coin or note, which was official currency from the 9th century until the introduction of the euro in 2002. While a valuable coin during the Middle Ages, it lost its value through the years and was the minor coin of the Mark currencies in the German Reich, West and East Germany, and the reunified Germany until the introduction of the euro. Pfennig was also the name of the subunit of the Danzig mark (1922–1923) and the Danzig gulden (1923–1939) in the Free City of Danzig (modern Gdańsk, Poland).

Piedmontese scudo - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piedmontese_scudo

The scudo (plural: scudi) was the currency of the Piedmont and the other mainland parts of the Savoyard Kingdom of Sardinia until 1816. It was subdivided into 6 lire (singular: lira), each of 20 soldi or 240 denari. The doppia was worth 2 scudi. During the Subalpine Republic and French occupation (1800–1814), the French franc circulated, supplemented by a small number of locally produced coins. The scudo was replaced by the Sardinian lira.

Sardinian lira - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sardinian_lira

The lira (plural lire) was the currency of the Kingdom of Sardinia between August 6, 1816 and March 17, 1861. It was subdivided into 100 centesimi (singular centesimo) and was equal in value to the French franc (4.5 grams of silver), which had replaced the Piedmontese shield by 1801. Being no more than the Savoyard version of the franc, it could circulate also in France, as the French coins could circulate in Piedmont. It was replaced at par by the Italian lira. As the great part of the 19th century currencies, it was not affected by significant episodes of inflation during all its existence.

Lombardo-Venetian pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lombardo-Venetian_pound

The pound (Italian: lira) was the currency of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia.

The pound was made of 4.33 grams of silver (with 9/10 of purity), correspondently to the German standards. Six pounds were called shield (scudo) and were equivalent to the Austrian Conventionsthaler. Each pound was divided into 100 cents (centesimi). All currencies were a re-establishment of the pounds used in the Duchy of Milan until 1796, whereas they had no relation with former defunct Venetian pound. Coins were minted in Milan, Venice and Vienna.

Lombardo-Venetian florin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lombardo-Venetian_florin

The florin was the currency of Lombardy-Venetia (reduced to the sole Venetia three years before) between 1862 and 1866. It replaced the pound at a rate of 1 florin = 3 pounds. The florin was equivalent to the Austro-Hungarian gulden (also called the florin). Although it was subdivided into 100 soldi rather than 100 Kreuzer, Austrian coins circulated in Venetia. The only coins issued specifically for Venetia were copper  1⁄2 and 1 soldo pieces. The name soldo was chosen due to the equivalence of the predecimal Kreuzer and soldo, both worth  1⁄120 of a Conventionsthaler.

Tuscan pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuscan_pound

The pound (Italian: lira) was the distinct currency of Tuscany until the annexation by Napoleonic France in 1807. After that year, it unofficially remained in circulation thanks to its silver value until the restoration of Tuscan independence in 1814. It was finally abolished in 1826.

It was subdivided into 20 shillings (Italian: soldo), each of 3 quattrini (singular: quattrino) or 12 pennies (Italian: denaro), with the paolo worth 40 quattrini and the francescone worth 10 paoli. It was replaced by the florin, worth 100 quattrini or  1 2⁄3 pounds. In 1803 the pound contained 3.66 grams of silver.

Tuscan florin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuscan_florin

The Tuscan florin (Italian: fiorino) was the currency of Tuscany between 1826 and 1859. It was subdivided into 100 quattrini (singular: quattrino), a local currency made by four pennies (from the Latin: quater denarii). There was an additional denomination called the paolo, worth 40 quattrini, in circulation.

History of coins in Italy - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_coins_in_Italy

Italy has a long history of different coinage types, which spans thousands of years. Italy has been influential at a coinage point of view: the florin, one of the most used coinage types in European history, was struck in Florence in the 13th century. Since Italy has been for centuries divided into many city-states, they all had different coinage systems, but when the country became unified in 1861, the Italian lira came into place, and was used until 2002. Today, Italy adopts the euro currency.

Florin (Italian coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florin_(Italian_coin)

The Florentine florin was a coin struck from 1252 to 1533 with no significant change in its design or metal content standard during that time. It had 54 grains of nominally pure or 'fine' gold (3.5 grams, 0.1125 troy ounce) worth approximately 140 modern US dollars. The "fiorino d'oro" of the Republic of Florence was the first European gold coin struck in sufficient quantities to play a significant commercial role since the seventh century. As many Florentine banks were international supercompanies with branches across Europe, the florin quickly became the dominant trade coin of Western Europe for large-scale transactions, replacing silver bars in multiples of the mark (a weight unit equal to eight troy ounces).

Luxembourgian livre - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luxembourgian_livre

The livre was the currency of Luxembourg until 1795. It was subdivided into 20 sols, each of 4 liards. In the late 18th century, coins were issued in denominations of ½ and 2 liards, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 72 sols, with the lower three denominations in copper, the highest minted in silver and the others in billon. The last issues of 1795 were 1 sol coins minted during the siege of Luxembourg.

Banque Centrale du Luxembourg (Central Bank of Luxembourg)
http://www.bcl.lu/

The Banque centrale du Luxembourg (BCL) is the monetary authority of Luxembourg and a member of the Eurosystem and the European System of Central Banks.

Central Bank of Luxembourg - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bank_of_Luxembourg

The Central Bank of Luxembourg (French: Banque Centrale du Luxembourg, BCL) was founded in 1998, at the same time the European Central Bank was created, by laws dated 22 April and 23 December. It is part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).

Luxembourgish euro coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luxembourgish_euro_coins

Luxembourgish euro coins feature three different designs, though they all contain the portrait or effigy of Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg. The designs, by Yvette Gastauer-Claire, also contain the 12 stars of the EU flag, the year of imprint and the name of the country in the Luxembourgish language: Lëtzebuerg. Luxembourg does not mint its own coins. The Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt (Royal Dutch Mint), in Utrecht, the Netherlands, produced Luxembourgish coins dated 2002–2004 and again from 2009 onward. Mint of Finland, in Helsinki, Finland, produced the coins dated 2005–2006. Monnaie de Paris (Mint of Paris), in Pessac, France, produced coins dated 2007-2008.

Luxembourgish franc - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luxembourgish_franc

The Luxembourgish franc (more commonly Luxembourg Franc or LUF, French: franc luxembourgeois, Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerger Frang, German: Luxemburger Franken) was the currency of Luxembourg between 1854 and 1999 (except during the period 1941-44). The franc remained in circulation until 2002, when it was replaced by the euro. During the period 1999-2002, the franc was officially a subdivision of the euro (1 euro = 40.3399 francs) but the euro did not circulate. Under the principle of "no obligation and no prohibition", financial transactions could be conducted in euros and francs, but physical payments could only be made in francs, as euro notes and coins were not available yet.

The franc was subdivided into 100 centimes.

National Bank of Belgium - Banknotes
https://www.nbb.be/en/notes-and-coins/banknotes

Euro banknotes exist in seven different denominations: €5, €10, €20, €50, €100, €200 and €500.

National Bank of Belgium - Coins
https://www.nbb.be/en/notes-and-coins/coins

There are eight euro coins, worth 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents, € 1 and € 2. All have a European side and a national side, but can be used anywhere, throughout the euro area countries.

National Bank of Belgium
https://www.nbb.be/

The National Bank of Belgium has been Belgium's central bank since 1850. It performs tasks in the general interest at both national and international level.

National Bank of Belgium - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Bank_of_Belgium

The National Bank of Belgium (NBB; Dutch: Nationale Bank van België, French: Banque nationale de Belgique, German: Belgische Nationalbank) has been the central bank of Belgium since 1850. The National Bank of Belgium was established with 100% private capital by a law of 5 May 1850 as a Société Anonyme (SA). It is a member of the European System of Central Banks.

Belgian euro coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belgian_euro_coins

Belgian euro coins feature only a single design for all eight coins: the portrait or effigy of the incumbent King of the Belgians. Previously, all Belgian euros depicted King Albert II and his royal monogram. Current coins depict King Philippe. Also part of the design by Jan Alfons Keustermans are the 12 stars of the EU and the year of imprint.

Euro gold and silver commemorative coins (Belgium) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euro_gold_and_silver_commemorative_coins_(Belgium)

Euro gold and silver commemorative coins are special euro coins minted and issued by member states of the Eurozone, mainly in gold and silver, although other precious metals are also used in rare occasions. Belgium was one of the first twelve countries in the Eurozone that introduced the euro (€) on 1 January 2002. Since then, the Belgian Royal Mint have been minting both normal issues of Belgian euro coins, which are intended for circulation, and commemorative euro coins in gold and silver.

Identifying marks on euro coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Identifying_marks_on_euro_coins

Before the introduction of the euro, the current eurozone members issued their own individual national coinage, most of which featured mint marks, privy marks and/or mint master marks. These marks have been continued as a part of the national designs of the euro coins, as well. This article serves to list the information about the various types of identifying marks on euro coins, including engraver and designer initials and the unique edge inscriptions found on the €2 coins.

Italian euro coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_euro_coins

Italian euro coins have a design unique to each denomination, though there is a common theme of famous Italian works of art from one of Italy's renowned artists. Each coin is designed by a different designer, from the 1 cent to the 2 euro coin they are: Eugenio Driutti, Luciana De Simoni, Ettore Lorenzo Frapiccini, Claudia Momoni, Maria Angela Cassol, Roberto Mauri, Laura Cretara and Maria Carmela Colaneri. All designs feature the 12 stars of the EU, the year of imprint, the overlapping letters "RI" for Repubblica Italiana (Italian Republic) and the letter R for Rome. There are no Italian euro coins dated earlier than 2002, even though they were certainly minted earlier, as they were first distributed to the public in December 2001.

Venetian lira - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venetian_lira

The lira (plural lire) was the distinct currency of Venice until 1807. It was subdivided into 20 soldi, each of 12 denari. The ducato was equal to 124 soldi, whilst the tallero (also known as the zecchino) was equal to 7 lire. The lira of Napoleon's Kingdom of Italy replaced the Venetian lira in 1807.

2 euro commemorative coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2_euro_commemorative_coins

€2 commemorative coins are special euro coins minted and issued by member states of the eurozone since 2004 as legal tender in all eurozone member states. Only the national obverse sides of the coins differ; the common reverse sides do not. The coins typically commemorate the anniversaries of historical events or draw attention to current events of special importance. In 2007, 2009, 2012 and 2015, there were common commemorative coins with only different national inscriptions. Up to 2015, two hundred and thirty variations of €2 commemorative coins have been minted – six in 2004, eight in 2005, seven in 2006, twenty in 2007 (including thirteen versions of the common issue), ten in 2008, twenty-five in 2009 (including sixteen versions of the common issue), twelve in 2010, sixteen in 2011, thirty in 2012 (including seventeen versions of the common issue), twenty-three in 2013, twenty-six in 2014 and forty-seven in 2015 (including nineteen versions of the common issue). Finland, Italy, Luxembourg, San Marino and the Vatican City are the only countries to have released at least one commemorative coin every year.

Commemorative coins of San Marino - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commemorative_coins_of_San_Marino

San Marino is an enclave completely within Italy. With little or no resources, the tiny nation has made income selling stamps and coins to tourists. From 1950 through the adoption of the euro in 1999 (by law, 2002 de facto), legal tender coins with dozens of ever changing designs have been produced in abundance by the Italian mint in Rome. These coins have been for the most part numismatically worthless, except for some silver and gold commemoratives.

Azienda Autonoma di Stato Filatelica e Numismatica (Republic of San Marino)
http://www.aasfn.sm/

The origins of the Republic’s postal history are as far off as they are illustrious. It all began with a measure adopted by the Prince and Sovereign Council on the 7th of October 1607, which nominated a Postman whose duty was to go to Rimini to pick up incoming mail and leave any to be forwarded, in order to guarantee the population of San Marino contact with the outside world.

Euro gold and silver commemorative coins (San Marino) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euro_gold_and_silver_commemorative_coins_(San_Marino)

This article covers euro gold and silver commemorative coins issued by Azienda Autonoma Di Stato Filatelica E Numismatica. It also covers rare cases of collectors coins (coins not planned for normal circulation) minted using other precious metals. It does not cover either the San Marino €2 commemorative coins or the Sammarinese scudo commemorative coins.

Sammarinese euro coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sammarinese_euro_coins

Sammarinese euro coins feature separate designs for every coin. All the coins are inscribed with the words "San Marino" and the twelve stars of the EU. The Sammarinese euro coins are minted by Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato (IPZS), in Rome, Italy.

Vatican lira - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vatican_lira

The lira (plural lire) was the currency of the Vatican City between 1929 and 2002.

Philatelic and Numismatic Office - Vatican City State
http://www.vaticanstate.va/content/vaticanstate/en/servizi/ufficio-filatelico-e-numismatico.html

The Vatican City has the possibility to issue a certain quantity of coins which has been arranged by an agreement with Italy and the European community.

Every year some commemorative coins are also releases: generally one 2 Euro coin, two silver coins of 5 and 10 Euros, two gold coins of 20 and 50 euros and since 2008 one 100 Euro Gold coin.

Philatelic and Numismatic Office of the Vatican City State - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philatelic_and_Numismatic_Office_of_the_Vatican_City_State

The Philatelic and Numismatic Office of the Vatican City State (Italian: Ufficio Filatelico e Numismatico) is responsible for issuing Vatican postal stamps and Vatican coins.

While Vatican stamps may only be used within the Vatican City State and the quantity of euro coins is limited by treaty with Italy (the total value of all coins minted in 2002 was restricted to €310,400), Vatican coins and stamps serve as an important sign of Vatican sovereignty, and their scarcity and design makes them popular with collectors.

Vatican euro coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vatican_euro_coins

Vatican euro coins are issued by the Philatelic and Numismatic Office of the Vatican City State and minted by Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato (IPZS), in Rome, Italy. The euro is the official currency of the Vatican City, although the Vatican is not a member of the Eurozone or the European Union.

Papal lira - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papal_lira

The Papal lira was the currency of the Papal States between 1866 and 1870.

Parman lira - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parman_lira

The lira (plural: lire) was the distinct currency of Parma before 1802 and again from 1815 to 1859.

Austro-Hungarian krone - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austro-Hungarian_krone

The Krone or korona (German: Krone, Hungarian: korona, Serbo-Croatian: kruna, Czech and Slovak: koruna) was the official currency of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1892 (when it replaced the gulden, forint, florén or zlatka as part of the adoption of the gold standard) until the dissolution of the empire in 1918. The subunit was one hundredth of the main unit, and was called a Heller in the Austrian and a fillér (or halier in Slovak and haléř in Czech) in the Hungarian part of the Empire.

Thaler - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thaler

The thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years. Its name lives on in the many currencies called dollar and, until recently, also in the Slovenian tolar.

To begin with, the name "thaler" was used as an abbreviation of "Joachimsthaler", a coin type from the town of Joachimsthal in the Kingdom of Bohemia (now the Czech Republic), where there were silver mines and the first such coins were minted in 1518. This original Bohemian thaler carried a lion, from the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Bohemia, on its reverse side.

Paper money of the Austro-Hungarian gulden - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paper_money_of_the_Austro-Hungarian_gulden

Austro-Hungarian gulden paper money first appeared after 1881. The inscriptions on the banknotes were in German on the one side and in Hungarian on the other, however, the design for both sides was similar. The banknotes were issued by the Austro-Hungarian Bank and their value was guaranteed with gold cover as enacted in the Banking Act. State notes were issued by the treasury and had no such cover. The banknotes and state notes took part equally in the circulation.

Coins of the Austro-Hungarian gulden - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Austro-Hungarian_gulden

Austro-Hungarian gulden coins were minted following the Ausgleich with different designs for the two parts of the empire.

Reichsthaler - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reichsthaler

The Reichsthaler (German: [ˈʁaɪçsˌtaːlɐ]) was a standard Thaler of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1566 by the Leipzig convention. It was also the name of a unit of account in northern Germany and of a silver coin issued by Prussia.

Austro-Hungarian gulden - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austro-Hungarian_gulden

The Gulden or forint (German: Gulden, Hungarian: forint, Croatian: forinta/florin, Czech: zlatý) was the currency of the lands of the House of Habsburg between 1754 and 1892 (known as the Austrian Empire from 1804 to 1867 and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy after 1867), when it was replaced by the Krone/korona as part of the introduction of the gold standard. In Austria, the Gulden was initially divided into 60 Kreuzer, and in Hungary, the forint was divided into 60 krajczár. The currency was decimalized in 1857, using the same names for the unit and subunit.

Austrian krone - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austrian_krone

The Krone (pl. Kronen) was the currency of Austria (then called Deutschösterreich) and Liechtenstein after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1919) until the introduction of the Schilling (1925) and the Franken, respectively.

Austrian schilling - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austrian_schilling

The Schilling (German: Österreichischer Schilling) was the currency of Austria from 1925 to 1938 and from 1945 to 1999, and the circulating currency until 2002. The euro was introduced at a fixed parity of €1 = 13.7603 Schilling to replace it. The Schilling was divided into 100 Groschen.

Vereinsthaler - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vereinsthaler

The Vereinsthaler (union thaler) was a standard silver coin used in most German states and the Austrian Empire in the years before German unification.

Liechtenstein franc - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liechtenstein_franc

The Swiss franc (plural: francs; in German: Frank, plural: Franken) has been the currency of Liechtenstein since 1920. The Swiss franc is legal tender since Liechtenstein is in a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. The 1980 treaty between Switzerland and Liechtenstein allows Liechtenstein to mint limited amounts of Swiss francs with a Liechtenstein inscription, but only in the form of commemorative coins (mainly issued for collectors), and they are not allowed to issue banknotes.

Swiss National Bank (SNB)
https://www.snb.ch/

The Swiss National Bank conducts the country’s monetary policy as an independent central bank. It is obliged by the Constitution and by statute to act in accordance with the interests of the country as a whole. Its primary goal is to ensure price stability, while taking due account of economic developments. In so doing, it creates an appropriate environment for economic growth.

Swiss National Bank - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swiss_National_Bank

The Swiss National Bank (SNB) is the central bank of Switzerland, and is therefore responsible for the monetary policy of the nation of Switzerland and also for the issuing of Swiss franc banknotes. The bank is otherwise known as: German: Schweizerische Nationalbank; French: Banque nationale suisse; Italian: Banca nazionale svizzera; Romansh: Banca naziunala svizra, which are the four official languages of the country.

The SNB is an aktiengesellschaft under special regulations, and has two head offices, one is in Bern and the other one in Zurich.

Swiss franc - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swiss_franc

The franc (sign: Fr. or SFr.; German: Franken, French and Romansh: franc, Italian: franco; code: CHF) is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia. The Swiss National Bank (SNB) issues banknotes and the federal mint Swissmint issues coins.

The smaller denomination, a hundredth of a franc, is a Rappen (Rp.) in German, centime (c.) in French, centesimo (ct.) in Italian, and rap (rp.) in Romansh. The ISO code of the currency used by banks and financial institutions is CHF, although Fr. is also widely used by businesses and advertisers; some use SFr. for Swiss Franc; the Latinate "CH" stands for Confoederatio Helvetica.

Given the different languages used in Switzerland, Latin is used for language-neutral inscriptions on the coins.

Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato
http://www.ipzs.it/

The Italian Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato (trans. State Mint and Polygraphic Institute), founded in 1928, is situated at the Piazza Giuseppe Verdi in Rome. As well as producing coins, passports and postage stamps for Italy, it serves the micro-states of the Vatican City and San Marino as well as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, widely considered a sovereign subject of international law.

Banknotes are instead produced by Bank of Italy.

Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Istituto_Poligrafico_e_Zecca_dello_Stato

The Italian Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato (trans. State Mint and Polygraphic Institute), founded in 1928, is situated at the Piazza Giuseppe Verdi in Rome. As well as producing coins, passports and postage stamps for Italy, it serves the micro-states of the Vatican City and San Marino as well as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, widely considered a sovereign subject of international law.

Banknotes are instead produced by Bank of Italy.

Reserve Bank of Vanuatu: Commemorative Coins
http://www.rbv.gov.vu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=219&Itemid=182&lang=en

Commemorative Coins.

Reserve Bank of Vanuatu: Coins
http://www.rbv.gov.vu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=221&Itemid=184&lang=en

Coins.

Reserve Bank of Vanuatu: Banknotes
http://www.rbv.gov.vu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=23&Itemid=183&lang=en

Banknotes.

Reserve Bank of Vanuatu: New Family of Vatu Notes
http://www.rbv.gov.vu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=303&Itemid=229&lang=en

New Family of Vatu Notes.

Reserve Bank of Vanuatu
http://www.rbv.gov.vu/

Vanuatu achieved its political independence from Great Britain and France on July 30,1980. Five months after the birth of the new nation, Parliament approved the Central Bank Act, which marked the formal establishment of the Central Bank of Vanuatu. "There is hereby established a bank to be known as the Central Bank of Vanuatu which shall be a body corporate under that name." (Central Bank of Vanuatu Act)

The Central Bank of Vanuatu was created as public institution, with the Government of the Republic of Vanuatu controlling 100% of the shares.

Reserve Bank of Vanuatu - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reserve_Bank_of_Vanuatu

The Reserve Bank of Vanuatu is the central bank of Vanuatu. It was initially known as the Central Bank of Vanuatu after the nation's independence from France and the United Kingdom.

The bank began operations on 1 January 1981 and was initially responsible for currency exchange. It established the Vatu as the national currency to replace the circulation of the New Hebrides franc and Australian dollar. The bank also replaced the role of the Banque Indosuez Vanuatu.

The institution's name was changed to the Reserve Bank of Vanuatu in May 1989 and its responsibility over the national banking industry was expanded.

Vanuatu vatu - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanuatu_vatu

The vatu (sign: VT; ISO 4217: VUV) is the currency of Vanuatu. The vatu has no subdivisions.

Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS)
http://www.mas.gov.sg/

Prior to 1970, the various monetary functions associated with a central bank were performed by several government departments and agencies. As Singapore progressed, the demands of an increasingly complex banking and monetary environment necessitated streamlining the functions to facilitate the development of a more dynamic and coherent policy on monetary matters. Therefore in 1970, Parliament passed the Monetary Authority of Singapore Act leading to the formation of MAS on 1 January 1971. The passing of the MAS Act gave MAS the authority to regulate the financial services sector in Singapore.

The MAS has been given powers to act as a banker to and financial agent of the Government. It has also been entrusted to promote monetary stability, and credit and exchange policies conducive to the growth of the economy.

Monetary Authority of Singapore - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monetary_Authority_of_Singapore

The Monetary Authority of Singapore (Abbreviation: MAS; Chinese: 新加坡金融管理局; Malay: Penguasa Kewangan Singapura) is Singapore's central bank and financial regulatory authority. It administers the various statutes pertaining to money, banking, insurance, securities and the financial sector in general, as well as currency issuance. The acronym is a play on words, as "mas" means "gold" in Malay.

Singapore Mint
https://www.singaporemint.com/

The Singapore Mint was established in 1968 to mint circulation coins for the newly-independent nation. Over the years, The Singapore Mint has evolved from a basic minting facility to a fully integrated business operation, comprising programme concept, product design, marketing, sales and distribution with after sales service. Focusing on quality system and standards, The Singapore Mint is a certified ISO 9001 and 14001 organisation. Today, it has grown to become one of the leading innovative mints in the industry, capable of producing coins and medallions of the highest quality.

Singapore Mint - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singapore_Mint

The Singapore Mint was founded in 1968, after the independence of Singapore from Malaysia. It is a government company responsible for making the currency of Singapore and keeping it from being counterfeited.

Redrocket Software Solutions
http://www.redrocketsoftwaresolutions.co.uk/

The company distributes Numismatist Catalogue - free software to manage your banknote collection.

British Petition Crown - the Art of Coins
http://www.petitioncrown.com/

A site about British hammered coins, milled coins, tokens and medallions.

Biafran pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biafran_pound

The Biafran pound was the currency of the breakaway Republic of Biafra between 1968 and 1970.

The first notes denominated in 5 shillings and £1 were introduced on January 29, 1968. A series of coins was issued in 1969; 3 pence, 6 pence, 1 shilling and 2½ shilling coins were minted, all made of aluminium. In February 1969, a second family of notes was issued consisting of 5 shilling, 10 shilling, £1, £5 and £10 denominations. Despite not being recognised as currency by the rest of the world when they were issued, the banknotes were afterwards sold as curios (typically at 2/6 (=.0125 GBP) for 1 pound notes in London philately/notaphily shops) and are now traded among banknote collectors at well above their original nominal value.

Gold Coast ackey - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gold_Coast_ackey

The ackey was a currency issued for the Gold Coast by the British between 1796 and 1818. It was subdivided into 8 takoe and was equal to the British halfcrown, i.e., 1 takoe = 3¾ pence and 1 pound = 8 ackey.

The currency consisted of silver coins in denominations of 1 takoe, ¼, ½ and 1 ackey. All coins bar the takoe carried the inscription "Free Trade to Africa by Act of Parliament 1750".

Gambian pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gambian_pound

The Gambian pound was the currency of the Gambia between 1965 and 1971. Gambia used the British West African pound until it issued its own currency on October 5, 1965. In 1971, the dalasi replaced the pound at a rate of 1 pound = 5 dalasi, i.e., 1 dalasi = 4 shillings. One Gambian pound was made up of 20 shillings, each shilling being made up of 12 pence.

Sierra Leonean leone - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sierra_Leonean_leone

The leone is the currency of Sierra Leone. It is subdivided into 100 cents. The ISO 4217 code is SLL and the leone is abbreviated as Le placed before the amount.

Ghanaian pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghanaian_pound

The Ghanaian pound was the currency of Ghana between 1958 and 1965. It was subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence. Until 1958, Ghana used the British West African pound, after which it issued its own currency. In 1965, Ghana introduced the first cedi at a rate of 1 pound = 2.4 cedi, i.e., 1 cedi = 100 pence.

Nigerian pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nigerian_pound

The pound was the currency of Nigeria between 1907 and 1973. Until 1958, Nigeria used the British West African pound, after which it issued its own currency. The pound was subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence. The Nigerian pound (which was at parity with the British pound with easy convertibility) was replaced with the introduction in 1973 of the decimal naira at a rate of 1 pound = 2 naira. This made Nigeria the last country to abandon the £sd currency system.

Liberian dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberian_dollar

The dollar (currency code LRD) has been the currency of Liberia since 1943. It was also the country's currency between 1847 and 1907. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively L$ or LD$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents.

British West African pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_West_African_pound

The British West African Pound was once the currency of British West Africa, a group of British colonies, protectorates and mandate territories. It was equal to the pound sterling and was similarly subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence.

Ilkhanid Mints
http://altaycoins.com/makaledetay.asp?dil=Mg==&id=MjY=

There are more than 250 mints confirmed for Ilkhanids and new mints are still being discovered. Here, you can see the locations of more than 200 mints.

How to Read Ilkhan Coins
http://ilkhans.altaycoins.com/

In legends of Ilkhanid coins, other than Arabic, there are also Mongolian lines written with two different scripts, Uighur and hP’agspa. Although both of these scripts are written vertically from top to bottom and from left to right, just for the sake of harmony with Arabic lines, in the following pages, Mongolian legends also have been placed horizontally, from right to left. I think, the engravers have thought the same way, because the original lines on the coins also are horizontal and from right to left, except hP’ags-pa. Uighur lines are just rotated forms of the original script, 90° clockwise. The coins already are round objects, so it does not matter too much.

Altay Coins
http://altaycoins.com/

Yigit Altay started to make Turkish Republic Coins Collection in February 2004 and has got the ancient coins collector license from Turkish Republic Ankara Independence War and Republic Museum. With this license, he became the youngest ancient coin collector who has the license in Turkey. His web site features information on Ancient, Medieval and modern coins, as well as an online shop.

Tasmanian Numismatics
http://www.tasmaniannumismatics.com.au/

The story of Tasmanian Numismatics originates from the year of 1975, when John Haddad found his first penny as a young boy playing marbles. Put aside all the details, the young boy has had a fascination with all aspects of numismatics ever since, So that the numismatics business was born. In 2005, 30 years after the first coin, John decided to turn his lifelong hobby into a career, so that Tasmanian Numismatics was established.

Museums Victoria Collections: Calcutta Mint, Medal & Coin Makers, Kolkata, India, 1757-1952
https://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/1879

The Calcutta Mint (India Government Mint, Kolkata) was established in 1757 by the East India Company under a treaty with the Nawab of Bengal. It initially struck gold and silver coins under the authority of the Nawab of Bengal. In the 1820s preparations for expanding the mint were begun, with the aim to increase capacity to 200,000 rupees a day. It was 1830 before the new mint began to strike coins. In 1860 a new set of mint buildings were established in the north of the Calcutta Mint grounds. Known as the Copper Mint it began operation in April 1865. The Calcutta Mint ceased operating in 1952 when a new mint was opened at Alipore.

Gold Sovereign - Information and Buying Advice About the Indian Sovereign
http://goldsovereign.in/

The Sovereign has an established history in India. It was first minted in India as a commemorative coin in 1918 when a branch of the Royal Mint was opened in Bombay inside the walls of the Indian Government Mint. Sovereigns were produced to the exacting same standards as those produced in London.

In 2013, The Royal Mint licenced MMTC-PAMP India to strike the commemorative Sovereign in India. The Indian consumer can now access a world-class, genuine product, manufactured with unquestionable integrity and authenticity.

Coins of the Hong Kong dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Hong_Kong_dollar

The Hong Kong coinage, including 10¢, 20¢, 50¢, $1, $2, $5 & $10, is issued by Hong Kong Monetary Authority on behalf of the Government of Hong Kong. From 1863 until 1992 these coins were embossed with the reigning British monarch's effigy. From January 1993 to November 1994, a new series depicting the bauhinia flower was gradually issued, including a new denomination of $10. Since the beginning of the coin replacement programme in 1993, over 585 million coins featuring Queen Elizabeth II have been withdrawn from circulation. However, these coins remain legal tender. The total value of coins in circulation in Hong Kong can be found in Monthly Statistical Bulletin and the Annual Report.

Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Coins
http://www.hkma.gov.hk/eng/key-functions/monetary-stability/notes-coins-hong-kong/coins.shtml

The Government issues coins of $10, $5, $2, $1, 50 cents, 20 cents and 10 cents. Until 1992 these coins were embossed with the Queen's head. In 1993 a programme was initiated to replace the Queen's Head series with a new series depicting the bauhinia flower (but the Queen's Head coins remain legal tender). The first Bauhinia coins, the $5 and $2 coins, were issued in January 1993. New $1, 50-cent and 20-cent coins were issued in October 1993, and a new 10-cent coin in May 1994. The $10 coin, the latest in the Bauhinia series, was issued in November 1994.

Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Notes
http://www.hkma.gov.hk/eng/key-functions/monetary-stability/notes-coins-hong-kong/notes.shtml

The Government, through the HKMA, has given authorization to three commercial banks, namely The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, the Bank of China (Hong Kong) Limited and the Standard Chartered Bank (Hong Kong) Limited, to issue banknotes in Hong Kong. Authorization is accompanied by a set of terms and conditions agreed between the Government and these three note-issuing banks. Banknotes are issued by the note-issuing banks, or redeemed, against payment to, or from, the Exchange Fund in US dollars, at a specified rate of US$1 to HK$7.80 under the Linked Exchange Rate system. Banknotes issued by the note-issuing banks are printed in Hong Kong by Hong Kong Note Printing Limited (HKNPL).

Hong Kong Monetary Authority
http://www.hkma.gov.hk/

The Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA) was established on 1 April 1993 by merging the Office of the Exchange Fund with the Office of the Commissioner of Banking. Its main functions and responsibilities are governed by the Exchange Fund Ordinance and the Banking Ordinance and it reports to the Financial Secretary.

Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hong_Kong_Monetary_Authority

The Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA, Chinese: 香港金融管理局 or 金管局) is Hong Kong's currency board and de facto central bank. It is a government authority founded on 1 April 1993 when the Office of the Exchange Fund and the Office of the Commissioner of Banking merged. The organisation reports directly to the Financial Secretary.

Zimbabwean bond coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zimbabwean_bond_coins

The Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe began to release Zimbabwean bond coins on 18 December 2014. The coins are supported by a US$50 million facility extended to the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe by AFREXIM Bank.

Gibraltar National Mint Online Shop
http://eshop.gibraltarnationalmint.gov.gi/coins.html

Selling Gibraltar coins.

European Central Bank: Europa series of euro banknotes
https://www.ecb.europa.eu/euro/banknotes/europa/html/index.en.html

The new €50 banknote was unveiled at the ECB in Frankfurt am Main, Germany on 5 July 2016. It is the fourth banknote of the Europa series and follows the new €5, €10 and €20 notes, which have already been issued. The new €50 banknote will start circulating on 4 April 2017.

Papal mint - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papal_mint

The Papal Mint is the pope's institute for the production of hard cash. Papal Mint also refers to the buildings in Avignon, Rome, and elsewhere that used to house the mint. (The Italian word for mint is Zecca).

Roman scudo - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_scudo

The Roman scudo (plural: scudi romani) was the currency of the Papal States until 1866. It was subdivided into 100 baiocchi (singular: baiocco), each of 5 quattrini (singular: quattrino). Other denominations included the grosso of 5 baiocchi, the carlino of 7½ baiocchi, the giulio and paoli both of 10 baiocchi, the testone of 30 baiocchi and the doppia of 3 scudi.

Mandats territoriaux - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandats_territoriaux

Mandats territoriaux were paper bank notes issued as currency by the French Directory in 1796 to replace the assignats which had become virtually worthless. They were land-warrants supposedly redeemable in the lands confiscated from royalty, the clergy and the church after the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789. In February 1796, 800,000,000 francs of mandats were issued as legal tender to replace the 24,000,000,000 francs of assignats then outstanding. In all about 2,500,000,000 francs of mandats were issued. They were heavily counterfeited and their value depreciated rapidly within six months. In February 1797, they lost their legal tender quality and by May were worth virtually nothing.

Assignation ruble - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assignation_ruble

Assignation ruble (Russian: ассигнационный рубль; assignatsionny rubl) was the first paper currency of Russia. It was used from 1769 until 1849. Assignation ruble had a parallel circulation with the silver ruble; there was an ongoing market exchange rate for these two currencies. In later period, the value of the Assignation ruble was considerably below that of the silver ruble.

Assignat - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assignat

Assignat was a type of a monetary instrument used during the time of the French Revolution, and the French Revolutionary Wars.

National Reserve Bank of Tonga - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Reserve_Bank_of_Tonga

The National Reserve Bank of Tonga (NRBT) is the central bank of Tonga. The Reserve Bank is responsible for regulating the issue and supply of domestic and international currency, as well as promoting monetary stability and economic development. It also advises the Ministry of Finance on banking and monetary matters, acts as the principal banker and fiscal agent of the Government of Tonga, and is responsible for the licensing and supervision of financial institutions. The bank was established on July 1, 1989.

Tongan paʻanga - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tongan_pa%CA%BBanga

The paʻanga is the currency of Tonga. It is controlled by the National Reserve Bank of Tonga (Pangikē Pule Fakafonua ʻo Tonga) in Nukuʻalofa. The paʻanga is not convertible and is pegged to a basket of currencies comprising the Australian, New Zealand, United States dollars and the Japanese yen.

The Central Bank of The Bahamas
http://www.centralbankbahamas.com/

The Central Bank fills the traditional roles as issuer of legal tender, banker to both domestic banks and the government, and regulator and supervisor of the banking sector. As supervisor of banks, the Central Bank promotes the soundness of banks through the effective application of international regulatory and supervisory standards. These standards were completely revamped during 2000 and 2001 - in response to global multi-lateral initiatives - to heighten the fight against money laundering and other criminal abuses within the international financial system.

The Central Bank of The Bahamas: Bahamian Banknotes
http://www.centralbankbahamas.com/bank_notes.php

Please note that the Central Bank of The Bahamas does not sell Bahamian banknotes to the general public.

The Central Bank of The Bahamas: Numismatic Coins
http://www.centralbankbahamas.com/bank_numismatic.php

The Numismatic Coin Programme was initiated with the issuance of two specimen Silver sets in 1966: a 7-coin and 9-coin set. These sets were designed by renowned British artist Arnold Machin, and were minted by the Royal Mint of London. Generally, proof/non-proof Gold and Silver commemorative coins are produced in collaboration with a promoter for sale to coin dealers and numismatists. In fact, many of the coin programmes commemorate events of both national and international significance, such as Bahamian Independence, the Olympic Games, the 500th Anniversary of Columbus' discovery of the New World, the World Cup; and have featured various wildlife themes. The numismatic programme is administered through the Banking Department.

The Central Bank of The Bahamas: Bahamian Coins
http://www.centralbankbahamas.com/bank_coins.php

Bahamian Coins.

Bahamian dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahamian_dollar

The dollar (sign: $; code: BSD) has been the currency of The Bahamas since 1966. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively B$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents.

L’Institut d’Emission d’Outre-Mer (IEOM)
http://www.ieom.fr/ieom/

The Institut d’émission d’Outre-Mer (IEOM), a Paris-based national public institution, was founded and chartered by the French government in December 1966 and empowered to issue a uniform currency in the French territories of the Pacific.

In addition to its headquarters in mainland France, IEOM’s presence encompasses New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Wallis-and-Futuna. Also, its mandate covers French southern territories of Antarctica.

As a central bank IEOM provides all central banking services but foreign exchange reserves. IEOM’s duties and activities fall into 5 main categories: issuing the currency; providing economic, financial and statistical data; supervising the banking system; conducting the monetary policy; providing central banking services to the banking community, companies, individuals, and public institutions.

Institut d'émission d'outre-mer - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institut_d%27%C3%A9mission_d%27outre-mer

The Institut d'émission d'outre-mer (IEOM) issues the CFP franc, the currency of the French overseas collectivities French Polynesia, New Caledonia, and Wallis and Futuna.

Cayman Islands Monetary Authority - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cayman_Islands_Monetary_Authority

The Cayman Islands Monetary Authority (CIMA) is the primary financial services regulator of the Cayman Islands and supervises its currency board.

The CIMA manages the Cayman Islands currency, regulates and supervises financial services, provides assistance to overseas regulatory authorities and advises the Cayman Islands government on financial-services regulatory matters.

Bank of Jamaica | Coins
http://boj.org.jm/currency/currency_coins.php

The Jamaican coat of arms appears on the obverse (front) of each coin, while Jamaican national heroes are portrayed on the reverse (back) of all coins, except the 1c coin which features the national fruit, ackee.

Bank of Jamaica | Bank Notes
http://boj.org.jm/currency/currency_banknotes.php

Jamaican banknotes are issued in denominations of $50, $100, $500, $1000 and $5000. The notes are all of the same size (145 x 68 mm). Each note has a unique watermark, namely the portrait that is featured on the particular note. The serial number appears twice on the face of each note, vertically to the left of the portrait and horizontally on the far right of the note. Each edition of the note carries the date of printing and the signature of the Governor of the Bank of Jamaica. Special symbols to aid the visually impaired appear on the front of all notes except the $1000 and $5000. Instead, these high value notes have their denomination printed in bold numerals to the bottom right hand corner. The front of each note bears the portrait of either a Jamaican national hero or a former Prime Minister, where as local scenes and popular landmarks appear on the back.

Bank of Jamaica | History of our Currency
http://www.boj.org.jm/currency/currency_history.php

Up until the early 16th century, when the Spaniards colonized Jamaica, there had been little occasion for the use of a regular currency. Although there was a small amount of gold on the; island, the Taino Indians, Jamaica's first inhabitants, used it; for decorative purposes rather than for trade, which was conducted by barter.

Bank of Jamaica
http://www.boj.org.jm/

The Bank of Jamaica, established by the Bank of Jamaica Law (1960), began operations in May 1961, terminating the Currency Board System which had been in existence from 1939.

Bank of Jamaica - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_of_Jamaica

The Bank of Jamaica is the central bank of Jamaica located in Kingston. It was established by the Bank of Jamaica Act 1960 and was opened on May 1, 1961. It is responsible for the monetary policy of Jamaica on the instruction of the Minister of Finance.

Jamaican dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamaican_dollar

The dollar has been the currency of Jamaica since 1969. It is often abbreviated "J$", the J serving to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents.

Cayman Islands dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cayman_Islands_dollar

The Cayman Islands Dollar (currency code KYD) is the currency of the Cayman Islands. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively CI$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is subdivided into 100 cents.

Sri Lankan rupee - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sri_Lankan_rupee

The rupee (Sinhalese: රුපියල්, Tamil: ரூபாய்) (signs: රු, Rs; code: LKR) is the currency of Sri Lanka, divided into 100 cents. It is issued by the Central Bank of Sri Lanka. The abbreviation is generally Rs., but SLRs. is occasionally used to distinguish it from other currencies also called rupee.

Ceylonese rixdollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceylonese_rixdollar

The rixdollar was the currency of British Ceylon until 1828. It was subdivided into 48 stivers, each of 4 duit. Units called the fanam and larin were also used, worth 4 and 9½ stiver, respectively. The currency derived from the Dutch rijksdaalder and stuiver, although the rijksdaalder was worth 50 stuiver. The rixdollar was replaced by the British pound at a rate of 1 rixdollar = 1 shilling 6 pence.

Central Bank of Seychelles: New Family of Banknotes and Coins
http://www.cbs.sc/Currency/newfamily.jsp

New family of banknotes and coins issued into circulation in December 2016.

Central Bank of Seychelles: Commemorative Coins
http://www.cbs.sc/Currency/comcoins.jsp

Commemorative Coins by the Central Bank of Seychelles.

Central Bank of Seychelles: Previous Coins
http://www.cbs.sc/Currency/coins.jsp

The figures below illustrate the set of local coins currently in circulation. The coins are in denominations 5 Rupees, 1 Rupee, 25 Cents, 10 Cents, 5 Cents and 1 Cent. These coins have been issued from 1982 to 2015.

Central Bank of Seychelles: Previous Banknotes
http://www.cbs.sc/Currency/banknotes.jsp

On Tuesday 7th June, 2011, the Central Bank of Seychelles issued upgraded 50, 100 and 500 Seychelles rupee banknotes with upgraded design, colour and security features. The previous 50,100 and 500 rupee banknotes still in circulation at the time were gradually withdrawn from circulation but still remain legal tender banknotes and can continue to be used alongside the upgraded 50, 100 and 500 rupee banknotes.

Central Bank of Seychelles
http://www.cbs.sc/

The primary objective of the Bank is to promote domestic price stability. The other objectives of the Bank are - a) to advise the Government on banking, monetary and financial matters, including the monetary implications of proposed fiscal, credit policies or operations of the Government; and b) to promote a sound financial system.

Central Bank of Seychelles - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bank_of_Seychelles

The Central Bank of Seychelles is the central bank of Seychelles. The offices of the bank are located in Victoria, the nation's capital.

Seychellois rupee - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seychellois_rupee

The rupee is the currency of the Seychelles. It is subdivided into 100 cents. In the local Seychellois Creole (Seselwa) language, it is called the roupi. The international currency code is SCR. The abbreviations SR and SRe are sometimes used.

Bank Negara Indonesia
http://www.bni.co.id/

Founded in 1946, BNI is the first bank formed and owned by the Government of Indonesia. During the struggle for Indonesia's independence, BNI had once served as both the central bank and commercial bank.

Bank Negara Indonesia - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_Negara_Indonesia

Bank Negara Indonesia is the Indonesian State Bank. It has branches primarily in Indonesia, but it can also found in Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, Hong Kong, Tokyo, London and New York.

Peruri
http://www.peruri.co.id/

Perum Peruri (short for Perum Percetakan Uang Republik Indonesia, Money Printing Public Company of the Republic of Indonesia) is the Indonesian state banknote/security printers and mint, established on 15 September 1971 through the merger of state mint Artha Yasa and state printers Pertjetakan Kebajoran (a.k.a. Perkeba).

Perum Peruri - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perum_Peruri

Perum Peruri (short for Perum Percetakan Uang Republik Indonesia, Money Printing Public Company of the Republic of Indonesia) is the Indonesian state banknote/security printers and mint, established on 15 September 1971 through the merger of state mint Artha Yasa and state printers Pertjetakan Kebajoran (a.k.a. Perkeba).

History of the Indonesian Rupiah - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Indonesian_rupiah

The currency of Indonesia, rupiah, has a long history that stretch back to colonial period. Due to periods of uncertain economy and high inflation, the currency has been re-valued several times.

Indonesian Rupiah - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesian_rupiah

The rupiah (Rp) is the official currency of Indonesia. Issued and controlled by the Bank of Indonesia, the ISO 4217 currency code for the Indonesian rupiah is IDR. The name "rupiah" is derived from the Hindustani word rupiyaa (روپیہ), ultimately from Sanskrit rupya (wrought silver). Informally, Indonesians also use the word "perak" ('silver' in Indonesian) in referring to rupiah. The rupiah is subdivided into 100 sen, although inflation has rendered all coins and banknotes denominated in sen obsolete.

The Riau islands and the Indonesian half of New Guinea (Irian Barat) had their own variants of the rupiah in the past, but these were subsumed into the national rupiah in 1964 and 1971 respectively.

Maundy Money Info
http://maundymoney.info/

This site has been created to give information regarding the history of maundy money.

Sveriges Riksbank: Commemorative coins
http://www.riksbank.se/en/Notes--coins/Coins/Commemorative-coins/

Commemorative coins can be issued to mark events of particular significance to Sweden. The issuance of commemorative coins is restricted.

Sveriges Riksbank: Invalid coins
http://www.riksbank.se/en/Notes--coins/Coins/Invalid-coins/

The final date on which coins in the respective denomination were legal tender.

Sveriges Riksbank: Coins
http://www.riksbank.se/en/Notes--coins/Coins/

The new 1-, 2- and 5-krona is now legal tender. The 10-krona coin remains unchanged. The older 1-, 2- and 5-krona coins will become invalid in June 2017.

Coins of the Republic of Ireland - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Republic_of_Ireland

There have been three sets of coins in Ireland. In all three, the coin showed a Celtic harp on the obverse. The pre-decimal coins of the Irish pound had realistic animals on the reverse; the decimal coins retained some of these but featured ornamental birds on the lower denominations; and the euro coins used the common design of the euro currencies. The pre-decimal and original decimal coins were of the same dimensions as the same-denomination British coins, as the Irish pound was in currency union with the British pound sterling. British coins were widely accepted in Ireland, and conversely to a lesser extent. In 1979 Ireland joined the Exchange Rate Mechanism and the "punt" left parity with sterling; coin designs introduced after this differed between the two countries.

Banknotes of the Republic of Ireland - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banknotes_of_the_Republic_of_Ireland

The Irish Free State, subsequently known as Ireland, resolved in the mid-1920s to design its own coins and banknotes; at the time of the currency's first issue, the Free State government decided to peg its value to the pound sterling. The Currency Act, 1927 was passed as a basis for the creation of banknotes and the creation of the "Saorstát pound" (later the "Irish pound") as the "standard unit of value" and the legal tender notes issued under this act commenced circulation on 10 September 1928.

Irish euro coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_euro_coins

Irish euro coins all share the same design by Jarlath Hayes, that of the harp, a traditional symbol for Ireland since the Middle Ages, based on that of the Brian Boru harp, housed in Trinity College, Dublin. The same harp is used as on the official seals of the Taoiseach, and government ministers and the Seal of the Uachtaran. The coins' design also features the 12 stars of the EU, the year of minting and the Irish name for Ireland, "Éire", in a traditional Gaelic script.

Central Bank of Ireland: Commemorative Coins & Coin Sets
https://www.centralbank.ie/paycurr/collector/Pages/Coinsets.aspx

The 2016 €10 silver proof coin is the first in a new five-year Europa Star silver coin programme commemorating the ‘Ages of Europe’. The 2016 theme is ‘Modern 20th Century Europe’ and is inspired by the architectural designs as featured on the €500 banknote. This coin is also the Central Bank of Ireland’s first collector coin to commemorate the achievements of an Irish woman.

Dublin Mint Office
http://www.dublinmintoffice.ie/

The Dublin Mint Office provide a wealth of choice and variety for our customers by not only sourcing coins from state mints and national banks but also from reputable coin dealers and auction houses across the world.

Central Bank of Ireland: Europa Series of Banknotes
https://www.centralbank.ie/paycurr/europaseriesbanknotes/Pages/default.aspx

There are two series of euro banknotes. The first series consists of the €5, €10, €20, €50, €100, €200 and €500. The new Europa series currently comprises the €5, €10 and €20 and will include the €50, €100 and €200 banknotes in due course. The banknotes from both series are legal tender in the 19 countries of the euro area.

Currency Centre - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Currency_Centre

The Currency Centre (also known as the Irish Mint) is the mint of coins and printer of banknotes for the Central Bank of Ireland, including the euro currency. The centre is located at Sandyford, Dublin, Republic of Ireland. The centre does not print the complete range of euro banknotes. Other denominations are imported.

Irish pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_pound

The Irish Pound (Irish: Punt Éireannach) was the currency of Ireland until 2002. Its ISO 4217 code was IEP, and the usual notation was the prefix £ (or IR£ where confusion might have arisen with the pound sterling or other pounds). The Irish pound was superseded by the euro on 1 January 1999. Euro currency did not begin circulation until the beginning of 2002.

Romanian Coins
http://www.romaniancoins.org/

Huge and most complete numismatic site on Romanian coins.

Swiss National Bank
http://www.snb.ch/

The Swiss National Bank conducts the country’s monetary policy as an independent central bank. It is obliged by the Constitution and by statute to act in accordance with the interests of the country as a whole. Its primary goal is to ensure price stability, while taking due account of economic developments. In so doing, it creates an appropriate environment for economic growth.

Swiss National Bank: Banknotes and coins
http://www.snb.ch/en/iabout/cash

The eighth banknote series will gradually be replaced by the ninth in a process scheduled to take place between 2016 and 2019. The first denomination in the new series – the 50-franc note – has been in circulation since 12 April 2016. The 20-franc note is planned for the following year. The remaining banknotes will subsequently be issued at half-yearly or yearly intervals. The SNB will announce each new date well in advance. Issuance of the entire new series is expected to be completed by 2019. Notes from the eighth banknote series remain valid until further notice.

Swissmint: Collector's coins
http://www.swissmint.ch/e/produkte/sammler.php

Since 1936, the Swiss Confederation has been issuing commemorative coins to mark significant historical and cultural events, or to honour outstanding personalities. Tribute is also paid to typical aspects of Swiss cultural life.

Swissmint: Circulation coins
http://www.swissmint.ch/e/produkte/umlauf.php

With most of us, circulation coins conjure up ambivalent feelings. On the one hand, they hold an inexplicable attraction for us - as, indeed, all forms of money do - an attraction which probably harks back to fond childhood memories of all the treasures we could buy with our allowance of coins. On the other hand, however, coins can also be a nuisance. For instance, when too many of them make wallets heavy and bulky so that we take the first opportunity of getting rid of them only to find ourselves afterwards without the right change for the ticket or cigarette machine. Nevertheless, coins will continue to hold their ground as a convenient, cheap, and, above all, universally accepted form of currency.

Swissmint: The 160 Years of swiss franc
http://www.swissmint.ch/e/dokumentation/muenzkunde/index.php

A brief historical discourse.

Swissmint: Numismatic Reports
http://www.swissmint.ch/e/dokumentation/numisma_bericht.php

Technical data of legal tender Swiss coins. List of the Swiss coins having legal tender and withdrawn from circulation.

Swissmint - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swissmint

Swissmint is the official mint of the Swiss Confederation. Located in the Swiss capital city Bern, it is responsible for manufacturing Swiss franc coins, both of the currency and bullion variety. Apart from making coins for the government, Swissmint also manufactures medals and commemorative coins for private customers.

Swissmint
http://www.swissmint.ch/

Swissmint produces coins as a traditional Swiss company. The focus here is on supplying the Swiss market with circulation coins for daily payment transactions as needed. At the same time, Swissmint produces collector and investment coins in precious and base metals. Every day, we meet the challenge of minting our coins to the highest standards in terms of quality, economic efficiency and sustainability. We gladly undertake these efforts so that our customers can trust that our coins are accepted as a secure means of payment and our collector coins retain their value over time.

Cayman Islands Monetary Authority: Currency
http://www.cimoney.com.ky/currency/default.aspx?id=82

After careful deliberation by a committee, which was formed to consider the introduction of Cayman currency to the Islands, it was recommended that a local currency would be to the economic and political advantage of the Cayman Islands. This recommendation was accepted by Her Majesty's Government, in view of the rapid progress of the Cayman economy.

Cayman Islands Monetary Authority: Circulating Notes and Coins
http://www.cimoney.com.ky/currency/currency.aspx?id=68

The legal tender in the Cayman Islands is the Cayman Islands currency, issued under section 28 of the Monetary Authority Law (2013 Revision). Previous laws were the 1971 Currency Law, followed by the Currency Law of 1974, which was repealed and replaced by the 1983 Currency Law Revised.

Cayman Islands Monetary Authority
http://www.cimoney.com.ky/

The Cayman Islands Monetary Authority began operations on 1 January 1997. It was established as a body corporate under the Monetary Authority Law, which was brought into force on that date. Its mission is to protect and enhance the reputation of the Cayman Islands as an International Financial Centre by fully utilising a team of highly skilled professionals and current technology, to carry out appropriate, effective and efficient supervision and regulation in accordance with relevant international standards and by maintaining a stable currency, including the prudent management of the currency reserve.

Bermuda Monetary Authority
http://www.bma.bm/

The Bermuda Monetary Authority regulates Bermuda's financial services sector. The Authority was established by statute in 1969. Its role has evolved over the years to meet changing needs in the financial services sector. Today it supervises, regulates and inspects financial institutions ​operating in the jurisdiction. It also issues Bermuda’s national currency, manages exchange control transactions, assists other authorities with the detection and prevention of financial crime, and advises Government on banking and other financial and monetary matters.

Bulgarian Coins
http://www.bulgariancoins.com/

Bulgarian Coins is the complete online resource dedicated to Bulgarian gold, silver, circulation and commemorative coins.

Coinz.eu: Sources
http://coinz.eu/zzz/sou/sources_en.php

Sources of information for circulation coins used for the catalogue coinz.eu. A very extensive list.

Coinz.eu: European Circulation Coins Catalogue
http://coinz.eu/

Comprehensive catalogue of European circulation coins. High-resolution photos including edges and varieties; detailed information on over 1500 coin types - their design, production and issue facts, mintage, etc.

Bank of Greece: Euro banknotes
http://www.bankofgreece.gr/Pages/en/Euro/Notes-coins/Notes/default.aspx

On 1 January 2002 euro banknotes were put into circulation in the 12 euro area countries. There are seven denominations of different sizes and colours each: €5, €10, €20, €50, €100, €200 and €500. Banknotes are legal tender throughout the euro area.

Euro banknotes feature the architectural styles from seven different periods in Europe’s cultural history – classical, Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, baroque and rococo, the age of iron and glass and modern 20th century architecture – without depicting any specific monument of any EU country.

Bank of Greece: Commemorative Collector coins
http://www.bankofgreece.gr/Pages/en/Euro/Notes-coins/Collectors/default.aspx

The introduction of euro coins in January 2002 has generated a variety of coin designs. The euro area countries have put euro coins in circulation with distinctive national symbols on their obverse side. The diversity of the coins' national sides is enhanced with the issuance of commemorative and collector coins by euro area countries.

Bank of Greece: Euro Coins
http://www.bankofgreece.gr/Pages/en/Euro/Notes-coins/Coins/default.aspx

Unlike euro banknotes that come in uniform appearance, euro coins have only one common side across the euro area countries. The designs for the reverse side were selected by competent bodies in each country. Euro coins can be used in all euro area countries, irrespective of their national side design.

Bank of Greece: Drachma
http://www.bankofgreece.gr/Pages/en/Euro/drachma.aspx

The drachma has been Greece's national currency since 1833. Upon the establishment of the Bank of Greece, the issuance privilege was handed over by the National Bank to the Bank of Greece, which, until the introduction of euro banknotes and coins, issued drachma banknotes and coins that circulated as legal tender in Greece.

The drachma was the national currency of Greece up to 1 January 2002. On 28 February 2002, drachma banknotes and coins ceased to be legal tender and were replaced by euro banknote and euro coins.

Bank of Crete - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_of_Crete

Two banks have borne the name Bank of Crete (Τράπεζα Κρήτης). The first functioned between 1898 and 1918, and the second functioned from 1980 to 1999.

Following the departure of the Ottoman forces in December 1898, the government of the autonomous Cretan State, under Eleftherios Venizelos, established the Bank of Crete (Banque du Crète) with the assistance of the National Bank of Greece and Hambros Brothers. In addition to the functions of commercial and mortgage banking, the bank received the exclusive privilege, for thirty years, of issuing banknotes in the island of Crete. The National Bank of Greece wholly acquired, and subsumed the Bank of Crete in 1919.

Ionian Bank - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionian_Bank

The Ionian Bank (IB) was a British overseas bank that investors established in 1839 to operate in the Ionian Isles, which was then a British Protectorate. It served also as the central bank of the United States of the Ionian Islands. IB later expanded in Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean. After losing its branches in Egypt to nationalization, IB retreated from the Mediterranean, selling all its operations there. Michael Behrens and John Trusted then acquired Ionian Bank, converting it into a merchant bank in London. This London operation was never very successful and in 1977 it voluntarily gave up its banking licence. The Greek operation, renamed Ionian Popular Bank, was absorbed into Alpha Bank in 2000.

Ionian gazeta - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionian_gazeta

The gazeta (plural gazetes, Greek: γαζέτα, plural γαζέτες) was a currency issued in the Ionian Islands in 1801 during the Russia and the Ottoman Empire protectorate. It replaced the Venetian lira at a rate of 1 gazeta = 2 soldi, and continued to be used through the existence of the Septinsular Republic. After the British took possession of the islands, coins were countermarked in Turkish kuruş for use on the islands before the obol was introduced in 1819 for the United States of the Ionian Islands.

Greek drachma - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_drachma

Drachma (Greek: δραχμή pl. drachmae or drachmas) was the currency used in Greece during several periods in its history.

An ancient Greek currency unit issued by many Greek city states during a period of ten centuries, from the Archaic period throughout the Classical period, the Hellenistic period up to the Roman period under Greek Imperial Coinage.

Three modern Greek currencies, the first introduced in 1832 and the last replaced by the euro in 2001 (at the rate of 340.751 drachma to the euro). The euro did not begin circulating until 2002 but the exchange rate was fixed on 19 June 2000, with legal introduction of the euro taking place in January 2002.

It was also a small unit of weight.

Phoenix (currency) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenix_(currency)

The phoenix (Greek: φοίνιξ) was the first currency of the modern Greek state. It was introduced in 1828 by Governor Ioannis Kapodistrias and was subdivided into 100 lepta. The name was that of the mythical phoenix bird and was meant to symbolize the rebirth of Greece during the still ongoing Greek War of Independence. The phoenix replaced the Ottoman kuruş (called grosi γρόσι, plural γρόσια grosia by the Greeks) at a rate of 6 phoenixes = 1 kuruş.

Greek lepton - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_lepton

The lepton, plural lepta (Greek: λεπτόν, pl. λεπτά) is the name of various fractional units of currency used in the Greek-speaking world from antiquity until today. The word means "small" or "thin", and during Classical and Hellenistic times a lepton was always a small value coin, usually the smallest available denomination of another currency. The lepton was first minted under Alexander Jannaeus prior to 76 B.C.E.

In modern Greece, lepton (modern form: lepto, λεπτό) is the name of the 1/100 denomination of all the official currencies of the Greek state: the phoenix (1827–1832), the drachma (1832–2001) and the euro (2002–current) – the name is the Greek form of "euro cent". Its unofficial currency sign is Λ (lambda). Since the late 1870s, and until the introduction of the euro in 2001, no Greek coin had been minted with a denomination lower than 5 lepta.

Ionian obol - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionian_obol

The obol (plural oboli) was the currency of the United States of the Ionian Islands between 1819 and 1863. Until 1834, 1 obol = 4 lepta (singular lepton), after which 1 obol = 5 lepta. Throughout its existence, the obol was equal to a British half penny. The obol replaced a series of countermarked coins denominated in Turkish paras and copper gazete coins. The obol was issued by the British and was replaced by the Greek drachma when the Ionian Islands were given to Greece, at a rate of 1 drachma = 20 oboli.

The strangest denomination was the silver 30 Lepta coin.

Obol (coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obol_(coin)

The obol (Greek: ὀβολός, obolos, also ὀβελός (obelós), ὀβελλός (obellós), ὀδελός (odelós). lit. "nail, metal spit"; Latin: obolus) was a form of ancient Greek currency and weight.

Upgraded Lari Banknotes
http://ganakhlebulilari.ge/

Get to know contemporary upgraded Lari Banknotes in denominations of 20, 50 and 100 lari improved in quality and conforming to the latest international standards.

Abbasi (currency) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbasi_(currency)

ʿAbbāsī was a name applied to gold and silver coins in Iran first issued by the Safavid shah Abbas I (r. 1581–1629). It was in use until the early 20th century. These coins bore no face values and were passed by weight.

While the Iranian abbasi was also widespread in eastern Georgia, which was under the Iranian sway, the coin soon after also came to be minted at the mint in Tiflis (Tbilisi), where they were colloquially known as abazi.

After the Russian annexation of eastern Georgia in 1801, abbasi demonitions (one-half abbasi--Muhammad; one quarter abbasi--shahi; one-tenth abbasi--bisti; 1/200th abbasi--dinar) influenced production of the new currency, the Georgian silver (kartuli tetri).

Georgian abazi - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgian_abazi

Abazi (Georgian: აბაზი) was a Georgian silver coin, deriving its name and existence from the Iranian abbasi, which was in use from the early 17th century into the early 19th.

The name abazi derives from the Persian abbasi, a silver coin first issued by the Safavid shah Abbas I (1581–1629), who was responsible for consolidating the Iranian influence over Georgia. It was subdivided into 200 dinar. Other denominations were the puli ("copper") of 5 dinar and the bisti of 20 dinar.

Transcaucasian ruble - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcaucasian_ruble

The ruble (Russian: рубль, Armenian: ռուբլի), manat (Azerbaijani: منات) or maneti (Georgian: მანეთი) was the currency of both Transcaucasian states, the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic and the Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic.

Georgian maneti - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgian_maneti

The maneti (მანეთი) was the currency of the Democratic Republic of Georgia and the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic between 1919 and 1923. It replaced the first Transcaucasian ruble at par and was subdivided into 100 kapeiki (კაპეიკი). It was replaced by the second Transcaucasian ruble after Georgia became part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic.

National Bank of Georgia: Collection Coins
https://www.nbg.gov.ge/index.php?m=414

National Bank of Georgia issued a collector coin dedicated to the 20th jubilee of National currency "lari".

National Bank of Georgia: Georgian Money
https://www.nbg.gov.ge/index.php?m=111

The Georgian lari is the sole legal tender on the territory of Georgia except for cases envisaged by the Law of Georgia on Free Industrial Zones. Only the NBG is authorized to issue banknotes on the territory of Georgia. The NBG also has the exclusive right to produce commemorative coins for circulation and for other purposes.

საქართველოს ეროვნული ბანკი (National Bank of Georgia)
https://www.nbg.gov.ge/

The National Bank of Georgia (NBG) is the central bank of Georgia. Its status is defined by the Constitution of Georgia. The main objective of the National Bank is to ensure price stability.

Georgia's first central bank was established in 1919. In its current form the National Bank of Georgia has existed since 1991.

According to the Constitution of Georgia, the National Bank is independent in its activities. The members of Georgia’s legislative and executive bodies do not have the right to intervene in the NBG’s activities. The rights and obligations of the National Bank of Georgia as the central bank of the country, the principles of its activity and the guarantee of its independence are defined in the Organic Law of Georgia on the National Bank of Georgia.

National Bank of Georgia - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Bank_of_Georgia

National Bank of Georgia (Georgian: საქართველოს ეროვნული ბანკი) is the central bank of Georgia. Its status is defined by the Constitution of Georgia.

Georgia's first central bank was established in 1919. In its current form the bank has existed since 1991. According to the Constitution of Georgia, it is independent of state control, and is tasked with ensuring price stability.

Soviet ruble - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_ruble

The Soviet ruble or rouble (Russian: рубль) was the currency of the Soviet Union. One ruble was divided into 100 kopeks, (also transliterated as kopecks or copecks Russian: копе́йка, pl. копе́йки – kopeyka, kopeyki).

In addition to standard banknotes, the Soviet ruble was available in the form of foreign rubles (Russian: инвалютный рубль); also, several forms of virtual rubles were used for inter-enterprise accounting and international settlement in the Comecon zone. Many of the ruble designs were created by Ivan Dubasov. The production of Soviet rubles was the responsibility of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise, or Goznak, which was in charge of the printing of and materials production for banknotes and the minting of coins in Moscow and Leningrad.

Georgian lari - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgian_lari

The lari (Georgian: ლარი; ISO 4217: GEL) is the currency of Georgia. It is divided into 100 tetri. The name lari is an old Georgian word denoting a hoard, property, while tetri is an old Georgian monetary term (meaning 'white') used in ancient Colchis from the 6th century BC. Earlier Georgian currencies include the maneti and abazi.

Bnai Brith: Palestine Mandate Coins
http://www.bnaibrith.org/palestine-mandate-coins.html

Shortly after World War I, Britain took control of an area known as the Palestine Mandate. The region, which was created out of land formerly controlled by the Ottoman Empire, consisted of the territory we know of today as the nation of Israel, the Palestinian Administrations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. To effectively administer this area, a stable monetary system was required. As a result, a unique numismatic event took place, one that will never occur again. The British Palestine Mandate coins were minted.

Sheqel: Commemorative Coins : 2011 - present
http://sheqel.info/4-6.htm

Commemorative Coins : 2011 - present.

Sheqel: Commemorative Coins : 2001 - 2010
http://sheqel.info/4-5.htm

Commemorative Coins : 2001 - 2010.

Sheqel: Commemorative Coins : 1991 - 2000
http://sheqel.info/4-4.htm

Commemorative Coins : 1991 - 2000.

Sheqel: Commemorative Coins : 1981 - 1990
http://sheqel.info/4-3.htm

Commemorative Coins : 1981 - 1990.

Sheqel: Commemorative Coins : 1971 - 1980
http://sheqel.info/4-2.htm

Commemorative Coins : 1971 - 1980.

Sheqel: Commemorative Coins : 1958 - 1970
http://sheqel.info/4-1.htm

Commemorative Coins : 1958 - 1970.

Sheqel: Banknotes : Specimen Issues
http://sheqel.info/3-8.htm

Banknotes : Specimen Issues.

Sheqel: Banknotes : Presentation Sets
http://sheqel.info/3-7.htm

Banknotes : Presentation Sets.

Sheqel: Banknotes : Uncut & Partially Cut Sheets
http://sheqel.info/3-6.htm

Banknotes : Uncut & Partially Cut Sheets.

Sheqel: Banknotes : New Sheqel / New Shekel Series (1985 - present)
http://sheqel.info/3-5.htm

Banknotes : New Sheqel / New Shekel Series (1985 - present).

Sheqel: Banknotes : Sheqel Series (1978 - 1984)
http://sheqel.info/3-4.htm

Banknotes : Sheqel Series (1978 - 1984).

Sheqel: Banknotes : Lira Series (1955 - 1975)
http://sheqel.info/3-3.htm

Banknotes : Lira Series (1955 - 1975).

Sheqel: Banknotes : Issues Prior to the Establishment of the Bank of Israel (1948 - 1953)
http://sheqel.info/3-2.htm

Banknotes : Issues Prior to the Establishment of the Bank of Israel (1948 - 1953).

Sheqel: Banknotes : British Mandate (1927 - 1946)
http://sheqel.info/3-1.htm

Banknotes : British Mandate (1927 - 1946).

Sheqel: Mint Sets & Year Sets - Private Issues
http://sheqel.info/2-10.htm

Mint Sets & Year Sets - Private Issues.

Sheqel: Official Mint Sets & Hanukka Sets
http://sheqel.info/2-9.htm

Official Mint Sets & Hanukka Sets.

Sheqel: Commemorative Trade Coins : New Sheqel Series (1985 - present)
http://sheqel.info/2-8.htm

Commemorative Trade Coins : New Sheqel Series (1985 - present).

Sheqel: Commemorative Trade Coins : Sheqel Series (1981 - 1985)
http://sheqel.info/2-7.htm

Commemorative Trade Coins : Sheqel Series (1981 - 1985).

Sheqel: Commemorative Trade Coins : Lira Series (1949 - 1980)
http://sheqel.info/2-6.htm

Commemorative Trade Coins : Lira Series (1949 - 1980).

Sheqel: Trade Coins : Agora - New Sheqel Series (1985 - present)
http://sheqel.info/2-5.htm

Trade Coins : Agora - New Sheqel Series (1985 - present).

Sheqel: Trade Coins : New Agora - Sheqel Series (1980 - 1985)
http://sheqel.info/2-4.htm

Trade Coins : New Agora - Sheqel Series (1980 - 1985).

Sheqel: Trade Coins : Agora - Lira Series (1960 - 1980)
http://sheqel.info/2-3.htm

Trade Coins : Agora - Lira Series (1960 - 1980).

Sheqel: Trade Coins : Mil & Pruta Series (1948 - 1957)
http://sheqel.info/2-2.htm

Trade Coins : Mil & Pruta Series (1948 - 1957).

Sheqel: The Online Catalog of Israel Numismatics 1927 - Present
http://sheqel.info/

The Online Catalog of Israel Numismatics 1927 - Present.

Sheqel: British Mandate of Palestine 1927 - 1947
http://sheqel.info/2-1.htm

British Mandate of Palestine 1927 - 1947 coins.

Egyptian piastre - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_piastre

The piastre (Arabic: qirsh‎‎, قرش, pronounced irsh) was the currency of Egypt until 1834. It was subdivided into 40 para, each of 3 akçe.

Central Bank of Egypt | Banknotes | Egyptian Currency Museum
http://www.cbe.org.eg/en/BankNote/Pages/currencymuseum.aspx

Images of Egyptian banknotes.

Central Bank of Egypt | Banknotes | Historical Overview
http://www.cbe.org.eg/en/BankNote/Pages/HistoricalOverview.aspx

Since the beginning of the circulation of gold and silver coins had been in circulation 1834, there was no specified monetary unit represent the basis of the monetary system in Egypt. Only few coins were minted locally. In 1834, it was decreed to issue an Egyptian currency relied gold & silver metals base. By virtue of that decree minting coins in the form of gold and silver riyals had become a governmental monopoly. In 1836 the Egyptian pound was minted and issued for circulation.

Central Bank of Egypt
http://www.cbe.org.eg/

The central bank takes the means with which it ensures the realization of its objectives and the discharge of its functions. This includes supervising the units of the banking sector, setting the regulatory and supervisory standards to guarantee the sound financial positions of banks, and their efficient performance; as well as issuing the necessary decisions for their implementation, and evaluating the efforts exerted regarding guaranteeing the soundness of bank credit and ensuring the application of standards of credit quality and financial soundness with due regard to international banking norms.

Central Bank of Egypt - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bank_of_Egypt

The Central Bank of Egypt (CBE) is the monetary authority in Egypt. The bank's paid-up capital is 1000 million Egyptian pounds. According to its website, the CBE regulates banks and the banking system of Egypt, formulates and implements Egypt's banking policy, monetary policy and credit policy, including interbank rates; issues banknotes; manages gold and the foreign exchange reserves of the Arab Republic of Egypt; regulates and manages Egypt's presence in the foreign exchange market; supervises the national payments system; manages Egypt's public and private external debt.

Egyptian pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_pound

The Egyptian pound (Arabic: جنيه مصري‎‎ sign: E£ or ج.م; customary abbreviation LE; code: EGP) is the currency of Egypt. It is divided into 100 piastres, or ersh (قرش; plural قروش), or 1,000 millimes (Arabic: مليم‎‎; French: Millime).

Palestine pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestine_pound

The Palestine pound (Arabic: جُنَيْه فِلَسْطَينِيّ‎‎, junyah filastini; Hebrew: פֿוּנְט פַּלֶשְׂתִינָאִי א"י), funt palestina'i (eretz-yisra'eli), also Hebrew: לירה א"י lira eretz-yisra'elit) was the currency of the British Mandate of Palestine from 1927 to May 14, 1948, and of the State of Israel between May 15, 1948, and August 1948, when it was replaced with the Israeli lira. It was divided into 1000 mils (Arabic: Arabic: مِل‎‎, Hebrew: Hebrew: מִיל‎‎). The Palestine pound was also the currency of Transjordan until 1949 and remained in usage in the West Bank portion of Palestine until 1950.

Britaly Coins
http://www.britalycoins.co.uk/

Britaly Coins comes from the experience of its two founders, both holders of Numismatic firms, and was created to try to broaden and deepen the Numismatic Trade increasing in step with the times, whether the collector is a coin enthusiast, or investor, looking more to diversify and expand their collection or in order to improve the quality.

The business was created in order to give the customer the security and certainty of dealing with professionals, who have been present for years in the European market and who want to grow and broaden their horizons and boundaries, in order to meet the increasing Numismatic needs.

Royal Mint: The Sovereign Gold Bullion Coin
http://www.royalmint.com/bullion/products/gold-sovereign

The Sovereign is the flagship coin of the Royal Mint, produced in 22 carat gold. One of their more popular bullion products. CGT exempt in the United Kingdom and VAT free in both the UK and the European Community. Individually packaged in bespoke credit card sized, anti-tamper packaging.

Whitman Books: Coin Price Guide + Coin Value Guide
https://www.whitman.com/store/Inventory/Browse/whitman-books

Whitman Publishing is the world's leading producer of numismatic reference books, supplies, and products to display and store your coins and paper money. Our high-quality books educate you in the rich, colorful history of American and world coinage and currency, and teach you how to build a great collection. Archival-quality Whitman folders, albums, cases, and other holders let you keep your collectibles safe and also show them off to friends and family. We invite you to explore our catalog - and enjoy the hobby!

CoinWeek: Coin Price Guides
http://www.coinweek.com/coin-prices/coin-price-guides/

Links to several Price Guides that will give you a general idea of what your coins are worth in today’s market.

US Coin Values: Historic US Coin Values Online Reports
http://www.us-coin-values-advisor.com/US-coin-values.html

The main idea of the Coin Value Tables is to show collectors how individual coin dates change in value over time. Some have increased in price much faster than others. Long term price trends from the past are the best indicator we have to predict what may happen in the future. Thus, coins with solid historical gains are the coins most likely to do the same in the years ahead.

Franklin Mint Store
http://www.franklinmint.com/

The official Franklin Mint Store offers classic diecast vehicles, beautifully detailed dolls, licensed jewelry from hit shows and movies, home decor and more and coins.

The Franklin Mint - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Franklin_Mint

The Franklin Mint is a private mint founded by Joseph Segel in 1964 in Wawa, Pennsylvania. The company is currently owned by Sequential Brands Group headquartered in New York City, New York. The previous owners have a license to complete the Presidential Dollar continuity program, but otherwise the company exists as a brand name only. The Franklin Mint manufactured and marketed coins, jewelry, diecast vehicles, dolls, sculpture and other collectibles.

Central Bank of Belize: Demonetized & Historical Currency
https://www.centralbank.org.bz/currency/demonetized-historical-currency

The Central Bank of Belize may determine that any issue or denomination of notes or coins issued by the Bank shall cease to be legal tender with effect from any date.

Demonetized bank notes are notes taken out of circulation by the Central Bank of Belize in accordance with Part V Section 22 (2) of the Central Bank of Belize Act. When notes are taken out of circulation, a notice is published in the Gazette, giving holders of the demonetized notes and coins reasonable time to exchange them at the Bank for their face value with currency which is legal tender. Demonetized currency is only redeemable at the Central Bank of Belize.

Central Bank of Belize: Collectible Coins Gallery
https://www.centralbank.org.bz/currency/collectible-coins

Collectible coins are available for sale with cash, debit and credit card payments at the Central Bank of Belize headquarters.

Central Bank of Belize: Belize's Coins
https://www.centralbank.org.bz/currency/coins

Belize's coins.

Central Bank of Belize: Currency Notes
https://www.centralbank.org.bz/currency/currency-notes

The Central Bank of Belize Act gives the Bank the sole right to issue notes and coins in Belize. The Bank issued 2003, 1998, and 1990 notes which illustrate the rich variety of Belizean wildlife, national culture and historic sites. The 1983 issue of the Bank maintained the design of notes issued under the Monetary Authority of Belize and are the liability of the Bank. In 2012, the Bank issued a twenty dollar commemorative circulation Banknote to celebrate its 30th anniversary. This note depicts the Jabiru Stork in flight as well as the Headquarters of the Bank, symbolizing the strength and stability of the Belizean economy.

Central Bank of Belize: Belize’s Currency
https://www.centralbank.org.bz/currency

The Central Bank of Belize Act gives the Bank the sole right to issue notes and coins in Belize. Therefore, only such notes and coins issued by the Central Bank of Belize are legal tender in Belize.

The Bank protects the integrity of the Belize currency notes and is committed to continuous review and enhancement of the design and security features so that the notes remain strong and secure against counterfeiting threats, particularly, changing technologies. The notes are designed so that they are difficult to reproduce and at the same time, allow the public to readily distinguish between genuine and counterfeit notes.

Coins of the Belize dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Belize_dollar

Some of the coins of the Colony of Belize retain the same basic designs as on the coins of British Honduras, but with the country's name changed. These coins were struck at the Royal Mint, Llantrisant. However, there were coins struck at the Franklin Mint, which depicts the Belizean Coat-of-Arms (the same as the British Honduras Coat-of-Arms) on the obverse instead of the Queen's portrait.

Central Bank of Belize
https://www.centralbank.org.bz/

The Central Bank of Belize regulates Belize’s financial system, provides economic data and publications, provides services to the government and financial institutions, and issues Belize’s currency.

Central Bank of Belize - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bank_of_Belize

The Central Bank is the natural successor to the Monetary Authority of Belize, established from 1976 to 1981, and the Board of Commissioners of Currency running from 1894. The latter is responsible for the devaluation crisis that led to the nationalist movement of the 1950s.

Belize dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belize_dollar

The Belize dollar is the official currency in Belize (currency code BZD). It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively BZ$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents. The official value is pegged at 2 BZ$ = 1 US$ since 1978.

Malaya and British Borneo dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaya_and_British_Borneo_dollar

The Malaya and British Borneo dollar (known as the ringgit in Malay, Jawi: رڠڬيت) was the currency of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, North Borneo, Brunei and Riau archipelago from 1953 to 1967 and was the successor of the Malayan dollar and Sarawak dollar, replacing them at par. The currency was issued by the Board of Commissioners of Currency, Malaya and British Borneo. Prior to 1952, the board was known as the Board of Commissioners of Currency, Malaya.

British North Borneo dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_North_Borneo_dollar

The British North Borneo dollar was the currency of British North Borneo from 1882 to 1953. It was subdivided into 100 cents. The dollar had remained at par with the Straits dollar (and its successor the Malayan dollar), the currency of Malaya and Singapore, at the value of one dollar to 2 shillings 4 pence sterling from its introduction until both currencies were replaced by the Malaya and British Borneo dollar in 1953. Both coins and banknotes are issued by the British North Borneo Company.

Educational Coin Company
http://www.educationalcoin.com/

Educational Coin Company is the world’s largest wholesale dealer of genuine, low-cost numismatic items - ancient, medieval, historical and modern.

Since 1960, they have been in the business of supplying marketers and resellers of all kinds, large and small alike, with a huge variety of loose, collated and creativity packaged numismatic items, in a wide price range, designed to attract, inform and delight the casual and sophisticated collector alike.

Old Pueblo Coin
http://oldpueblocoin.com/

Old Pueblo Coin buys coins, currency, gold, silver, bullion, silverware, jewelry, and lots of different types of antiques and collectibles. Stop by and look around and find out why Old Pueblo Coin has been Tucson’s Place to Deal for over 30 years.

Classical Numismatic Gallery
http://www.classicalnumismaticgallery.com/

One of the leading numismatic dealerships in India. Since 1984 they are in the field of Numismatics and have experience of over two and half decades. Since 2010 they have ventured in public auctions of numismatic material and take pride in being one of the first auctioneers recognised by a license issued by the Government of India to deal in antiquities. Since 2008 they hold a coin fair every year in the month of August. It is the most popular fair called Ahmedabad Coins and Currency fair.

Boardwalk Numismatics
http://www.boardwalknumismatics.com/

Since establishment in 2013, Boardwalk Numismatics now boasts clients throughout the world, including dozens in Russia, Malaysia, Germany, France, the UK, Eastern Europe, Singapore, China, Canada and the Arab world.

Silver crowns by Davenport number - CoinFactsWiki
http://www.coinfactswiki.com/wiki/Silver_crowns_by_Davenport_number

John Davenport's catalogs of silver crowns of the world remain the most thorough and accurate exploration of the topic. His listings are particularly important for the confusing issues of Central Europe of the sixteenth through eighteenth centuries.

Museum Victoria Collections: HRH King George V (1865-1936)
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/2054

George V was the second eldest son of Edward VII and Alexandra. Born in 1865, he first visited Australia with his elder brother Prince Albert as midshipmen aboard the HMS Bacchante in 1880. George seemed destined for a professional career in the Navy, but the heir apparent, Prince Albert, died in 1892 after contracting pneumonia. Prince George therefore became heir apparent (and hence Prince of Wales) and went on to marry his brother's former fiancee, who later became Queen Mary. He and his wife held the titles of Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York.

Cockatoo Coins
http://cockatoocoins.com.au/

An Australian dealer which started out as collectors, saw there was an issue with many dealers selling below average coins for top dollar to newer collectors, so they decided to do something about it and founded Cockatoo Coins which only sells quality items problem free guaranteed!

Bombay Auctions
http://www.bombayauctions.com/

Auction house in Mumbai, India.

NGC World Auction Central
https://www.ngccoin.com/auction-central/world/

NGC World Auction Central lists past and future auctions of certified world coins. You can easily navigate sales from some of the world’s largest numismatic auction houses, including Heritage, Stack’s Bowers, Teletrade, Goldberg, David Lawrence, GreatCollections and Champion Auction. This powerful search tool helps you research prices realized and find upcoming auctions of your favorite coins, all in one place.

Hawaiian Island Stamp and Coin
http://www.hawaiianislandstampandcoin.com/

Hawaiian Island Stamp & Coin has been servicing the collectors of Hawaii and visitors from around the world since 1973. The first store was opened in Hawaii Kai at The Koko Marina Shopping Center. In 1979 Hawaiian Island Stamp & Coin made it's new home right down town Honolulu on the corner of Hotel and Bishop Street occupying the front corner of the Remington College Building on the ground level.

Expert Apraisals since 1973. The expert staff performs appraisals and does authentication work for Estates, Banks, Trust Companies, Attorneys, Law Enforcement Agencies and Collectors. We have done appraisals for attorneys, trusts, Iolani Palace, Bishop Museum, Campbell Estate, Damon Estate, Bank of Hawaii, First Hawaiian Bank, etc.

Coin Trust
http://www.cointrust.co.uk/

Coin Trust are a family run business who are modern and rare coin dealers and trade under the company name of Pineapple Direct Ltd producing a regular catalogue called Coin Trust. The company has been running under it's existing name since 2000. They have a huge collection of British and worldwide coinage from Roman to Anglo Saxon, hammered coins to the latest present day collectable brilliant uncirculated gold sovereigns, commemorative £5 pieces and much more.

Pacific World Coins
http://www.pacificworldcoins.com/

Martin Weiss has been a leader in the numismatics hobby for over 40 years. He is perhaps best known as the individual who helped to make the coins of China among the most collected coins around the world.

Edlins
http://www.edlins.com.au/

Traders and auctioneers of quality coins, banknotes, stamps, medals, collectibles, gold and silver bullion in Canberra, Australia.

Online Coins and Collectables
http://www.onlinecoinsandcollectables.com.au/

Online Coins specialise in selling Australian coins, banknotes and accessories. They are a licensed coin dealer with a shop located close to the CBD of Lismore, NSW since 2009.

Bank of Guyana: Notes
https://www.bankofguyana.org.gy/bog/notes-coins/notes

There are five currency notes issued by the Bank of Guyana. The denominations are as follows: Twenty Dollars, Fifty Dollars, One Hundred Dollars, Five Hundred Dollars, One Thousand Dollars, Five Thousand Dollars.

Bank of Guyana: Souvenir Coins
https://www.bankofguyana.org.gy/bog/notes-coins/souvenir-coins

1 cent & 5 cents struck in Nickel-brass and the 10 cents & 25 cents struck in Copper-nickel. Coins are packaged in a fully illustrative blister pack.

Bank of Guyana: Coins
https://www.bankofguyana.org.gy/bog/notes-coins/coins

There are three coins issued by the Bank of Guyana. The denominations are as follows: $10, $5, $1.These coins were put into circulation on 26th May, 1996.

Bank of Guyana
https://www.bankofguyana.org.gy/

The Bank of Guyana was established by virtue of the Bank of Guyana Ordinance No. 23 of 1965. Actual operation commenced on October 16. 1965 – seven months before the country gained political independence. The early establishment of the Bank was promoted by an agreement of the U.K. Government (acting for the still colonial members of the British Caribbean Currency Board (BCCB) and the Trinidad & Tobago Government), for the dissolution of the BCCB by mid-1967 and the cessation of issuance of currency after 1965.

Bank of Guyana - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_of_Guyana

The Bank of Guyana is the central bank of Guyana. It was established in 1965 in advance of the country's independence in 1966.

Guyanese dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guyanese_dollar

The Guyanese dollar (currency sign: $, G$ and GY$; ISO: GYD) has been the unit of account in Guyana (formerly British Guiana) since 29 January 1839. Originally it was intended as a transitional unit to facilitate the changeover from the Dutch guilder system of currency to the British pound sterling system. The Spanish dollar was already prevalent throughout the West Indies in general, and from 1839, the Spanish dollar unit operated in British Guiana in conjunction with British sterling coins at a standard conversion rate of one dollar for every four shillings and twopence. In 1951 the British sterling coinage was replaced with a new decimal coinage which was simultaneously introduced through all the British territories in the Eastern Caribbean. When sterling began to depreciate in the early 1970s, a switch to a US dollar peg became increasingly attractive as an anti-inflationary measure and the Eastern Caribbean Currency Authority (of which Guyana was a member) made the switch in October 1975. The Guyanese dollar is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively G$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies.

Forvm Ancient Coins: Mint Marks of Roman Mints
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/numiswiki/view.asp?key=Mint%20Marks

Mint marks are located on the reverse of the coin at the bottom in an area known as the 'exergue'. The exergue is visually set off from the rest of the reverse design by a line. In some cases, part of the mint mark (such as the officina or workshop) may be found in the body of the reverse design or even on the obverse field.

Forvm Ancient Coins: Roman Coin Info
http://www.romancoin.info/

Large database of Roman coins.

Follis - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Follis

The Roman follis was a large bronze coin introduced in about 294 (actual name of this coin is unknown) with the coinage reform of Diocletian. It weighed about 10 grams and was about 4% silver, mostly as a thin layer on the surface. The word follis means bag (usually made of leather) in Latin, and there is evidence that this term was used in antiquity for a sealed bag containing a specific amount of coins. It is also possible that the coin was named Follis because of the ancient Greek word "φολίς" meaning a thin layer of metal which covers the surface of various objects, since originally this coin had a thin layer of silver on top.

O’Brien Rare Coin Review: Why is the 1933 British Penny so valuable?
https://oldcurrencyexchange.com/2014/08/20/rare-coins-the-1933-british-penny/

The 1933 British Penny is, perhaps, one of the most famous coin rarities in the English-speaking world today – allegedly only seven coins were minted – specifically for the king to lay under the foundation stones of new buildings. So why do so many people claim to have a 1933 penny in their possession or to have seen one?

Poltura - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poltura

The poltura is a historic Hungarian monetary unit that was struck under the Hungarian rulers Leopold I, Joseph I, Francis II Rákóczi, Charles III and Maria Theresa. Its forerunner was the Polish poltorak, a coin equal to one and one-half grosz (półtora means one and a half in Polish).

snible.org | Black Sea Hoard and other Apollonia diobol fakes
http://www.snible.org/coins/black_sea_hoard.html

In 1988 a Bulgarian lifeguard discovered a hoard of 150 diobols of Mesembria and Apollonia types. He gave a few to a German tourist to sell in the West. A German dealer bought them for DM 50 (about US $25) each and offered to buy the rest at the same price. The lifeguard smuggled most of the rest of the diobols into Germany but only received DM 30 per coin.

reidgold.com Apollonia Pontika Fakes | "New York" Hoard
http://medusacoins.reidgold.com/newyork.html

In 1999 a large quantity of forgeries of Apollonia Pontika drachms were dispersed at the New York International Numismatic Convention. I'm calling these the "New York Hoard."

reidgold.com Replicas and Forgeries | Lipanoff Studio
http://counterfeitcoins.reidgold.com/lipanoff.html

The Lipanoff Studio is a workshop of ancient coin copyists in Bulgaria. According to now defunct site they had at GeoCities, they produced ancient coin copies using ancient methods -- hand-tool engraving and hammer striking. This site alternately referred to the studio as "Lipanoff, Todorov & Co." and "Todorov & Co.," with Chavdar Lipanov appearing to be one of the principles. Judging from stylistic similarities, with the Athenian Owl below being the most obvious example, it appears that one or more of the individuals involved with the Lipanoff Studio were former apprentices of the Bulgarian ancient coin replica maker Slavey Petrov.

British Coin Gallery
http://www.britishcoingallery.com/

Personal site with quality photos of British coins. For each section are selected just one or two coins to represent the various types available; where more than one of a type is illustrated it is generally to show a rare or unusual variety. Most pages will list copper and bronze, then silver, then proofs with medals at the bottom of the page.

Guinea (coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guinea_(coin)

The guinea is a coin of approximately one quarter ounce of gold that was minted in the Kingdom of England and later in the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom between 1663 and 1814. It was the first English machine-struck gold coin, originally worth one pound sterling, equal to twenty shillings, but rises in the price of gold relative to silver caused the value of the guinea to increase, at times to as high as thirty shillings. From 1717 to 1816, its value was officially fixed at twenty-one shillings. Then, Great Britain adopted the gold standard and guinea became a colloquial or specialised term.

Great Recoinage of 1816 - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Recoinage_of_1816

The Great Recoinage of 1816 was an attempt by the British Government to re-stabilise the currency of Great Britain following economic difficulties precipitated by the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.

Museum Victoria Collections: Franklin Mint, USA
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/1965

The Franklin Mint is the largest direct marketer of personal works of art and collectibles in the world. From its corporate headquarters in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, and in over 20 countries around the world, it offers a broad range of products to a proprietary list of eight million collectors.

Museum Victoria Collections: Royal Australian Mint, Deakin, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/2418

The Royal Australian Mint was commissioned to produce Australia's decimal coinage, introduced into circulation on 14 February 1966. The Mint began making its own coins on 22 February 1965. On that day HRH the Duke of Edinburgh inaugurated the Mint in Canberra and activated its first production run of coins. Prior to this date, Australia had been striking coins at the Perth, Sydney and Melbourne Mints, which were actually branches of the Royal Mint, London. Australia bought its coins from the Royal Mint until 1965.

Museum Victoria Collections: Heaton & Sons Mint, Birmingham, England
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/2023

Heaton and Sons is one of the longest running and most prolific private mints in the world. The company began as a family business in Birmingham, then a booming metal working centre, pioneering the mass production techniques of the industrial revolution. In 1794 Ralph Heaton I established a brassfounding business in Slaney Street, Birmingham. From 1808-1812 the company moved to Shadwell Street. During that time Heaton's son Ralph Heaton II became apprenticed to Thomas Willetts as a die maker.

Museum Victoria Collections: San Francisco Mint, Medal Makers, United States of America
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/2450

The San Francisco Mint was born out of the need for a Western Frontier Mint when in January of 1848, gold flakes were discovered at Sutter's Mill triggering one of the most important chapters in U.S. History the California Gold Rush!

Within a few years, the gold mines out West produced an abundance of gold bullion, gold nuggets, and gold dust. Yet, there was an acute shortage of circulating legal tender gold coins in the Wild West Frontier. To relieve the problem, Congress authorized the establishment of the San Francisco Mint, a branch US Mint in the California Territory, to strike the much needed gold coins and silver dollars.

Museum Victoria Collections: Royal Mint, Melbourne Branch, Melbourne, Victoria
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/2429

The establishment of a branch of Her Majesty's Mint in Melbourne was under consideration for some years. Two requests were sent to the Imperial Parliament by both Houses of the Victorian Legislature, one in December 1859 and the other in May 1864. In September 1867 the Victorian Legislature passed an Act making permanent funding available for the proposed mint. In August 1869 Queen Victoria issued a Royal Proclamation declaring that gold coins made at the Melbourne Branch of the Royal Mint legal tender in all her dominions. The Melbourne Branch of the Royal Mint finally opened on 12 June 1872, 17 years after the Royal Mint had opened in Sydney. Like Sydney, Melbourne could not manufacture dies but it nevertheless was welcomed by Victorian medallists, who now had a choice of places where their work could be struck: the Mint or Stokes (then in partnership with Martin).

Museum Victoria Collections: Perth Mint, Medal & Coin Makers, East Perth, Western Australia
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/2362

During the 19th century branches of the Royal Mint in London were established in the Australian colonies to refine gold from the gold rushes and to mint gold sovereigns and half-sovereigns for the British Empire. The Sydney branch opened in 1855, the Melbourne branch in 1872 and the Perth branch on 20 June 1899.

Museum Victoria Collections: Early History of London Mints, to 1300
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/3765

The Roman Empire had a mint in London from about AD 287 until about 337, but for most of the period of Roman control Britain was supplied with its coinage requirements from Europe. The end of Roman rule saw an end to the regular circulation of coins.

The establishment of the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms saw a gradual return to coinage. As the kingdoms joined into one, so the coinage, which was almost solely of the silver penny, became uniform. In 928 King Aethelstan ordered that there would be a single coinage for all of England to be struck from a number of official mints, the largest of which was to be London. Even after the Norman Conquest in 1066 there were many mints producing the coins and many changes of design. Both of these matters were related to the profit that was made in turning bullion into coin.

Museum Victoria Collections: The Tower Mint, 1300-1809
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/3766

In 1279 William de Turnemire was appointed master-moneyer for England. He had come from France with a new approach to casting the molten metal - in strips rather than sheets, and boiled the blanks in acid to improve their silvery surface. The Royal Mint was at the time in the Treasury and Exchequer buildings but becoming large and industrial.

Museum Victoria Collections: Royal Mint, Tower Hill, 1809-1975
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/3767

On 7 February 1798 a committee of the Privy Council recommended that a new Royal Mint with the latest machinery should be built. A site on Tower Hill that had been a Royal Navy victualing yard was selected and Matthew Boulton, James Watt and John Rennie were charged to supply the latest in steam minting machinery. The presses were at that time still operated on the basis of the screw but they were now steam powered and fed through automatic blank feeders.

Museum Victoria Collections: Royal Mint, Wales, 1969-
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/3769

The Halsbury Committee Inquiry into decimal currency recognised that the coinage needs of such a move were beyond the capacity of the Tower Hill mint. Constrained by government policy to move industry out of London a new mint site was found at Llantrisant, a town north-west of Cardiff in Wales. The Decimal Currency Act received Royal Assent on 14 July 1967.

Museum Victoria Collections: The Royal Mint
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/3764

Although there were mints in London in the Roman and early Anglo-Saxon periods, it was not until Alfred the Great occupied the city in 886 that a continuous history down to the present Royal Mint can be established.

From 1300 until 1811 the Royal Mint was housed between the inner and outer walls of the Tower of London and during this time it is regularly referred to as the Tower Mint.

Museum Victoria Collections: Royal Mint, Medal Makers, Sydney, New South Wales
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/2428

In 1856 the Royal Mint, Sydney, ordered a special press that offered Australian medalists greater technical capacity than previously available. The Mint, however, did not have the ability to prepare dies from artwork, obtaining its coinage dies directly from London. The Mint's ability to even harden engraved dies was questionable.

The first major piece to be issued by the mint was struck in 1859: a commemorative medal awarded to those who attempted to rescue survivors of the Admella shipwreck near Portland in Victoria.

Museum Victoria Collections: Branch Mints of the Royal Mint
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/3768

The discovery of gold in the Australian colonies of New South Wales and Victoria in 1851 created the next challenge for the Royal Mint. Both colonies were operating with British coins including the gold sovereign. The gold that was being found had to be sent to the Royal Mint in London to be struck into sovereigns and then returned. This was expensive both for freight and insurance and took at least six months. Powerful lobbies in Sydney and Melbourne fought for the right to strike sovereigns locally and the colonial governments both sent this request to London.

History of copper currency in Sweden - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_copper_currency_in_Sweden

The Swedish Empire had the greatest and most numerous copper mines in Europe as it entered into its pre-eminence in the early 17th century as an emerging Great Power. Through poor fiscal policies and in part the Treaty of Älvsborg, Sweden lost control of its reserves of precious metals, primarily silver, of which most had fled to the burgeoning trade economy of Amsterdam. In 1607 the Swedish king Charles IX attempted to persuade the populace to exchange their silver-based currency for a copper-based coin of equal face value, though this offer was not generally taken up. Sweden's large army of the time were paid entirely in copper currency, further issued in large numbers by Gustavus II to finance his war against Ferdinand II of Germany. The face value of the copper coins in circulation now greatly exceeded the reserves of the state and production of the national economy, and quickly the value of the currency fell to its commodity value, which in a country where copper was so abundant, was small indeed. The savings of the people of Sweden were wiped out.

Swedish riksdaler - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swedish_riksdaler

The riksdaler was the name of a Swedish coin first minted in 1604. Between 1777 and 1873, it was the currency of Sweden. The daler, like the dollar, was named after the German Thaler. The similarly named Reichsthaler, rijksdaalder, and rigsdaler were used in Germany and Austria-Hungary, the Netherlands, and Denmark-Norway, respectively. Riksdaler is still used as a colloquial term for kronor in Sweden.

Skilling (currency) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skilling_(currency)

The skilling (pronounced approx. like English shilling) was the Scandinavian equivalent of the schilling or shilling. It was used as a subdivision of the Swedish riksdaler, the Danish rigsdaler, the Norwegian rigsdaler, and the Norwegian speciedaler.

Norwegian speciedaler - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norwegian_speciedaler

The speciedaler was the currency of Norway between 1816 and 1875. It replaced the rigsdaler specie at par and was subdivided into 120 skilling (called skilling species on some issues). It was replaced by the Norwegian krone when Norway joined the Scandinavian Monetary Union. An equal valued krone/krona of the monetary union replaced the three currencies at the rate of 1 krone/krona = 1⁄2 Danish rigsdaler = 1⁄4 Norwegian speciedaler = 1 Swedish riksdaler.

Norwegian rigsdaler - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norwegian_rigsdaler

The rigsdaler was the unit of currency used in Norway until 1816 and in Denmark until 1873. The similarly named Reichsthaler, riksdaler and rijksdaalder were used in Germany and Austria-Hungary, Sweden and the Netherlands, respectively.

Banknotes of Denmark, 1972 series - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banknotes_of_Denmark,_1972_series

The banknotes of Denmark, 1972 series are part of the physical form of Denmark's currency, the Krone (kr). They have been issued solely by Danmarks Nationalbank since 1 August 1818. They are still valid but are no longer printed. The theme of the notes is paintings by Jens Juel (1745–1802) of various more or less famous people on the front sides and common animals in Denmark on the back sides.

Banknotes of Denmark, 1997 series - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banknotes_of_Denmark,_1997_series

Danmarks Nationalbank issues banknotes of the Danish Krone (kr.) and has replaced the 1997 banknote series as of 24 May 2011.

The issue of the 1997 series commenced on 10 March 1997 with the debut of the 200 kr. denomination, issued to bridge the gap between the 100 kr. and 500 kr. denominations.

Commencing on 27 November 2002 the Nationalbank improved the security features for future banknotes of the 1997 series, starting with the 100 kr. denomination.

Banknotes of Denmark, 2009 series - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banknotes_of_Denmark,_2009_series

The theme of the notes is bridges of Denmark and ancient Danish artifacts found in the vicinity of the bridges. The Danish artist Karin Birgitte Lund was selected to design the 2009 series after a competition. The competition specified the bridges theme as mandatory, and it was her idea to include the artifacts on the reverse side.

The sizes of the 2009 bank notes are identical to the 1997 bank notes, in order to avoid alterations to automated teller machines. The height is 72 millimetres and the lengths are from 125 mm to 165 mm, increasing by 10 mm for each new value.

Den Kgl. Mønts (Royal Danish Mint)
http://www.kgl-moent.dk/

The Royal Mint of Denmark (Danish: Den Kongelige Mønt) is a mint established by the Danish monarchy in the early 16th century, which currently by law is the only company allowed to mint the Danish currency (DKK). The Danish State now owns the company as an entity belonging to the Danish Central Bank.

Royal Mint (Denmark) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Mint_(Denmark)

The Royal Mint of Denmark (Danish: Den Kongelige Mønt) is a mint established by the Danish monarchy in the early 16th century, which currently by law is the only company allowed to mint the Danish currency (DKK). The Danish State now owns the company as an entity belonging to the Danish Central Bank.

Greenlandic krone - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenlandic_krone

The Greenlandic krone (Greenlandic: koruuni) was a planned currency for Greenland. Currently, the Danish krone circulates. The Greenland krone was not intended to be an independent currency but a version of the Danish krone. Consequently, it was not intended to have its own ISO 4217 currency code, but to use the same ISO 4217 code as the Danish krone, which is DKK. Even if the currency was to have been adopted, the (regular) Danish krone would have continued to circulate separately.

Danish rigsdaler - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danish_rigsdaler

The rigsdaler was the name of several currencies used in Denmark until 1875. The similarly named Reichsthaler, riksdaler and rijksdaalder were used in Germany and Austria-Hungary, Sweden and the Netherlands, respectively. These currencies were often Anglicized as rix-dollar or rixdollar.

Greenlandic rigsdaler - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenlandic_rigsdaler

The rigsdaler was the currency of Greenland until 1874. It was equal to the Danish rigsdaler which circulated in Greenland alongside distinct banknotes from 1803.

In 1803, the Kongel. Grønlandske Handel introduced notes in denominations of 12 and 24 skilling, 1⁄2 and 1 rigsdaler courant. The next year, the Handelsstederne i Grønland took over the issuance of paper money and introduced notes for 6 and 12 skilling, 1⁄4, 1⁄2, 1 and 5 rigsdaler courant.

In 1819, following the currency reform, notes were introduced in denominations of 6, 12 and 24 skilling and 1 rigsbankdaler. These were replaced in 1856 by notes for the same amounts but in the new denominations of skilling rigsmønt and rigsdaler.

Faroese króna - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faroese_kr%C3%B3na

The króna (plural: krónur; sign: kr) is the currency of the Faroe Islands. It is issued by the Danish National Bank. It is not an independent currency but a version of the Danish krone. Consequently, it does not have an ISO 4217 currency code and instead shares that of the Danish krone, DKK. The króna is subdivided into 100 oyru(r).

Danmarks Nationalbank: Commemorative Coins
http://www.nationalbanken.dk/en/banknotes_and_coins/Pages/Commemorative-coins.aspx

Denmark has a tradition for issuing commemorative coins to mark special events in the Royal Family, e.g. accession to the throne, jubilees, weddings, silver and golden anniversaries and special birthdays.
Like the ordinary 10-krone and 20-krone coins, commemorative coins have a portrait of the monarch on the obverse, often a portrait designed for the occasion. Since the Queen’s 50th birthday in 1990, the royal commemorative coins have been issued as 20-krone coins put into general circulation and a special collectors' edition in silver. Originally, the silver coin was a 200-krone coin, but the silver commemorative coin issued to mark the Queen’s 70th birthday in 2010 was a 500-krone coin. On this occasion, a commemorative gold coin was also issued, as a novelty.

Danmarks Nationalbank: Thematic Coins
http://www.nationalbanken.dk/en/banknotes_and_coins/thematic%20coins/Pages/default.aspx

Since 2002, Danmarks Nationalbank has issued coin series with common motifs. The themes of the 20-krone coins have been towers and ships, while those of the 10-krone coins have been fairy tales and Polar Year motifs. A portrait of the Queen is depicted on the obverse of all thematic coins.

The series with motifs from Hans Christian Andersen’s fairy tales was issued in 2005-07 to mark the 200th anniversary of Hans Christian Andersen’s birth. In 2007-09, it was followed by a series of three coins to mark the International Polar Year. The Fairy Tale and Polar Year coins were also issued in collectors' editions in silver and gold.

Danmarks Nationalbank: Banknotes and Coins in Figures
http://www.nationalbanken.dk/en/banknotes_and_coins/figures/Pages/default.aspx

The figure for coins in circulation on Danmarks Nationalbank's balance sheet includes 3,000-krone gold coins (kr. 6.8 million), 1,000-krone gold coins (kr. 15.2 million), 500-krone silver coins (kr. 46.2 million), 200-krone commemorative coins (kr. 99.6 million), and 100-krone Polar coins (kr. 6.9 million) at end-December 2015.

Unlike coins, banknotes have a limited lifetime. To maintain a high quality of banknotes in circulation, the banknotes must be replaced before they become too worn or dirty. The lifetime of a banknote increases with its value, since small denominations are circulated faster than larger denominations and consequently worn faster. While a 50-krone banknote usually has to be replaced after around two to three years, the lifetime of a 1000-krone banknote is normally at least 10 years.

Danmarks Nationalbank: Danish Coins
http://www.nationalbanken.dk/en/banknotes_and_coins/Danish_coins/Pages/default.aspx

The present coin series was introduced gradually in the period from 1989 to 1993. The series comprises six denominations: 50 øre, 1 krone, 2 kroner, 5 kroner, 10 kroner and 20 kroner. In addition to the ordinary circulation coins, Danmarks Nationalbank occasionally issues commemorative coins and thematic coins. Every year three coin sets are also issued. All of these coins are legal tender in the same way as the ordinary circulation coins.

Danmarks Nationalbank: Faroese Banknotes
http://www.nationalbanken.dk/en/banknotes_and_coins/Faroeislands/Pages/default.aspx

In 2012, Danmarks Nationalbank issued an updated version of the Faroese banknote series with new security features. The motifs are Faroese animals and Faroese landscapes.

Danmarks Nationalbank: Danish Banknotes from the 1945-1997 Series
http://www.nationalbanken.dk/en/banknotes_and_coins/Danish_previous_notes/Pages/default.aspx

In the menu on the left you can find information on the banknotes series issued 1945-1997. All banknotes issued after 1945 can be exchanged for new banknotes.

Danmarks Nationalbank: Danish Banknotes 2009 Series
http://www.nationalbanken.dk/en/banknotes_and_coins/Danish_banknotes/Pages/default.aspx

In the period 2009-2011, Danmarks Nationalbank issued new Danish banknotes. They were given new security features, making it even more difficult to counterfeit or copy genuine banknotes. The banknotes were designed by the artist Karin Birgitte Lund and have Danish bridges and prehistoric finds as their motifs.

Danmarks Nationalbank
http://www.nationalbanken.dk/

Danmarks Nationalbank is the central bank of Denmark and is a self-governing, independent institution. The independence of Danmarks Nationalbank is incorporated into the Danmarks Nationalbank Act from 1936, in that the bank's Board of Governors is solely responsible for determining monetary-policy interest rates.

Danmarks Nationalbank's three main objectives are to contribute to ensuring stable prices, safe payments and a stable financial system.

Danmarks Nationalbank - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danmarks_Nationalbank

Danmarks Nationalbank (English: Danish National Bank; in Danish often simply Nationalbanken) is the central bank of the Kingdom of Denmark. It is a non-eurozone member of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Since its establishment in 1818, objective of the Nationalbank as an independent and credible institution is to issue the Danish currency, the krone, and ensure its stability. The Board of Governors holds full responsibility for the monetary policy.

Commemorative coins of Denmark - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commemorative_coins_of_Denmark

List of commemorative coins issued from 1848 to present.

Danish krone - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danish_krone

The krone (plural: kroner; sign: kr.; code: DKK) is the official currency of Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, introduced on 1 January 1875. Both the ISO code "DKK" and currency sign "kr." are in common use; the former precedes the value, the latter in some contexts follows it. The currency is sometimes referred to as the Danish crown in English, since krone literally means crown. Historically, krone coins have been minted in Denmark since the 17th century.

Qirsh - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qirsh

Qirsh, Ersh, Gersh, Grush, Kuruş and Grosi are all names for currency denominations in and around the territories formerly part of the Ottoman Empire. The variation in the name stems from the different languages it is used in (Arabic, Ethiopian, Hebrew, Turkish and Greek) and the different transcriptions into the Latin alphabet. The name originally comes from the Italian grosso, as in denaro grosso, a silver coin worth twelve denari.

The original qirsh was a large, 17th century silver piece, similar to the European thalers, issued by the Ottomans. It was worth 40 para. In 1844, following sustained debasement, the gold lira was introduced, worth 100 qirsh.

In Greek, it was known as γρόσι, grosi; plural γρόσια grosia.

Kuruş - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuru%C5%9F

Kuruş (derived from the French gros, German Groschen and Hungarian Garas; Ottoman Turkish: قروش gurûş) is a Turkish currency subunit. Since 2005, one Turkish lira is equal to 100 kuruş. The kuruş was also the standard unit of currency in the Ottoman Empire until 1844, and from that date until the late 1970s was a subdivision of the former lira. It was subdivided into 40 para (پاره), each of 3 akçe. In European languages, the kuruş was often referred to as the piastre, derived from the Italian word piastra.

Ducat - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ducat

The ducat was a gold or silver coin used as a trade coin in Europe from the later medieval centuries until as late as the 20th century. Many types of ducats had various metallic content and purchasing power throughout the period. The gold ducat of Venice gained wide international acceptance, like the medieval Byzantine hyperpyron and the Florentine florin, or the modern British pound sterling and the United States dollar.

Sicilian piastra - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_piastra

The piastra was the distinct currency of the Kingdom of Sicily until 1815. In order to distinguish it from the piastra issued on the mainland Kingdom of Sicily (also known as the Kingdom of Naples), it is referred to as the "Sicilian piastra" as opposed to the "Neapolitan piastra". These two piastra were equal but were subdivided differently. The Sicilian piastra was subdivided into 12 tari, each of 20 grana or 120 piccoli. The oncia was worth 30 tari (2½ piastra).

In 1815, a single piastra currency was introduced for the Two Sicilies, see Two Sicilies piastra.

Neapolitan piastra - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neapolitan_piastra

The piastra was the most common silver coin of the mainland Kingdom of Sicily, also known as the Kingdom of Naples. In order to distinguish it from the piastra issued on the island of Sicily, it is referred to as the "Neapolitan piastra" as opposed to the "Sicilian piastra". These two piastra were equal but were subdivided differently. The Neapolitan piastra was divided into 120 grana (singular: grano), each of 2 tornesi (singular: tornese) or 12 cavalli (singular: cavallo). There were also the carlino worth 10 grana and the ducato worth 100 grana.

Italian lira - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_lira

The lira (plural lire) was the currency of Italy between 1861 and 2002 and of the Albanian Kingdom between 1941 and 1943. Between 1999 and 2002, the Italian lira was officially a national subunit of the euro. However, cash payments could be made in lira only, as euro coins or notes were not yet available. The lira was also the currency of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy between 1807 and 1814.

Two Sicilies ducat - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two_Sicilies_ducat

The ducat was the main currency of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies between 1816 and 1860. When the Congress of Vienna created the kingdom merging the Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of Sicily, the ducat became at par a continuation of the Neapolitan ducat and the Sicilian piastra issued prior to 1816, although the Sicilian piastra had been subdivided into 240 grana. In the mainland part of the kingdom, the ducat also replaced the Napoleonic lira.

Central Bank of Cyprus: Banknotes & Coins: Banknotes
http://www.centralbank.gov.cy/nqcontent.cfm?a_id=8103

Euro banknotes in pictures.

Central Bank of Cyprus: Banknotes & Coins: Coins
http://www.centralbank.gov.cy/nqcontent.cfm?a_id=8107

Εuro coins in pictures. Recognition of genuine coins.

Central Bank of Cyprus: Banknotes & Coins: Cyprus pound
http://www.centralbank.gov.cy/nqcontent.cfm?a_id=10860

Prior to the introduction of the euro, the monetary unit of the Republic of Cyprus was the Cyprus pound which was initially divided into 1.000 mils. In 1983 the mil was replaced by the cent and the Cyprus pound became denominated into 100 cent. On 1 January 2008, the euro replaced the Cyprus pound as the Republic’s monetary unit.

Central Bank of Cyprus: Banknotes & Coins: Collector Coins
http://www.centralbank.gov.cy/nqcontent.cfm?a_id=10862

The Central Bank of Cyprus issues collector coins in limited quantities with themes taken from nature, history, cultural heritage, as well as themes taken from important events.

Central Bank of Cyprus: Banknotes & Coins: Commemorative Coins
http://www.centralbank.gov.cy/nqcontent.cfm?a_id=10863

Pictures and descriptions of euro commemorative coins.

Central Bank of Cyprus - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bank_of_Cyprus

The Central Bank of Cyprus (Greek: Kεντρική Τράπεζα της Κύπρου Turkish: Kıbrıs Merkez Bankası), is the central bank of the Republic of Cyprus, located in Nicosia. It was established in 1963. The bank issued Cypriot pound banknotes and coins prior to 2008, when Cyprus adopted the euro.

Central Bank of Cyprus
http://www.centralbank.gov.cy/

The Central Bank of Cyprus (Greek: Kεντρική Τράπεζα της Κύπρου Turkish: Kıbrıs Merkez Bankası), is the central bank of the Republic of Cyprus, located in Nicosia. It was established in 1963. The bank issued Cypriot pound banknotes and coins prior to 2008, when Cyprus adopted the euro.

Cypriot euro coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cypriot_euro_coins

Cypriot euro coins feature three separate designs for the three series of coins. Cyprus has been a member of the European Union since 1 May 2004, and is a member of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union. It has completed the third stage of the EMU and adopted the euro as its official currency on 1 January 2008. In 2008 and 2009, the Mint of Finland was chosen to mint the coins (except the €2 commemorative coin of 2009, which was minted in the Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt (Royal Dutch Mint)). Since 2010, the mint of Cypriot euro coins is the Mint of Greece.

Coins of the Cypriot pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Cypriot_pound

The coins of the Cypriot pound are part of the physical form of former Cypriot currency, the Cypriot pound. They have been issued since coming under British rule in 1878, until Cyprus' adoption of Euro in 2008.

Cypriot pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cypriot_pound

The pound, also known as the lira (Greek: λίρα / plural λίρες and Turkish: lira, from the Latin libra through the Italian lira), was the currency of Cyprus, including the Sovereign Base Areas in Akrotiri and Dhekelia, until 31 December 2007, when the Republic of Cyprus adopted the euro. However, the self-proclaimed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus used and still uses on the official level the Turkish lira.

The Cyprus pound was replaced by the euro as official currency of the Republic of Cyprus on 1 January 2008 at the irrevocable fixed exchange rate of CYP 0.585274 per EUR 1.00.

Piastre - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piastre

The piastre or piaster refers to a number of units of currency. The term originates from the Italian for "thin metal plate". The name was applied to Spanish and Hispanic American pieces of eight, or pesos, by Venetian traders in the Levant in the 16th century.

These pesos, minted continually for centuries, were readily accepted by traders in many parts of the world. After the countries of Latin America had gained independence, pesos of Mexico began flowing in through the trade routes, and became prolific in the Far East, taking the place of the Spanish pieces of eight which had been introduced by the Spanish at Manila, and by the Portuguese at Malacca. When the French colonised Indochina, they began issuing the new French Indochinese piastre (piastre de commerce), which was equal in value to the familiar Spanish and Mexican pesos.

South African Numismatic Grading Service (S.A.N.G.S.)
http://www.sangs.co.za/

The concept that was originally developed by companies in the USA has taken the South African numismatic market by storm. Specialising primarily in American coins, these internationally recognised companies have done excellent work in the field of numismatic grading over a long period of time. The experts on South Africa coins, however are in South Africa and that was one of the major factors that motivated the establishment of SANGS.

Bohemian and Moravian koruna - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bohemian_and_Moravian_koruna

The Bohemian and Moravian koruna, known as the Protectorate crown (in Czech: Protektorátní koruna), was the currency of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia between 1939 and 1945. It was subdivided into 100 haléřů.

Czechoslovak koruna - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czechoslovak_koruna

The Czechoslovak koruna (in Czech and Slovak: Koruna československá, at times Koruna česko-slovenská; koruna means crown) was the currency of Czechoslovakia from April 10, 1919, to March 14, 1939, and from November 1, 1945, to February 7, 1993. For a brief time in 1939 and 1993, it was also the currency in separate Czech and Slovak republics.

On February 8, 1993, it was replaced by the Czech koruna and the Slovak koruna, both at par.

National Bank of Slovakia: The Slovak national sides of the euro coins
http://www.nbs.sk/en/about-the-bank/list-of-photo-galleries/photo-gallery/_the-slovak-national-sides-of-the-euro-coins

The Slovak national sides of the euro coins (photo gallery).

Národná banka Slovenska (National Bank of Slovakia)
http://www.nbs.sk/

Národná banka Slovenska is the central bank of the Slovak Republic.

Since 1 January 2009, National Bank of Slovakia has been part of the Eurosystem. In cooperation with the European Central Bank and central banks of the euro area countries, it maintains the price stability. Within the Eurosystem, National Bank of Slovakia fulfills tasks related to: monetary policy, foreign exchange operations and reserves, issuing euro banknotes and coins, payment systems, statistics
international cooperation, mutual cooperation and support among central banks, financial stability in the euro area.

Another important role of Národná banka Slovenska is supervision of the financial market.

National Bank of Slovakia - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Bank_of_Slovakia

National Bank of Slovakia (Slovak: Národná banka Slovenska, NBS), is the central bank of Slovakia, which is a member of the European Union and the European System of Central Banks. Since 1 January 2009, it has also been a member of Eurosystem.

Banque d'Algérie (Bank of Algeria)
http://www.bank-of-algeria.dz/

The Bank of Algeria (Arabic: بنك الجزائر ‎, French: Banque d'Algérie) is the central bank of Algeria. The bank is located in Algiers.

The Bank of Algeria sets the conditions under which banks and financial institutions in Algeria and abroad can be allowed to be in Algeria and to operate there. It establishes, moreover, the conditions under which such authority may be amended or withdrawn.

The organization of the bank includes the Conseil de la Monnaie et du Crédit, the Commission Bancaire (Banking Commission) and the Bank of Algeria itself.

Bank of Algeria - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_of_Algeria

The Bank of Algeria (Arabic: بنك الجزائر ‎, French: Banque d'Algérie) is the central bank of Algeria. The bank is located in Algiers.

The Bank of Algeria sets the conditions under which banks and financial institutions in Algeria and abroad can be allowed to be in Algeria and to operate there. It establishes, moreover, the conditions under which such authority may be amended or withdrawn.

The organization of the bank includes the Conseil de la Monnaie et du Crédit, the Commission Bancaire (Banking Commission) and the Bank of Algeria itself.

Czech koruna - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czech_koruna

The koruna (sign: Kč; code: CZK) is the currency of the Czech Republic since 1993, and in English it is sometimes referred to as Czech crown. The koruna is one of European Union's 11 currencies, and the Czech Republic is legally bound to adopt the euro currency in the future.

Algerian budju - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algerian_budju

The budju was the currency of Algeria until 1848. It was subdivided into 24 muzuna, each of 2 kharub or 29 asper. It was replaced by the franc when the country was occupied by France.

Algerian franc - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algerian_franc

The franc was the currency of Algeria between 1848 and 1964. It was subdivided into 100 centimes.

The franc replaced the budju when France occupied the country. It was equivalent to the French franc and was revalued in 1960 at a rate of 100 old francs = 1 new franc to maintain the equivalence. The new franc was replaced at par by the dinar in 1964 following Algerian independence granted by France in 1962.

Except for 20-, 50- and 100-franc coins issued between 1949 and 1956, Algeria used the same coins as metropolitan France.

Algerian dinar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algerian_dinar

The dinar (Arabic: دينار‎) (sign: د.ج or DA; code: DZD) is the currency of Algeria and it is subdivided into 100 santeem (سنتيم).

Banka e Shqipërisë (Bank of Albania)
https://www.bankofalbania.org/

The Bank of Albania is the central bank of the Republic of Albania. The Constitution of Albania defines the status of the Bank of Albania and the Law "On the Bank of Albania" lays down its objectives, duties, relationships with the banking system and state institutions in Albania, organisation and management, financial statements, capital and profit allocation.

The primary objective of the Bank of Albania is to achieve and maintain price stability. The Bank of Albania is autonomous and independent from any other authority in the pursuit of its objectives and the performance of its duties.

Bank of Albania - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_of_Albania

The Bank of Albania (Albanian: Banka e Shqipërisë) is the central bank of Albania based in Tirana. The bank of Albania has considerably evolved since being established, together with economic, political, and social developments. The main headquarters of the bank is in Tirana. The bank also has five other branches located in Shkodër, Elbasan, Gjirokastër, Korçë, and Lushnjë.

Bank of Albania: Coins issued by the National Bank of Albania from 2000 to 2012
https://www.bankofalbania.org/web/Coins_minted_by_the_Bank_of_Albania_2000_2012_2821_2.php

Coins issued by the National Bank of Albania from 2000 to 2012.

Bank of Albania: Coins issued by the National Bank of Albania from 1945 to 1992
https://www.bankofalbania.org/web/Coins_issued_from_1945_to_1992_2226_2.php

Coins issued by the National Bank of Albania from 1945 to 1992.

Bank of Albania: Coins issued by the National Bank of Albania from 1926 to 1945
https://www.bankofalbania.org/web/Coins_issued_from_1926_to_1945_2227_2.php

Coins issued by the National Bank of Albania from 1926 to 1945.

Bank of Albania: Banknotes issued by the State Bank of Albania from 1945 to 1992
https://www.bankofalbania.org/web/Banknotes_issued_from_1945_1992_2044_2.php

Banknotes issued by the State Bank of Albania from 1945 to 1992.

Bank of Albania: Banknotes issued by the National Bank of Albania from 1926 to 1945
https://www.bankofalbania.org/web/Banknotes_issued_from_1926_to_1945_2409_2.php

Banknotes issued by the National Bank of Albania from 1926 to 1945.

Albanian lek - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albanian_lek

The lek (Albanian: Leku Shqiptar; plural lekë) (sign: L; code: ALL) is the official currency of Albania. It is subdivided into 100 qindarka (singular qindarkë), although qindarka are no longer issued.

Afghan rupee - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afghan_rupee

The rupee was the currency of Afghanistan until 1925. Before 1891, silver rupees circulated with copper falus and gold mohur. The three metals had no fixed exchange rate between them, with different regions issuing their own coins.

In 1891, a new currency was introduced, based on the Kabuli rupee. The rupee was subdivided into 60 paisa, each of 10 dinar. Other denominations issued included the shahi of 5 paisa, the sanar of 10 paisa, the abbasi of 20 paisa, the qiran of 30 paisa and the tilla and later the amani, both of 10 rupee. The rupee was replaced in 1925 by the Afghani, which is the currency today.

Da Afghanistan Bank
http://dab.gov.af/en

The vision of Da Afghanistan Bank is that of a monetary institution which upholds international best practice in fostering price stability and a sound financial system conducive to macro-economic stability, favorable investment climate, private sector development and broad-based economic growth.

The mission of Da Afghanistan Bank is to foster price stability and build a robust financial system.

Da Afghanistan Bank - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Da_Afghanistan_Bank

Da Afghanistan Bank (Pashto: دافغانستان بانک‎; Persian: بانک مرکزی افغانستان ) is the central bank of Afghanistan. It regulates all banking and money handling operations in Afghanistan. The bank currently has 47 branches throughout the country, with five of these situated in Kabul, where the headquarters is also based.

Da Afghanistan Bank (DAB) is one of the leading & government recognized bank of Afghanistan which was established in 1939.

Afghan afghani - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afghan_afghani

The afghani (sign: Afs; Pashto: افغانۍ; Dari افغانی; code: AFN) is the currency of Afghanistan. It is nominally subdivided into 100 pul (پول), although there are no pul coins currently in circulation.

Hungarian Mint
http://coins.hu/

The history of the Hungarian Mint is closely intertwined with the 1000-year traditions of Hungarian coinage, which first began with the minting of the silver denar under Hungary's first king, St. Stephen, in 1001.

In the middle of the 13th century, the monetary reforms of King Robert Charles of Anjou saw the establishment of several minting chambers, the most important of which was founded in Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, now Kremnica in Slovakia) in 1328. This mint, the direct predecessor of today's Hungarian Mint, became world famous for the quantity and quality of the gold coins it produced.
After World War I, the Körmöcbánya mint was dismantled and transported to Budapest, where it was reestablished as the Hungarian Royal Mint in 1925.

Санкт-Петербургский монетный двор Гознака (Saint Petersburg Mint)
http://www.mintspb.ru/

Санкт-Петербургский монетный двор Гознака (Saint Petersburg Mint) is one of the world's largest mints. It was founded by Peter the Great in 1724 on the territory of Peter and Paul Fortress, so it is one of the oldest industrial enterprises in Saint Petersburg.

It is a part of the Goznak State-owned corporation.

Saint Petersburg Mint - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Petersburg_Mint

Saint Petersburg Mint (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́ргский моне́тный двор) is one of the world's largest mints. It was founded by Peter the Great in 1724 on the territory of Peter and Paul Fortress, so it is one of the oldest industrial enterprises in Saint Petersburg.

It is a part of the Goznak State-owned corporation.

De Kopergeld Pagina
http://www.duiten.nl/

Website with extensive information on pre-modern Dutch copper coins (duits). In Dutch.

Monnaie de Paris
https://www.monnaiedeparis.fr/

Founded in 864, Monnaie de Paris is France's longest standing institution and the oldest enterprise in the world. It fulfills the public service mission of striking the euro coins in circulation for France, as well as coins for other foreign currencies. For twelve centuries, it has cultivated a venerable tradition of metalworking arts and crafts. It was Paris first industrial establishment and is the last in operation today. Artistic pieces are still produced at its historic Quai de Conti manufacture.

Attached to the French ministry for the economy, finances and industry since 1796, Monnaie de Paris became an Etablissement public industriel et commercial (EPIC, an official designation for state-funded industrial and commercial institutions) in January 2007.

Monnaie de Paris - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monnaie_de_Paris

The Monnaie de Paris (Paris Mint), created in 864, is the oldest French institution. Administratively speaking, the "Direction of Coins and Medals", the national mint is an administration of the French government charged with issuing coins as well as producing medals and other similar items. Many ancient coins are housed in the collections maintained there. Though in the Middle Ages there were numerous other mints in provincial cities officially issuing legitimate French coinage struck in the name of the ruler, the Monnaie de Paris has always been the prime issuer.

Soho Mint - A World First!
http://www.sohomint.info/

A thoroughly modern web site to celebrate the achievements of Matthew Boulton who died more than two hundred years ago in August 1809. But a modern website is no anachronism; Matthew Boulton was at the leading edge of technology and innovation in his own time. So here, as a tribute to a great man, we will look at Matthew Boulton, and the Soho Mint; how Mr Boulton fitted into the great scheme of things, how the Mint was established and worked, and what it produced.

Soho Mint - Equipment
http://www.sohomint.info/mintequip.html

The Soho Mint existed in three incarnations. The first, from its establishment by Matthew Boulton in 1789, lasted about ten years. The principal characteristic of the initial Mint was a circular arrangement of presses, each ‘moved’ by a lever and escapement powered by a large circular wheel turned directly by a steam engine. This arrangement contained much of Boulton’s own design but, though it worked, it was extremely noisy, and unable to cope with the stresses of striking large coins such as the Monneron 5 sols and the Cartwheel pennies and tuppences. These caused continual damage to the Mint machinery, and stoppages of production, and it became obvious to Boulton that he could not hope to undertake the national coinages he was seeking with the Mint as it was.

Western Sydney Stamps and Coins
http://www.westernsydneystampsandcoins.com.au/

Commenced in 2007, the business of Western Sydney Stamps and Coins is the retail of stamps, coins and banknotes as well as stamp accessories, coin accessories and banknote accessories.The business is family owned and operated.

As authorised distributors for The Royal Australian Mint, The Perth Mint and The New Zealand Mint, they retail all of their latest release coins as well as previous years. They retail gold, silver and uncirculated coins, uncirculated banknotes and stamps as well as a large range of stamp, coin and banknote accessories.

Notes and Coins
http://www.notesandcoins.com.au/

Notes and Coins have been involved with notes and coins since early 2000.

Gold Coast Coins and Stamps
http://www.coins-stamps.com.au/

As agents for both the Royal Australian Mint and the Perth Mint they stock most of their new releases and carry stock of previous releases.They also stock Australian Pre-Decimal and Decimal issues, mint and proof sets, New Zealand, Great Britain, and other world coins, mostly older issues but we can get newer ones for you.

They also have extensive stock of Australian, Norfolk Island, AAT, Pacific Islands, New Zealand and Great Britain stamps, and also specialise in used stamps.

Bradford Coins
http://www.bradfordcoins.com.au/

Bradford Coins is a shop in Cairns, Australia. They be buy, sell and loan on anything gold and silver: precious metals (gold, silver, platinum, palladium), bullion, coins (both Australian and world), gold in all shapes and sizes. They also deal in diamonds, medals and militaria, bank notes (pre-decimal and decimal, world notes), Australian and world stamps (mint or used).

Eccles Coins and Banknotes
http://www.ecclescoins.co.nz/

As an established figure in the collectables industry, we have been helping new comers and serious collectors in Auckland for years. We have developed and maintained relationships with numerous collectors in Auckland, and who knows, maybe you are holding the missing gem from their collection.

Global Coins
http://www.globalcoins.com.au/

Global Coins have been trading in Australia since 1978 and have helped many collectors in acquiring those common items or the more difficult piece for their collection. Global Coins are long standing members of A.N.D.A. (Australian Numismatic Dealers Association) so please buy and sell with confidence.

Clark Smith
http://www.coinvault.com/

Our inventory includes rare and hard to find world gold coins from ancient times to the present. Foreign coins are our specialty. We have been paying top prices for world coins since 1996 as an internationally known full-time dealer. We attend shows and auctions world-wide purchasing millions of dollars of rare coins.

Coins and Banknotes International
http://www.coins-and-banknotes.com.au/

Coins and Banknotes International is a member of ANDA (Australasian Numismatic Dealers Association) and follow a strict code of practice. Located in Brisbane, Australia, their specialist range of German and Australian currencies is complemented by a wide range of coins and banknotes from other countries all over the world.

Colonial Coins and Medals
http://www.coinmedalshop.com.au/

We have knowledge of, and deal in, all Coins, Banknotes, Medallions & Tokens, as well as War Medals and Badges, we are also agents for both The Royal Australian Mint and Perth Mint and sell their current products as well as previous issues.

Since 1985 we have been Professional Coin Dealers, and we have a busy retail Shop in Brisbane City.

International Numismatics
http://www.intnumis.com.au/

As a leading force in the numismatics industry, International Numismatics offers a diverse range of products and a personalised friendly service.

As one of the major distributors for the Perth Mint and The Royal Australian Mint, International Numismatics' product range extends from selling the rarest of items such as the 1813 holey dollars/dump and the 1930 penny to the most recent commemorative coins struck.

The Right Note
https://www.therightnote.com.au/

Richard E. Fahy established The Right Note advisory service for rare Australian coins and banknotes over 19 years ago in Lane Cove, Sydney and later opened a numismatics investment office in the CBD of Sydney.

He travels all over Australia valuing collections and advising investors. The internet was a boon he quickly embraced allowing him to service Australia wide and even international clients from his Sydney office. Today his website www.TheRightNote.com.au is one of Australia’s largest numismatics websites with a huge range available to browse and buy on-line. It reaches over 5000 visitors a month.

Noble Numismatics
http://www.noble.com.au/

Noble Numismatics Pty Ltd (ABN 21 001 352 969) is an Australian company trading in coins, medals, stamps, banknotes and related material. Annually the company conducts three major, international numismatic auctions. Confidential auction enquiries are welcome and free to the general public.

Noble Numismatics also trades retail in a variety of numismatic material and offers immediate settlements to purchase all types of collections.

Reserve Bank of Australia Museum
http://museum.rba.gov.au/

The Museum tells the story of Australia’s banknotes against the background of the nation’s economic and social development, from colonial settlement through to the current era.

Reserve Bank of Australia: Redeeming Old Banknotes
http://banknotes.rba.gov.au/australias-banknotes/redeeming-old-banknotes/

All previous issues of Australian banknotes retain their legal tender status. However, it is a long time since these banknotes were issued into circulation in Australia and some retailers or members of the public may be reluctant to accept them. People may be unfamiliar with the designs and may suspect the banknotes to be counterfeit.

Reserve Bank of Australia: Other Banknotes
http://banknotes.rba.gov.au/australias-banknotes/other-banknotes/

The Federation $5 banknote features Sir Henry Parkes, a prominent politician often referred to as the ‘Father of Federation’; and Catherine Helen Spence, who led the way for women's rights in Australia. It was issued in 2001 to commemorate Australia's Centenary of Federation.

Reserve Bank of Australia: Next Generation Banknote Program
http://banknotes.rba.gov.au/australias-banknotes/next-generation-banknotes-program/

A core function of the Reserve Bank is to maintain public confidence in Australia's banknotes. Australia has one of the safest and most secure currencies in the world and has experienced relatively low levels of counterfeiting for many years. To ensure that this continues to be the case, the Reserve Bank researches anti-counterfeit technologies and developments in banknote design.The results of this work have culminated in a project to upgrade the security of Australia's banknotes.

Reserve Bank of Australia: $100 Banknote
http://banknotes.rba.gov.au/australias-banknotes/banknotes-in-circulation/hundred-dollar/

In her lifetime, Dame Nellie Melba achieved international recognition as a soprano. Melba debuted in 1887 in Verdi's Rigoletto in Brussels and went on to sing with great success in London, Paris, Milan, New York and other major cities. Her most famous role was Mimi in Puccini's La Bohème. Although she toured the world, Melba found time for civic work in Australia, including raising funds for war charities. Dame Nellie's homecoming in 1902 involved an Australian and New Zealand concert tour (the tour program is depicted on the banknote).

Reserve Bank of Australia: $50 Banknote
http://banknotes.rba.gov.au/australias-banknotes/banknotes-in-circulation/fifty-dollar/

David Unaipon, a Ngarrindjeri man, made significant contributions to science, literature and improvements in conditions for Aboriginal people. Despite having no advanced education in mathematics, Unaipon researched many engineering problems and developed a number of his own inventions. In 1909, he patented an improved hand tool for sheep shearing, depicted on the front of the banknote. Unaipon gained a reputation as ‘Australia's Leonardo’ for his promotion of scientific ideas. He became the first published Aboriginal writer; his earliest published works included newspaper and magazine articles and a booklet entitled Native Legends, published in 1929.

Reserve Bank of Australia: $20 Banknote
http://banknotes.rba.gov.au/australias-banknotes/banknotes-in-circulation/twenty-dollar/

Mary Reibey built substantial business interests in property and shipping operations. Having assumed responsibility for her husband's enterprises after his death in 1811 and subsequently expanding them, Reibey earned a reputation as an astute and successful businesswoman in the colony of New South Wales. In later life, she became known for her charitable work and interest in the church and education. Images of the schooner Mercury and a building in George Street, Sydney, both of which Reibey owned, are shown on the banknote.

Reserve Bank of Australia: $10 Banknote
http://banknotes.rba.gov.au/australias-banknotes/banknotes-in-circulation/ten-dollar/

Andrew Barton (Banjo) Paterson, a poet and ballad writer, was born in rural New South Wales. He began his career as a solicitor and achieved fame in his thirties after writing Waltzing Matilda and The Man from Snowy River, the themes of which are depicted in the designs of the banknote. In fact, his first book, The Man from Snowy River, sold out its first edition in a week and went through four editions in six months, making Paterson second only to Rudyard Kipling in popularity among living poets writing in English at that time.

Reserve Bank of Australia: $5 Banknote
http://banknotes.rba.gov.au/australias-banknotes/banknotes-in-circulation/five-dollar/

A portrait of Queen Elizabeth II is shown on the front of the $5 banknote together with a sprig of eucalyptus. The portrait is drawn from photographs commissioned by the Reserve Bank in 1984. The Queen gave approval to use this portrait on an Australian banknote in 1988, and it appeared on the first $5 polymer banknote on 7 July 1992.
The back of the banknote features the Old and New Parliament Houses, which were opened in 1927 and 1988, respectively. The images are the designer's interpretation of various architectural drawings and photographs.
Above the images of the Old and New Parliament Houses is a plan of the New Parliament House. This was based on the Design Development Landscape Plan, which was provided by the Parliament House Construction Authority.

Reserve Bank of Australia: Banknotes in Circulation
http://banknotes.rba.gov.au/australias-banknotes/banknotes-in-circulation/

Australia's banknotes represented a world first in currency manufacturing – they were the first full series to be printed on polymer (plastic). Polymer banknote technology was developed in Australia, jointly by the Reserve Bank and the CSIRO. The reason for introducing polymer banknotes was simple – to keep one step ahead of counterfeiters by making Australia's banknotes more secure. Polymer banknotes have the added benefit of being more durable than paper banknotes which, in turn, makes them more cost-effective.

Reserve Bank of Australia: History of Banknotes
http://banknotes.rba.gov.au/australias-banknotes/history/

The first Australian banknotes were only produced a century ago but currency existed in Australia well before then. For instance Aboriginal trade was based on exchange and bartering, and when New South Wales was first established, colonists initially used other makeshift currencies such as rum.

The discovery of gold in 1851 led to the minting of Australia's own gold coins and spurred the development of banking. Commercial banks issued their own notes backed by gold, though people were often wary of them particularly after many banks failed in 1893. The Queensland Treasury also issued their own legal tender banknotes and prohibited private banks in the state from issuing their own notes.

Putnam Coins
http://www.putnamcoins.com/

Eight large showcases are devoted to coins and bullion, and another ten large showcases house gold and silver jewelry, including a large selection of diamond jewelry and engagement rings.

British Coin Forum - Predecimal.com
http://www.predecimal.com/forum/

This forum contains general discussion on all elements of British coinage throughout the ages. Enquiries and questions are also welcome.

KJC
http://www.kjc.com.au/

KJC Coins Australia Pty Ltd (KJC), established in 1995, is one of Australia's best-known and most reputable Numismatic dealers. Our KJC Numismatic website, open 24/7, brings with it our renown bullion expertise enabling us to offer many semi Numismatic items automatically updated in price every minute with the live gold and silver bullion markets, the only Numismatic site to offer such a service in Australia. It also enables categorised live PDF price lists of all items listed on our website so collectors are able to print a copy off and check what they may require.

Ye Olde Coin Co.
http://www.oldcoin.com.au/

Coin dealers from Adelaide, South Australia. Selling coins from Ancient to modern.

Sterling and Currency
https://www.sterlingcurrency.com.au/

Sterling and Currency specialise in Australian coins and banknotes, from the Holey Dollar of 1813 right through to the latest coin sets.

London Coins
http://www.londoncoins.co.uk/

London Coins LTD is part of the London Coins (Holdings) Group LTD which owns London Coins LTD and has 51% ownership of CGS (Coin Grading Services LTD) Britain's first third party grading and encapsulation company.

London Coins LTD main core business activity is the auctioneering of all numismatic items from any country and any era, the auctioneering of paper money from any country and any era, medals both military and commemorative and bonds and shares.

Peter Strich Stamps & Coins
http://www.peterstrich.com.au/

Peter Strich Stamps and Coins are dealers and certified second hand traders in stamps and coins, offering an excellent range of material for any collector from beginners to connoisseurs. They are also accredited distributors for the Royal Australian Mint and Perth Mint and sell the latest issues at mint issue prices. You can buy their products through this site, at their eBay store or in person at one of the many trade fairs they attend.

Q STAMP - Stamp & Coin Fairs
http://www.qpc.asn.au/qstamp.html

Regular fairs organised at the Mt. Gravatt Showgrounds in Mt. Gravatt, Brisbane, Australia.

History of the English penny (c. 600 – 1066) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_English_penny_(c._600_%E2%80%93_1066)

The history of the English penny can be traced back to the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of the 7th century: to the small, thick silver coins known to contemporaries as pæningas or denarii, though now often referred to as sceattas by numismatists. Broader, thinner pennies inscribed with the name of the king were introduced to southern England in the middle of the 8th century. Coins of this format remained the foundation of the English currency until the 14th century.

WildWinds
http://www.wildwinds.com/

The WildWinds website has been created as a reference and attribution resource in the field of ancient numismatics.

Sixbid
https://www.sixbid.com/

Sixbid is the most important online auction platform for coins & medals and other valuables, and features auctions of all major numismatic firms worldwide. Besides placing your bids by letter, phone, email and fax, or attending the auction in person, Sixbid offers a sixth way to bid: via the internet.

Silbury Coins
http://www.silburycoins.co.uk/

Silbury Coins is run by a small team of individuals all of whom have a great passion for numismatics. They are a member of the BNTA. The company mainly deal in coins, specializing in the British Iron Age, Anglo Saxon & Norman periods. They also offer a small selection of antiquities and 'dealer lots'.

Celtic coinage - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celtic_coinage

Celtic coinage was minted by the Celts from the late 4th century BC to the late 1st century BC. Celtic coins were influenced by trade with and the supply of mercenaries to the Greeks, and initially copied Greek designs, especially Macedonian coins from the time of Philip II of Macedon and his son, Alexander the Great. Thus Greek motifs and even letters can be found on various Celtic coins, especially those of southern France.

Celtic Coins
http://www.celticcoins.com/

Chris Rudd is the only dealer who deals only in Celtic coins. Chris Rudd is also the only auctioneer, valuer, book publisher and bookseller who is dedicated exclusively to Celtic coins.

International Bank Note Society
http://www.theibns.org/

The International Bank Note Society (IBNS) was founded in 1961. It operates as a non-profit educational organization and in furtherance of such purpose, its objectives are to promote, stimulate, and advance the study and knowledge of worldwide banknotes and paper currencies and all matters related thereto along educational, scientific and historical lines. Currently the IBNS has over 2,000 members in more than 90 countries.

Members enjoy a number of benefits: a quarterly printed journal containing information on new issues and learned studies on paper money, a membership directory with contacts and dealers to further their collections, professional assistance in the unpleasant event of controversy between collectors, and many other useful tools.

New Zealand two-dollar coin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand_two-dollar_coin

The New Zealand two-dollar coin is the largest-denomination coin of the New Zealand dollar. It was introduced along with the one-dollar coin in 1990. Both are made from an alloy of aluminium and brass. It is the largest and heaviest coin in circulation, weighing ten grams and measuring 26.5 millimetres in diameter. Its thickness is 2.7 mm, only 0.4 mm thinner than the one-dollar coin, thus it is the second-thickest coin in the country's circulation.

New Zealand one-dollar coin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand_one-dollar_coin

The New Zealand one-dollar coin ($1) is a coin of the New Zealand dollar. The current circulating coin was introduced on 11 February 1991 to replace the existing $1 note. There had previously been occasional issues of commemorative "silver dollars", but they are rarely seen in circulation.

The depiction of a kiwi on the reverse helps give the New Zealand dollar the colloquial name "Kiwi (dollar)", although the term was in use before the $1 coin was introduced.

New Zealand fifty-cent coin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand_fifty-cent_coin

The New Zealand fifty-cent coin is a coin of the New Zealand dollar. It was the largest by denomination, diameter and mass to have been introduced on the decimalisation of the currency on 10 July 1967, replacing the pre-decimal crown coin (five shillings).

On 31 July 2006, as part of a revision of New Zealand's coinage, the fifty cent was made smaller, lighter and of a cheaper alloy (nickel-plated steel). On 1 November of that year the previous larger fifty cent coin was demonetised.

New Zealand twenty-cent coin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand_twenty-cent_coin

The New Zealand twenty-cent coin is the second lowest denomination coin of the New Zealand dollar. The 20 cent coin was introduced when the New Zealand dollar was introduced on 10 July 1967, replacing the New Zealand florin coin. Its original reverse of a kiwi was changed in 1990 when the image was moved onto the one dollar coin. In 2006 its size was reduced and its edge altered to a Spanish flower as part of a revision of New Zealand's coins, which also saw its alloy become nickel-plated steel.

New Zealand ten-cent coin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand_ten-cent_coin

The New Zealand ten-cent coin is the lowest denomination coin of the New Zealand dollar. The 10 cent coin was introduced when the New Zealand dollar was introduced on 10 July 1967, replacing the New Zealand shilling coin. In 2006 its size was reduced as part of a revision of New Zealand's coins, which also saw its alloy become copper-plated steel.

New Zealand five-cent coin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand_five-cent_coin

The New Zealand five-cent coin was the lowest denomination coin of the New Zealand dollar from 1990 to 2006. The five-cent coin was introduced when the New Zealand dollar was introduced on 10 July 1967, replacing the New Zealand sixpence coin. On 31 July 2006 it was eliminated as part of a revision of New Zealand's coins, and it was demonetised (no longer legal tender) as of 1 November 2006.

New Zealand two-cent coin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand_two-cent_coin

The New Zealand two-cent coin was the second smallest denomination coin of the New Zealand dollar from the currency's introduction in 1967 to its demonetisation, along with the one-cent coin, on 30 April 1990. Its reverse featured two kōwhai flowers, considered emblematic of New Zealand. The image was designed by Reginald George James Berry, who designed the reverses for all coins introduced that year.

New Zealand one-cent coin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand_one-cent_coin

The New Zealand one-cent coin was the smallest denomination coin of the New Zealand dollar from the currency's introduction in 1967 to its demonetisation, along with the two-cent coin, on 30 April 1990. With a diameter of 17.53 millimetres, it is the smallest coin ever issued of the dollar, and at 2.07 grams in mass the lightest as well. Its reverse featured a fern leaf, a sign of New Zealand, associated also with its national rugby union team. The image was designed by Reginald George James Berry, who designed the reverses for all coins introduced that year.

Note Printing Australia
http://www.noteprinting.com/

Note Printing Australia (NPA) has been producing Australian banknotes for virtually a century. NPA, as it is now more commonly known in the industry, evolved from the original print works established by T.S. Harrison to produce Australia's first circulating banknote series in 1913.

The company's focus, since inception, has been to generate 'security products' of the highest quality. This philosophy continues today as NPA works with its customers to provide innovative high quality banknotes, passports and security solutions.

NPA is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Reserve Bank of Australia.

Reserve Bank of New Zealand: New Zealand Coinage Specifications
http://www.rbnz.govt.nz/notes-and-coins/coins/new-zealand-coinage-specifications

On 31st July 2006, the Reserve Bank of New Zealand introduced a new set of smaller and lighter coins to replace the existing 10, 20 and 50 cent pieces. The 5 cent piece was phased out of circulation, while recovery of the old coinage began.

Numismatic News: Elizabeth II reaches reign milestone
http://www.numismaticnews.net/article/elizabeth-ii-reaches-reign-milestone

On Sept. 9, 2015, Queen Elizabeth II achieved the longest reign of any monarch in any kingdom of the British Isles. On that date she surpassed the 63 years 216 days of rule by her great-great-grandmother Victoria. She also became the longest-reigning woman in history.

Te Ara Encyclopaedia of New Zealand: Coins and banknotes: Commemorative currency and collecting
http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/coins-and-banknotes/page-4

Commemorative coins, and occasionally banknotes, are issued by the state-owned Reserve Bank and New Zealand Post to mark special occasions or to honour individuals. They are legal tender, but are mainly purchased by collectors.

New Zealand Post has been the only issuer of legal-tender commemorative coins since 2002. The private company New Zealand Mint also produces commemorative coins, though its New Zealand-themed coins are not legal tender.

Te Ara Encyclopaedia of New Zealand: Coins and banknotes: Decimal currency, 1960s to 2000s
http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/coins-and-banknotes/page-3

Changing New Zealand’s currency to a decimal system was suggested from the early 1900s. A government-appointed currency committee considered decimalisation in 1933, but decided against it because of costs associated with the change, and the depressed economic conditions.

Te Ara Encyclopaedia of New Zealand: Coins and banknotes: A national currency, 1930s to 1960s
http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/coins-and-banknotes/page-2

New Zealand was the last British dominion to issue a national currency, in the early 1930s.

Two factors led to the issuing of a New Zealand currency. In the 1920s there was a move throughout the world towards the establishment of central banks to, among other things, issue a single national currency. In 1930 the New Zealand government decided to establish a central bank, and the Reserve Bank of New Zealand opened in 1934.

Te Ara Encyclopaedia of New Zealand: Coins and banknotes: Varied coins and banknotes, 1840s to 1930s
http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/coins-and-banknotes/page-1

In the early 19th century a range of foreign coins circulated in New Zealand. In 1847 new exchange rates were fixed. From that year British coins dominated circulation as the exchange rate was unfavourable for other foreign coinage. British coin became legal tender (currency that has to be accepted to immediately clear a debt) in New Zealand in 1858. Gold coins minted in Australia by branches of the Royal Mint were also legal tender. From 1897 British coin minted by the Royal Mint in London was the only legal-tender coin.

The first New Zealand coins were issued in 1933.

Encyclopaedia of New Zealand 1966: Coinage and Currency: Quality and Issue of Notes
http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/1966/coinage-and-currency/page-5

Reserve Bank notes are printed in London by Thomas de la Rue and Co. Ltd. In order to maintain the quality of the notes in use by the public and also to ensure that adequate stocks are available to meet day to day requirements, it is necessary for the Reserve Bank to order well ahead and to forecast likely needs. The average life of all notes except the two highest denominations is estimated at less than one year; for a £10 note it is estimated at 15 months, and for the £50 note, which has a restricted use, at about three years. As notes circulate and become dirty or worn, they are withdrawn from circulation, cancelled and destroyed, new ones being issued. In 1963 a total of over 60 million note forms were destroyed in keeping with the policy of maintaining a good quality issue.

Encyclopaedia of New Zealand 1966: Coinage and Currency: Bank Notes
http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/1966/coinage-and-currency/page-4

Paper currency in use in New Zealand comprises bank notes issued by the Reserve Bank of New Zealand which, as the central bank, has the sole right of note issue. For nearly 80 years prior to 1 August 1934, when the Reserve Bank commenced business, the trading banks had the right to issue notes. On the establishment of the Reserve Bank, this right was withdrawn. Two years later, on 1 August 1936, the Reserve Bank assumed liability for all trading bank notes outstanding, then some £549,000; in 1976 all such notes will be deemed to be no longer in circulation and will be treated as unclaimed moneys. At the end of 1963 the value of outstanding trading bank notes was £346,000. It is probable that a substantial proportion are either in collections or have been lost or destroyed.

Encyclopaedia of New Zealand 1966: Coinage and Currency: Decimal System
http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/1966/coinage-and-currency/page-3

In New Zealand efforts have periodically been made to introduce the decimal system. In 1957 a representative committee was appointed by the then Minister of Finance “to examine matters connected with the possible introduction of decimal coinage in New Zealand”. In its report, dated 1 October 1959, the committee stated that it “is agreed in principle that a change to decimal coinage is desirable” and recommended a system that would involve a 10s. unit, with 10 lower units, “cents”, to the shilling.

Encyclopaedia of New Zealand 1966: Coinage and Currency: Tokens
http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/1966/coinage-and-currency/page-2

One provision in the Coinage Act 1933 in empowering the Minister of Finance to authorise the issue of tokens, “purporting to entitle the holder thereof to demand goods and services”, harks back to an earlier period. In parts of the country, tokens are used to pay for milk delivered at the gate, but this restricted use scarcely compares with the period from 1857 to 1881 when bronze and copper penny and halfpenny currency tokens were issued by New Zealand traders.

Encyclopaedia of New Zealand 1966: Coinage and Currency
http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/1966/coinage-and-currency

New Zealand, like the United Kingdom and Australia, has a fractional coinage system. In April 1963, however, it was announced that the Government had decided to change to a decimal currency in 1967. Distinctive New Zealand coins, issued since 1933 when the Coinage Act was passed, are the crown, half-crown, florin, shilling, sixpence, threepence, penny, and halfpenny. No farthings have been issued.

Te Arra: Berry, Reginald George James
http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/4b26/berry-reginald-george-james

Reginald George James Berry (known as James) was born on 20 June 1906 in London, England, the second child of James Willie Berry, a clerk, and his wife, Amy Blanche Clarissa Wakefield. After the death of his father in 1911, James was sent to board at Russell Hill School from 1913 until 1922. He won prizes for art and his talent was fostered by an aunt, Lilian Berry, who exhibited at the Royal Academy of Arts.

William Wyon - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Wyon

William Wyon RA (1795 in Birmingham – 29 October 1851), was official chief engraver at the Royal Mint from 1828 until his death.

Thomas Humphrey Paget - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Humphrey_Paget

Thomas Humphrey Paget OBE (13 August 1893 – May 1974) was an English medal and coin designer and modeller. Paget's designs are indicated by the initials 'HP'.

Museum Victoria: Benjamin Wyon, Coin & Medal Engraver, England (1802-1858)
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/1868

Benjamin Wyon received a major portion of his instruction from his elder brother, Thomas Wyon the younger. He succeeded his father as Chief Engraver of the Seals in 1831. Benjamin had two sons, Joseph Shepherd and Alfred Benjamin, both of whom also became medalists.

Museum Victoria: Allan Wyon, Engraver (1843-1907)
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/1824

Allan Wyon was a member of the celebrated dynasty of coin, medal and seal engravers. He became Chief Engraver of Her Majesty's Seals. Allan Wyon co-authored with his brother, Alfred Benjamin Wyon, the first major study of the 'Great Seals of England', published in 1887.

Museum Victoria: William Wyon, Medallist (1795-1851)
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/3774

William Wyon, the most famous of the Wyon family of medalists and engravers was born in 1795 in Birmingham where his father, Peter Wyon, was a die engraver. In 1809 William became apprenticed to his father who was apparently then working with Matthew Boulton at the Soho Mint, Birmingham.

Museum Victoria: Branch Mints of the Royal Mint
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/3768

The discovery of gold in the Australian colonies of New South Wales and Victoria in 1851 created the next challenge for the Royal Mint. Both colonies were operating with British coins including the gold sovereign. The gold that was being found had to be sent to the Royal Mint in London to be struck into sovereigns and then returned. This was expensive both for freight and insurance and took at least six months. Powerful lobbies in Sydney and Melbourne fought for the right to strike sovereigns locally and the colonial governments both sent this request to London.

Museum Victoria: HM Queen Victoria (1819-1901)
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/2063

Victoria was born in London on 24 May 1819, the only daughter of Edward, Duke of Kent, the fourth son of George III. She became heir to the throne because her father died shortly after she was born and the three uncles ahead of her in succession - George IV, Frederick Duke of York, and William IV - had no legitimate children who survived.

Museum Victoria: Leonard Charles Wyon, Engraver (1826-1891)
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/3762

L.C. Wyon was born in the Royal Mint, London in 1826. His father, William Wyon, was an engraver at the Mint and became Chief Engraver in 1828. While studying at the Merchant Taylor's School in London Leonard was tutored in die engraving by his father and was appointed Second Engraver at the mint in 1843. The position of Chief Engraver ceased with the death of William in 1851. Leonard took over its duties as Resident Engraver and later Modeler and Engraver.

Museum Victoria: James Berry, Medal Designer (1906-1979)
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/2095

Reginald George James Berry (known as James) was born on 20 June 1906 in London, England. Following the death of his father in 1911, James was sent to board at Russell Hill School at the age of seven, and remained at the school until he was 16, in 1922. He won prizes for art and his talent was fostered by his aunt Lilian Berry, herself an artist. After leaving school he became an insurance clerk, but did not enjoy the work and decided instead to migrate to New Zealand. He arrived in 1925, and paid off his assisted passage as a farm cadet in Gisborne.

During his lifetime Berry completed more than 1,000 designs for stamps, coins and medals. Berry designed the Captain James Cook Bicentenary medal for the Australian Numismatic Society in 1970 (NU 23802); a medal to commemorate the Sydney Opera House in 1973; a Commercial Bank of Australasia medal for the Montreal Olympics in 1976; and a set of 60 models to record the medallic history of Australia, struck by Stokes in 1977.

Strand Coins
http://www.strandcoins.com/

Strand Coins specialise in quality Australian and international coins, banknotes and collectables that have been carefully appraised by their staff who have over 50 years of combined industry experience.

Tongan Notes
http://www.tongannotes.info/

This site is compiled from information from Charles Hunt's research of Tongan Notes. It contains details of notes in his collection and notes seen on eBay and in dealers' stock and lists. Individual pages contain details of all overprinting dates, signature combinations and serial numbers of notes in his collection or seen in catalogues or elsewhere.

National Reserve Bank of Tonga: Commemorative Coins - WCA
http://www.reservebank.to/index.php/currency/numismatics/coins-wca

The following Commemorative Coins issued by the National Reserve Bank of Tonga can only be obtained by placing an order to the MDM Deutsche Munze.

National Reserve Bank of Tonga: Commemorative Coins
http://www.reservebank.to/index.php/currency/numismatics/coins

Commemorative Coins issued by the National Reserve Bank of Tonga.

National Reserve Bank of Tonga: Get To Know Your Banknotes
http://www.reservebank.to/index.php/currency/numismatics/banknotes

A new family of currency is issued with a new portrait of His Majesty King Tupou VI. Our Banknotes also feature state of the art security technologies that make our banknotes secure to have and use. Here are some of the key security features to look out for.

National Reserve Bank of Tonga
http://www.reservebank.to/

The National Reserve Bank of Tonga (Reserve Bank) was established on 1 July 1989 as the central bank of Tonga. The principal objectives of the Reserve Bank shall be to maintain internal and external monetary stability, promote financial stability and promote a sound and efficient financial system. The Reserve Bank shall conduct its activities in a manner that supports macroeconomic stability and economic growth.

Baldwin's
http://www.baldwin.co.uk/

A H Baldwin & Sons Ltd has a history that dates back to 1872, and is one of the largest and longest established numismatic dealers and auction houses in the world. Its dedicated team of world-class specialists have over 200 years collective experience, covering all areas of numismatics - British, Ancient and Foreign Coins, Military and Commemorative Medals, Tokens, Numismatic Literature, Banknotes and more.

Australian Professional Coin Grading Services
http://apcgs.com.au/

APCGS opened its doors in October 2011. It is currently situated at Port Macquarie on the Mid North Coast of NSW. APCGS has gone through many changes since the commencement of the company which includes the adoption of the Sheldon grading scale on January 1st, 2013. Please be aware that the company grades to Australian standards and not world standards. APCGS grades all coins and banknotes from Australia and around the world. It is the only operating third party coin and banknote grading company in Australia.

PCGS CoinFacts
http://www.pcgscoinfacts.com/

PCGS CoinFacts is the Internet Encyclopedia of United States Coins. The original CoinFacts site was created in 1999 by numismatic expert and author Ron Guth, and it quickly became one of the most popular numismatic-related websites. The CoinFacts website featured a complete listing of all U.S. coins, including regular issue coins, colonials, patterns, commemoratives, territorial gold, errors, proof and mint sets, Confederate, and bullion coins. Individual pages contained technical information, high-quality images, auction prices realized, variety information, anecdotal notes, etc. CoinFacts was built for use by collectors at all levels, from beginner to advanced.

Coin Grading Service
http://www.coingradingservices.co.uk/

The Coin Grading Service (CGS UK) will accurately assess the condition and guarantee the authenticity of English Milled Coins struck from 1660. Specimens that successfully pass through the system will be encapsulated in a tamper proof holder containing a description of the coin together with its CGS UK unique archive number and its CGS UK grade of preservation.

Aboutfarthings
http://www.aboutfarthings.co.uk/

The site is focused on providing all visitors with an insight into the wonderful world of farthings. The intention is that the site will primarily contain information on British milled farthings, with varieties listed where known. The approach is to provide a visual reference, which will allow users to identify the many types and varieties by indicating visible features and differences.

Kraków grosz - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krak%C3%B3w_grosz

The Kraków grosz (Latin: grossus cracoviensis (sing.), grossi cracovienses (pl.), Polish: grosz krakowski, German: Krakauer Groschen) were medieval silver coins minted in 14th century Kraków. Following the Bohemian Prague groschen in use since 1300, and other large silver Groschen-type coins issued in the Holy Roman Empire, the coin was introduced in 1367 during the reign of king Casimir III of Poland.

Polish złoty - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_z%C5%82oty

The złoty (sign: zł; code: PLN), which literally means "golden", is the currency of Poland. The modern złoty is subdivided into 100 groszy (singular: grosz, alternative plural forms: grosze; groszy). The recognized English form of the word is zloty, plural zloty or zlotys. The currency sign, zł, is composed of Polish small letters z and ł. As a result of inflation in the early 1990s, the currency underwent redenomination. Thus, on January 1, 1995, 10,000 old złotych (PLZ) became one new złoty (PLN). Since then, the currency has been relatively stable, with an exchange rate fluctuating between 3-5 złoty for a United States dollar.

Groschen - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groschen

Groschen (Latin: Grossus, German: Groschen, Italian: grosso or grossone, Czech: groš, Lithuanian: grašis, Estonian: kross, Polish: grosz, Albanian: grosh, Hungarian: garas, Ukrainian: грош, Russian: грош, Macedonian: грош, Bulgarian: грош, grosh, Romanian: groș) was the (sometimes colloquial) name for a coin used in various German-speaking states as well as some non-German-speaking countries of Central Europe (Bohemia, Poland), the Danubian principalities. The name, like that of the English groat, derives from the Italian denaro grosso, or large penny, via the Czech form groš. The Qirsh (also Gersh, Grush, Γρόσι (Grósi) and Kuruş), Arabic, Ethiopian, Hebrew, Greek and Turkish names for currency denominations in and around the territories formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, are derived from the same Italian origin.

Półtorak - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C3%B3%C5%82torak

Półtorak (lit. one-and-a-halfer) was a small coin equal to 1½ grosz struck in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 17th century, during the reign of Sigismund III Vasa and John II Casimir Vasa. Initially a silver coin, with time its value deteriorated and the coin went out of use. Augustus III of Poland unsuccessfully tried to reintroduce it as a copper coin. The name stems from the Polish word "półtora" meaning one and a half.

Coinworks
https://coinworks.com.au/

The Coinworks team works hand-in-hand with clients advising them how to get the best value out of the market, while at the same time satisfying their prime reasons for purchase. Those reasons may be hard-nosed ones, based on an investment strategy, or purely emotional ones. The great thing about the rare coin industry is that it can offer both!

Die Saurmasche Münzsammlung
http://saurma.info/

This is a noncommercial presentation of the remarkable collection of German coins known as the Saurmasche Münzsammlung. Formed by a 19th century German aristocrat, Hugo, Freiherr von Saurma-Jeltsch, this collection concentrates on the smaller-size, everyday coinage used in Germany and in nearby regions from around 1280 to 1620 AD.

Reichsmark - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reichsmark

The Reichsmark (sign: ℛℳ) was the currency in Germany from 1924 until 20 June 1948 and in Austria from 1938 to 1945. The Reichsmark was subdivided into 100 Reichspfennig. The Mark is an ancient Germanic weight measure, traditionally a half pound, later used for several coins. From 1871 to 1918 Germany was called the Kaiserreich or the Deutsches Reich. Although Germany became a republic in 1919, the term "Reich" remained part of the country's official name.

Kreuzer - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kreuzer

The Kreuzer (in English usually kreutzer) was a silver coin and unit of currency existing in the southern German states prior to the unification of Germany, and in Austria. After 1760 it was made of copper.

Yugoslav krone - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yugoslav_krone

The krone was a short-lived, provisional currency used in parts of the then newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes which had previously been part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Народна банка Србије (National Bank of Serbia)
http://www.nbs.rs/

The National Bank of Serbia is independent and autonomous in carrying out its tasks laid down by the NBS Law and other laws, and is accountable for its work to the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia.

The primary objective of the NBS is to achieve and maintain price stability. Without prejudice to its primary objective, the NBS also contributes to maintaining and strengthening of the stability of the financial system.

Narodna banka Srbije - Zavod za izradu novčanica i kovanog novca Topčider
http://www.zin.rs/

The Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins - Topčider is a specialised part of the National Bank of Serbia that deals with the manufacturing of banknotes and coins and other products for the need of the National Bank of Serbia.

Coinage of Serbia in the Middle Ages - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coinage_of_Serbia_in_the_Middle_Ages

The first mention of a "Serbian dinar" dates back to the reign of Stefan Nemanjić in 1214. Until the fall of the Serbian Despotate in 1459, most of the Serbian rulers minted silver dinar coins. The first Serbian dinars, like many other Southern European coins, replicated Venetian grosso, including characters in Latin (the word dux replaced with the word rex). For many years it was one of the main export articles of medieval Serbia, considering the relative abundance of silver coming from Serbian mines.

Serbian dinar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serbian_dinar

The dinar (Serbian Cyrillic: динар) is the currency of Serbia. The earliest use of the dinar dates back to 1214.

Independent State of Croatia kuna - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Independent_State_of_Croatia_kuna

The kuna was the currency of the Independent State of Croatia in the period between 1941 and 1945 during World War II. The word "kuna" means "marten" in Croatian and the same word is used for the current Croatian kuna currency. This kuna was subdivided into 100 banica. It was preceded and replaced by the Yugoslav dinar.

Rhodesia and Nyasaland pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodesia_and_Nyasaland_pound

The pound was the currency of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. It was subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence.

Rhodesian pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodesian_pound

The pound was the currency of Southern Rhodesia from 1964 to 1965 and Rhodesia from 1965 until 1970. It was subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence.

Coins of the Rhodesian pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Rhodesian_pound

The coins of the Rhodesian pound were part of the currency of Southern Rhodesia, which changed its name to Rhodesia, following the break-up of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, when the Rhodesian pound replaced the Rhodesia and Nyasaland pound.

Coins of the Rhodesian dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Rhodesian_dollar

The coins of the Rhodesian dollar were part of the physical form of Rhodesia's historical currency, the Rhodesian dollar. On February 17, 1970, Rhodesia changed over to decimal currency. The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland halfpenny and penny were withdrawn from circulation and replaced with the ½ cent coin, 1 cent coin (their values were not exactly equal) and a 2½ cent (3d) tickey.

Rhodesian dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodesian_dollar

The dollar (R$) was the currency of Rhodesia between 1970 and 1980. It was subdivided into 100 cents.

Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe
http://www.rbz.co.zw/

The Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe has its origins in the Bank of Rhodesia and Nyasaland which was created in March 1956 as a central bank for the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. The Reserve Bank was the successor to the Central Currency Board, which had the sole right to issue currency.

Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reserve_Bank_of_Zimbabwe

The Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe is the central bank of Zimbabwe. The bank traces its history to the Bank of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, founded in March 1956, which in turn was the successor to the Central Currency Board. The Reserve Bank has continued to function, and has grown in operations and staff, through a variety of changes in sovereignty and governmental structure in Rhodesia and Zimbabwe.

Zimbabwean dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zimbabwean_dollar

The Zimbabwean dollar (sign: $, or Z$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies) was the official currency of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 12 April 2009, with a period of inflation, followed by hyperinflation.

The Zimbabwe dollar was introduced in 1980 to directly replace the Rhodesian dollar at par (1:1) and at a similar value to the US dollar. Hyperinflation in Zimbabwe reduced it to one of the lowest valued currency units in the world. It was redenominated three times (in 2006, 2008 and 2009), with denominations up to a $100 trillion banknote. The final redenomination produced the "fourth dollar" (ZWL), which was worth 1025 ZWD (first dollars).

Use of the Zimbabwean dollar as an official currency was effectively abandoned on 12 April 2009.

State Bank of Pakistan
http://www.sbp.org.pk/

Under the State Bank of Pakistan Order 1948, the Bank was charged with the duty to "regulate the issue of Bank notes and keeping of reserves with a view to securing monetary stability in Pakistan and generally to operate the currency and credit system of the country to its advantage". The scope of the Bank’s operations was considerably widened in the State Bank of Pakistan Act 1956, which required the Bank to "regulate the monetary and credit system of Pakistan and to foster its growth in the best national interest with a view to securing monetary stability and fuller utilisation of the country’s productive resources". Under financial sector reforms, the State Bank of Pakistan was granted autonomy in February 1994. On 21st January, 1997, this autonomy was further strengthened by issuing three Amendment Ordinances (which were approved by the Parliament in May, 1997) namely, State Bank of Pakistan Act, 1956, Banking Companies Ordinance, 1962 and Banks Nationalisation Act, 1974. The changes in the State Bank Act gave full and exclusive authority to the State Bank to regulate the banking sector, to conduct an independent monetary policy and to set limit on government borrowings from the State Bank of Pakistan. The amendments in Banks Nationalisation Act abolished the Pakistan Banking Council (an institution established to look after the affairs of NCBs) and institutionalised the process of appointment of the Chief Executives and Boards of the nationalised commercial banks (NCBs) and development finance institutions (DFIs), with the Sate Bank having a role in their appointment and removal. The amendments also increased the autonomy and accountability of the Chief Executives and the Boards of Directors of banks and DFIs.

State Bank of Pakistan - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_Bank_of_Pakistan

The State Bank of Pakistan (SBP; Urdu: بینک دولت پاکستان‎) is the central bank of Pakistan. While its constitution, as originally laid down in the State Bank of Pakistan Order 1948, remained basically unchanged until January 1, 1974, when the bank was nationalized, the scope of its functions was considerably enlarged. The State Bank of Pakistan Act 1956, with subsequent amendments, forms the basis of its operations today. The headquarters are located in the financial capital of Pakistan, Karachi with branch offices in 15 cities across Pakistan, including the capital city, Islamabad and the four provincial capitals.

Pakistani rupee - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakistani_rupee

The Pakistani rupee (Urdu: روپیہ‎ ISO code: PKR) is the official currency of Pakistan. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the State Bank of Pakistan, the central bank of the country. The most commonly used symbol for the rupee is Rs, used on receipts when purchasing goods and services. In Pakistan, the rupee is referred to as the "rupees", "rupaya" or "rupaye". As standard in Pakistani English, large values of rupees are counted in terms of thousands, lakh (100 thousand) and crore (10 million), 1 Arab (1 billion), 1 Kharab (1/10 trillion), 100 Kharab.

Maltese scudo - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maltese_scudo

The scudo (plural scudi) is the official currency of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and was the currency of Malta during the rule of the Order over Malta, which ended in 1798. It is subdivided into 12 tari (singular taro), each of 20 grani with 6 piccioli to the grano. It is pegged to the euro (at a rate of 1 scudo : €0.24).

The Royal Mint Museum: London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/current-coins/london-2012-coins/index.html

The Royal Mint was the official licensee for the manufacture of coins for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Its full range included the impressive Gold Series of 22 carat gold coins, the four-year Countdown Series and the popular London 2012 sports collection of 50p coins.

The Royal Mint Museum: One penny coin
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/current-coins/one-penny-coin/index.html

1p coins were issued into circulation on 15 February 1971, the day the United Kingdom adopted a decimal system of currency.

The Royal Mint Museum: Two pence coin
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/current-coins/two-pence-coin/index.html

2p coins were issued into circulation on 15 February 1971, the day the United Kingdom adopted a decimal system of currency.

The Royal Mint Museum: Five pence coin
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/current-coins/five-pence-coin/index.html

5p coins were issued from April 1968 and originally circulated as shillings. All shillings – meaning both pre-decimal shillings and the new 5p coins – were redenominated as coins of five new pence at the time of decimalisation.

The Royal Mint Museum: Ten pence coin
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/current-coins/ten-pence-coin/index.html

10p coins were issued from April 1968 and originally circulated as florins. All florins – meaning both pre-decimal florins and the new 10p coins – were redenominated as coins of ten new pence at the time of decimalisation.

The Royal Mint Museum: Twenty pence coin
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/current-coins/twenty-pence-coin/index.html

The 20p coin was introduced into circulation in June, with a view to reducing the overall weight of the coinage by decreasing the number of 10p coins in use. To make the new coin easily distinguishable, it was given the shape of an equilateral curve heptagon – the same as a 50p. With its constant rolling diameter, this shape is particularly suitable for vending machines.

The Royal Mint Museum: Fifty pence coin
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/current-coins/fifty-pence-coin/index.html

As a result of inflation, it became apparent that the 10-shilling unit of currency was more suited to being a coin than a banknote. A coin can remain in circulation for decades whereas, by the late 1960s, 10-shilling banknotes were being used so intensively they lasted only a few months. With decimalisation imminent, the new coin was struck bearing the decimal denomination of 50p but it circulated for the first couple of years as a 10-shilling piece. To make the coin easily distinguishable, it was given the revolutionary new shape of an equilateral curve heptagon. With its constant rolling diameter, this shape is particularly suitable for vending machines.

The Royal Mint Museum: One pound coin
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/current-coins/one-pound-coin/index.html

As a result of the inflation, it became apparent that the £1 unit of currency was more suited to being a coin than a banknote. A coin can remain in circulation for decades whereas, by the early 1980s, £1 banknotes were being used so intensively they lasted only a few months. To make the coin easily distinguishable, it was struck in a yellow-coloured metal – nickel-brass – and was made particularly thick. As for the design, a recurring five-year programme was instituted in which a design representing the United Kingdom as a whole was followed by a series of four designs representing the home nations.

The Royal Mint Museum: Two pound coin
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/current-coins/two-pound-coin/index.html

Commemorative £2 coins in the single metal of nickel-brass were struck on several occasions between 1986 and 1996 to mark special occasions. Further details about these coins may be found by clicking on the box opposite.

The Royal Mint Museum: Five pound coin
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/current-coins/five-pound-coin/index.html

At the time of decimalisation the United Kingdom five-shilling crown was redenominated as a 25p coin and pieces struck prior to 1990 – all the way back to 1818 – continue to be legal tender for that amount. The face value of new issues of the coin from 1990 was increased to £5.

Crowns are issued to mark special occasions, usually royal in theme, rather than for use in general circulation. They are legal tender – for £5 or 25p as described above – but contrary to popular belief this does not mean that banks and retailers automatically have to accept them.

The Royal Mint Museum: Fractional farthings
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/old-denominations/fractional-farthings/index.html

Copper half-farthings were minted from 1828 to 1856. At first they were intended for use in Ceylon but in 1842 they were declared legal tender in the United Kingdom. A first issue was made in 1844, but the coins were a nine days’ wonder and never became popular in this country. They were demonetised with effect from 1 January 1870.

The Royal Mint Museum: Halfpenny and farthing
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/old-denominations/halfpenny-and-farthing/index.html

Although the silver penny had been part of the currency since the middle of the seventh century, halfpennies and farthings did not become a regular feature until the 13th century. Until then, for the purpose of change, pennies were cut into halves and quarters, so that a halfpenny was literally half a penny and a farthing a quarter or ‘fourthing’.

As with the penny, round halfpennies and farthings in silver became in due course too small to be of practical use. The silver farthing ceased to be coined under Edward VI and the silver halfpenny 100 years later during the period of the Commonwealth.

The Royal Mint Museum: Penny
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/old-denominations/penny/index.html

The penny is the great survivor of the British coinage system. Derived indirectly from the old Roman denarius, it existed as a small silver coin from Anglo-Saxon times. It survived the Norman Conquest of 1066 and continued to be struck for circulation until the middle of the 17th century, 12 pennies making a shilling and 20 shillings a pound.

Because of the rising price of silver the penny became progressively smaller and from the Restoration of Charles II in 1660 it was struck only for use as part of the Royal Maundy. Silver pennies are still struck today for the same purpose, nearly 1400 years after the penny first appeared as a small silver coin.

The Royal Mint Museum: Threepence
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/old-denominations/threepence/index.html

Like the sixpence, the threepenny piece first appeared as a silver coin in 1551. But in competition with the half-groat or twopenny piece, which had already been in circulation for 200 years, it led a precarious existence and was unable to establish itself firmly. Struck during the reign of Elizabeth I and then again during the Civil War, minting was resumed following the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660. By the early part of the 18th century the coin only really survived as a part of the small annual issues of Maundy Money.

The Royal Mint Museum: Maundy Money
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/old-denominations/maundy-money/index.html

The Royal Maundy is an ancient ceremony which has its origin in the commandment Christ gave after washing the feet of his disciples on the day before Good Friday. The commandment, or mandatum, 'that ye love one another' (John XIII 34) is still recalled regularly by Christian churches throughout the world and the ceremony of monarchs washing the feet of the poor, accompanied by gifts of food and clothing, can be traced back to the fourth century.

It seems to have been the custom as early as the 13th century for members of the royal family to take part in Maundy ceremonies, to distribute money and gifts, and to recall Christ's simple act of humility by washing the feet of the poor. Henry IV began the practice of relating the number of recipients of gifts to the monarch's age, and as it became the custom of the monarch to perform the ceremony, the event became known as the Royal Maundy.

The Royal Mint Museum: Sixpence
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/old-denominations/sixpence/index.html

The sixpence was introduced in 1551, during the reign of Edward VI, and owed its origin to the fact that in the 1540s the coinage had been so debased that the value of the silver testoon fell from 12 pence to 6 pence.

The Royal Mint Museum: Shilling
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/old-denominations/shilling/index.html

From early Anglo-Saxon times the shilling was a unit of account, that is to say, a value used in calculations which had no corresponding coin. Its value became established as equivalent to 12 pence and there were 20 shillings to the pound.

The shilling as a coin was introduced at the beginning of the 16th century during the last years of the reign of Henry VII and until the middle of that century was known as a testoon. It was one of the first English coins to bear a real portrait of the monarch instead of the representative portrait which had served for the previous ten centuries; and it was for this reason that it derived its name of testoon from the Italian Testone or Headpiece introduced in Milan in 1474.

The Royal Mint Museum: Florin
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/old-denominations/florin/index.html

Except for the short period during the reign of Edward III in the 14th century, when a gold florin was struck by the Royal Mint, the florin did not feature as part of the British coinage until 1849.

It was introduced as a concession to enthusiasts for a decimal system of coinage, being one-tenth of a pound in value. It owed its name not to any resemblance in shape or value to the gold florins of Edward III but to the fact that it was about the same size as Dutch and Austrian florins current at that time. Its first issue aroused public indignation owing to the omission of the words DEI GRATIA and FIDEI DEFENSOR from Queen Victoria’s titles, the coin thereby commonly being known as the Godless or Graceless florin. This omission was soon corrected and the florin proved to be a useful addition to the silver circulation, if sometimes troublesome because of its close similarity in size to the half-crown.

The Royal Mint Museum: Half-Crown
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/old-denominations/half-crown/index.html

Like the crown, the half-crown was introduced as a gold coin during the reign of Henry VIII and, also like the crown, under Edward VI in the year 1551 it was issued as a silver coin. The issue of gold half-crowns ceased in the 17th century, but the silver half-crown continued in circulation. In 1849 its existence was threatened by the introduction of the florin as a first step towards a decimal currency. In January 1970, over 100 years later, this threat finally became a reality and the half-crown ceased to be legal tender.

The Royal Mint Museum: Crown
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/old-denominations/crown/index.html

Although a coin of five shillings was struck for a few years during the reign of Edward IV, under the name of a half-ryal, it was not until the reign of Henry VIII that a gold coin known as a crown was introduced.

This first crown, which had been introduced in August 1526 with a value of four shillings and sixpence, had a very short life. In October of the same year it was superseded by a new crown having the more convenient value of five shillings.

The Royal Mint Museum: Tudor Half-Sovereign
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/old-denominations/tudor-half-sovereign/index.html

Pre-dating the sovereign by a couple of decades, a 10-shilling coin was issued for the first time during the reign of Edward IV. But this fine gold coin and its direct descendants are known as ryals rather than half-sovereigns and thus are not considered here.

The Royal Mint Museum: Tudor Sovereign
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/old-denominations/tudor-sovereign/index.html

With its enormous size and magnificent designs, the new sovereign constituted a remarkable addition to the English coinage. For the first time the pound sterling, in use for centuries as a denomination of account, was given material expression in the shape of a single coin. For all that the sovereign may have performed some economic function as a large and impressive store of wealth, it is unlikely there was a genuine monetary need for a piece of such high value. The main stimulus for the new coin was probably political, the purpose being to add lustre both at home and abroad to the image of the new Tudor dynasty. Indeed the sovereign may well have appeared in 1489 precisely because it was in that year the Tudors gained effective international recognition in the Treaty of Medina del Campo – by which Henry VII’s son and heir, Arthur, was to marry a Spanish princess.

Farthing (British coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farthing_(British_coin)

The British farthing (¼d) coin, from "fourthing", was a unit of currency of one quarter of a penny, or one nine hundred and sixtieth of a pound sterling. It was minted in bronze, and replaced the earlier copper farthings. It was used during the reign of six monarchs: Victoria, Edward VII, George V, Edward VIII, George VI and Elizabeth II, ceasing to be legal tender in 1960. It featured two different designs on its reverse during its one hundred years in circulation: from 1860 until 1936, the image of Britannia; and from 1937 onwards, the image of a wren. Like all British coinage, it bore the portrait of the monarch on the obverse.

The Royal Mint Museum: The royal portrait
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/art-and-design/the-royal-portrait/index.html

Changes in the royal portrait occur but rarely on United Kingdom coins. Even during the long reign of Queen Victoria there were no more than five portraits, one of which enjoyed such royal favour that it continued to be used for some 50 years. Similarly, only four standard effigies of the present Queen have been used on the United Kingdom coinage since her accession in 1952.

The Royal Mint Museum: All Change: Decimalisation
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/british-coinage/all-change-decimalisation/index.html

In the early 1960s Britain still used a currency system of twelve pennies to the shilling and twenty shillings to the pound. It was a system whose origins stretched back to Anglo-Saxon times and beyond, and which besides its enduring practical function of oiling the wheels of daily commerce had enriched the very language and literature of the nation. Tanners and bobs, ha’pennies and threepenny bits, were instantly recognisable descriptions, and the romance of the coinage was enhanced by the presence of coins of Queen Victoria, some of them 100 years old. Long familiarity had inevitably generated a deep-rooted affection: a beautiful and venerable currency, certainly; cherished, too; but undoubtedly baffling to those not born to its complexities.

The Royal Mint Museum: Uruguay
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/overseas-coins/country-profiles/uruguay/index.html

Coins for Uruguay were first struck at the Royal Mint in 1953, making up a large order of almost 250 million pieces in 1, 2, 5 and 10 centesimos. The obverse bears a portrait of General Artigas – founder of Uruguayan independence – by Humphrey Paget.

Another order of a similar size was received in 1960, this time for six denominations from the 1 peso down to the 2 centesimos. Paget’s portrait of Artigas was retained, as were the reverse designs for the three lower denominations. But a new reverse type was adopted for the higher denominations, consisting of the national coat of arms surrounded by an arc of five-pointed stars.

The Royal Mint Museum: Jordan
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/overseas-coins/country-profiles/jordan/index.html

The Royal Mint has a long relationship with Jordan stretching back to the first national coinage – dated 1949 but issued in 1950 – produced soon after the achievement of independence. An order was placed for six denominations, from the 100 fils down to the 1 fils. The denomination, date and name of the country appeared in Arabic on the obverse, in English on the reverse. A misunderstanding regarding the spelling of the Arabic singular meant that the first issue included a 1 fil coin – this was hastily corrected to 1 fils for future orders.

The Royal Mint Museum: Iceland
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/coins/overseas-coins/country-profiles/iceland/index.html

The origins of Iceland’s long-standing relationship with the Royal Mint may be found in the disjointed conditions of the Second World War. Being united to Denmark, Iceland had previously turned to the Copenhagen Mint for its coinage requirements but the fall of Denmark into enemy hands required the authorities in Reykjavic to look elsewhere. Thus it was that in 1940 the Royal Mint received an order for the five denominations from one eyrir to 25 aurar, soon to be followed by additional orders for króna and 2 krónur coins.

The Royal Mint Museum: James Butler
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/history/people/artists/james-butler/index.html

A professional sculptor, James Butler MBE RA designed the 2004-dated 50p celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of the first four-minute mile by Roger Bannister and the 2005-dated crown commemorating the bicentenary of Lord Nelson's death at the Battle of Trafalgar. He also designed the new Great Seal of the Realm adopted in July 2001 and still in use today.

The Royal Mint Museum: Mary Milner Dickens
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/history/people/artists/mary-milner-dickens/index.html

The first coin design by sculptor Mary Milner Dickens was the 50p of 1992-1993 celebrating the United Kingdom’s presidency of the European Council of Ministers and the completion of the Single Market. Her characteristically thoughtful designs were also chosen for the 50p of 2000 commemorating the 150th anniversary of the Public Libraries Act, the crown of 2001 marking the centenary of the death of Queen Victoria and the 50p of 2003 for the centenary of the foundation of the Women’s Social and Political Union. Medal commissions include the emotive Battle of Britain 50th anniversary medal of 1990 and the Royal Mint’s Fleur de Coin Club medal issued in 1994.

The Royal Mint Museum: Christopher Ironside
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/history/people/artists/christopher-ironside/index.html

Having won a public competition, Christopher Ironside prepared the reverse designs for all six new denominations, 50p to halfpenny, introduced at the time of decimalisation and for which he was awarded an OBE in 1971. Making their first appearance in 1968, when 5p and 10p coins were issued alongside shillings and florins, the Ironside designs remained in use for 40 years – until the new designs by Matthew Dent were introduced in 2008.

The Royal Mint Museum: Arnold Machin
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/history/people/artists/arnold-machin/index.html

Arnold Machin designed the royal portrait which featured on United Kingdom decimal coins from 1968 to 1984. The reverse of the crown issued in 1972 to mark the Silver Wedding of the Queen and Prince Philip was also his work, as were the obverse and reverse of the Silver Jubilee crown of 1977. In addition, he designed the royal portrait which has appeared on definitive British stamps since 1967.

The Royal Mint Museum: William Wyon
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/history/people/artists/william-wyon/index.html

If the many thousands of coin collectors in the United Kingdom were asked to nominate the three finest engravers ever to produce designs for the coinage of Britain it is likely that William Wyon would find a place in everyone’s list.

The Royal Mint Museum: Benedetto Pistrucci
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk//history/people/artists/benedetto-pistrucci/index.html

The association of Benedetto Pistrucci with the Royal Mint began soon after the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. Arguably the most mercurial and temperamental engraver ever to work at the Royal Mint, Pistrucci had been born in Rome in 1783 and had established for himself a considerable reputation as a gem engraver. He had been in France during the final days of Napoleon’s regime and it may well be that William Wellesley Pole, the Master of the Royal Mint, was among those who tempted him to come to England.

The Royal Mint Museum: Humphrey Paget
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/history/people/artists/humphrey-paget/index.html

One of the best remembered designs of the pre-decimal coinage was the old sailing ship on the halfpenny. Based on Francis Drake’s Golden Hind, it was the work of one of the most prolific coin designers of the 20th century.

The Royal Mint Museum: Coinage portrait of Edward VIII
http://www.royalmintmuseum.org.uk/collection/collection-highlights/coins/coinage-portrait-of-Edward-VIII/index.html

One of the undoubted strengths of the Royal Mint Museum is its collection of pattern coins of Edward VIII. Quite apart from their extreme rarity, there are interesting stories surrounding specific pieces, the choice of the king's portrait being one such episode. William McMillan, a Royal Academician, and Humphrey Paget were asked to prepare uncrowned effigies of the king. When the portraits were submitted opinion on the Royal Mint Advisory Committee was so divided about their respective merits that the views of the king himself were sought.

The Royal Mint Blog
http://blog.royalmint.com/

News and announcements from the Royal Mint.

Royal Australian Mint: Media Release
https://www.ramint.gov.au/category/media-release

Media releases of the Royal Australian Mint.

Reserve Bank of New Zealand: News
http://www.rbnz.govt.nz/news/

Press releases of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand.

Reserve Bank of India: Press Releases
https://www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/BS_PressReleaseDisplay.aspx

Press releases of the Reserve Bank of India.

Reserve Bank of New Zealand: Notes & coins frequently asked questions
http://www.rbnz.govt.nz/notes_and_coins/0094941.html

Notes and coins frequently asked questions.

Unite Arab Emirates dirham - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Arab_Emirates_dirham

The dirham (Arabic: درهم‎) (sign: د.إ; code: AED) is the currency of the United Arab Emirates. The ISO 4217 code (currency abbreviation) for the United Arab Emirates dirham is AED. Unofficial abbreviations include DH or Dhs. The dirham is subdivided into 100 fils (فلس).

BBC: A short history of the pound
http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-26169070

With a credible claim to be the oldest living currency in the world, the pound has accompanied Britons through much of their march through history. But is Scotland soon to end its use of the unit?

Arnold Machin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnold_Machin

Arnold Machin O.B.E., R.A. (30 September 1911 – 9 March 1999) was a British artist, sculptor, coin and stamp designer.

Museum Victoria Collections: Percy Metcalfe, Coin Designer, (1895-1970)
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/2358

Percy Metcalfe was an accomplished designer of coins. His designs (with some modifications) were used for the reverse and obverse of all coins issued by the newly founded Irish Free State, although he was an Englishman. He undertook the work for the Irish Currency Commission of 1926, which was chaired by the poet W. B. Yeats. The coinage depicted various farm animals, with a harp on the obverse. In 1938 he re-designed the obverse harp for all the coins to improve the reverses of the Penny and the Half Crown.

Museum Victoria Collections: George William De Saulles, Medallist (1862-1903)
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/3758

George William De Saulles was born on 4 February 1862 in Birmingham. He studied at the Birmingham School of Art and was apprenticed to Mr. Wilcox, a Birmingham die-sinker. De Saulles moved to London in 1884 to work with John H. Pinches, medalist and die-engraver, who was then in Oxenden Street, Haymarket. In 1888 he returned to Birmingham to work with Joseph Moore.

PAMP (company) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PAMP_(company)

PAMP SA (acronym for Produits Artistiques Métaux Précieux), is a world leading, independently operated, precious metals refining and fabricating company, member of the MKS Group. It was established in 1977 in Ticino, Switzerland.

MMTC-PAMP
http://www.mmtcpamp.com/

MMTC-PAMP India – a joint venture between PAMP SA Switzerland and MMTC Ltd, a Government of India Undertaking – operates the world’s most advanced precious metals processing facility, under the direct technical supervision of PAMP. As India's first and only LBMA Good Delivery refinery accredited for Gold and Silver, MMTC-PAMP India is setting new global standards for product excellence, customer service, environmental management and safety.

Crown gold - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crown_gold

Crown gold is a 22 karat (kt) gold alloy, crown coin, introduced in England in 1526 (by Henry VIII) to replace the earlier gold sovereign coins which were made from the softer 23 kt gold and which thereby had invited both deliberate filing and also non-intentional wear. The 22 kt standard has been used for British gold coins ever since this change which is 91.667% gold (or 22 parts out of 24).

Museum Victoria Collections: Australian Commonwealth Coinage
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/3777

Although the Commonwealth of Australia was formed in 1901, it was to be 1909 before any steps were made for a national coinage. In 1902 and again in 1911 British Imperial coins were authorised for use in Australia.

Belgian franc - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belgian_franc

The Belgian franc (French: Franc belge, Dutch: Belgische frank, German: Belgischer Franken) was the currency of the Kingdom of Belgium from 1832 until 2002 when the Euro was introduced. It was subdivided into 100 subunits, known as centimes (French), centiem (Dutch) or Centime (German).

Brabant Revolution coinage - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brabant_Revolution_coinage

The coinage of the United Belgian States was only produced during the state's one-year existence in 1790, following the Brabant Revolution, but provided a strong numismatic influence for the coinage of Belgium after its independence in 1830.

Austrian Netherlands Kronenthaler - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austrian_Netherlands_Kronenthaler

The kronenthaler was the currency of the Austrian Netherlands since 1755. It was subdivided into 216 liards or 54 sols. During the Brabant Revolution in the Austrian Netherlands in 1789-90, it was briefly replaced with a short-lived revolutionary currency. Following the French occupation of the Austrian Netherlands in 1794, the Kronenthaler was replaced by the French franc.

Drake Sterling Numismatics
http://www.drakesterling.com/

After a career in investment banking, Eric Eigner established Drake Sterling Numismatics in 2006 and became one of the first coin dealers in Australia to sell coins exclusively online. As all business was conducted through the internet, he focussed on providing high-quality images and detailed descriptions of each of the coins for sale, and, over the years, redesigned the website to simplify the online buying experience.

Central Bank of Samoa: Currency Collectibles
http://www.cbs.gov.ws/index.php/currency/collectors-currency/

The Currency Collectibles Section of the Central Bank of Samoa issues legal tender currency products for collectors. Most of these collector's products have low mintage or production volume, and have a Samoan theme to their design.

Central Bank of Samoa: Samoan Currency in Use
http://www.cbs.gov.ws/index.php/currency/samoan-currency-in-use/

One of the Central Bank's key obligations is to meet the currency needs of the public. Therefore, as the sole provider of the currency, it has to ensure that stocks of all currency denominations (notes and coins) are in adequate supply and of high quality to meet the transactional needs of the public. No other person is allowed to print or issue currency. And, it is an offense to deface any currency by means of writing, stamping, erasure or any other actions that would change the features of the currency.

Central Bank of Samoa
http://www.cbs.gov.ws/

Samoa did not always have a Central Bank. Before independence in 1962, Samoa used the currency (British pounds, shilling and pence) issued by the Bank of New Zealand, which was owned by the New Zealand Government.

After independence, the currency was initially issued by the Bank of Western Samoa. Like the Bank of New Zealand, this was a commercial bank, but it was partially owned by the Samoan Government, and carried out currency operations and foreign exchange policy on behalf of the Government.

In the early 1970's, the Government decided that it needed to take more formal control of the currency issue. However, at that time the Government saw little need for a central bank, believing that the other duties we now take for granted could be handled in other ways. So the issue of the new currency was put under the control of the new organization, the Monetary Board of Western Samoa. This was established by the Monetary Board of Western Samoa Act of 1974, and came into being in early 1975.

Central Bank of Samoa - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bank_of_Samoa

The Central Bank of Samoa (Samoan: Faletupe Tutotonu o Samoa) is the central bank of Samoa. Situated in the capital Apia beside the main government buildings, the bank issues the Samoan currency, the Samoan tālā as well as regulating and managing the exchange rate with foreign currencies. In its role as the central bank for the government and the country, it is also responsible for the registration and supervision of commercial banks.

Samoan tālā - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samoan_tālā

The tālā is the currency of Samoa. It is divided into 100 sene. The terms tālā and sene are the equivalents or transliteration of the English words dollar and cent, in the Samoan language.

Coins of the Fijian pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Fijian_pound

The coins of the Fijian pound were part of the physical form of Fiji's historical currency, the Fijian pound.

Coins of the Fijian dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Fijian_dollar

The coins of the Fijian dollar have been part of the physical form of Fiji's currency, the Fijian dollar.

Fijian dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fijian_dollar

The Fijian dollar (currency sign: $; currency code: FJD) has been the currency of Fiji since 1969 and was also the currency between 1867 and 1873. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively FJ$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents.

Fijian pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fijian_pound

The pound was the currency of Fiji between 1873 and 1969. It was subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence.

Reserve Bank of New Zealand: History of New Zealand Coinage
http://www.rbnz.govt.nz/notes_and_coins/coins/0094086.html

In early 1840, Captain William Hobson, RN, the first Governor of New Zealand, extended British laws to New Zealand. This meant that certain sections of the Imperial Coinage Act, 1816 (UK) became relevant to the new colony. This allowed for the standard gold, silver and bronze British coins to circulate freely in New Zealand alongside the existing variety of foreign coins. British coins were made legal tender in terms of the above act by the passing of the English Laws Act in 1858.

Reserve Bank of New Zealand: New Zealand Coinage Specifications
http://www.rbnz.govt.nz/notes_and_coins/coins/0101459.html

On 31st July 2006, the Reserve Bank of New Zealand introduced a new set of smaller and lighter coins to replace the existing 10, 20 and 50 cent pieces. The 5 cent piece was phased out of circulation, while recovery of the old coinage began.

Reserve Bank of New Zealand: F4 Coin mintings
http://www.rbnz.govt.nz/statistics/tables/f4/

Data about the mintage of New Zealand modern coins.

Suomen Rahapaja (Mint of Finland)
http://www.suomenrahapaja.fi/eng/

In December 1859 the Finnish Senate petitioned the Tsar for permission for the country’s own unit of currency noting that the rouble was too large a unit of currency for a poor country such as Finland. The advantages of a smaller unit of currency were understood in St Petersburg and the Senate was charged with examining the matter in greater detail. At a full session of the Senate on March 10th 1860 a decision was made to propose as a unit of currency the markka, which would be a quarter of the value of the rouble and which would be divided into 100 penni. Based on this proposal Tsar Alexander II gave his approval to the new unit of currency on April 4th 1860.

Det Norske Myntverket
http://www.myntverket.no/

Mint of Norway.

Deutsche Bundesbank: Bird of paradise from New Guinea
http://www.bundesbank.de/Redaktion/EN/Dossier/Bundesbank/coin_and_banknote_collection_special_pieces.html?notFirst=true&docId=176420

Birds of paradise are regarded as strange, exotic creatures – quite out of the ordinary. And to European eyes, the idea of using the dried skins of these birds as a currency, as was common in New Guinea both before and during part of the 20th century, seems equally strange and exotic.

In the world of money, birds of paradise have not only featured in the flesh as a form of currency in certain cultural contexts but also as a motif on banknotes and coins. In 1894 the German New Guinea Company, which governed the German New Guinea protectorate at that time, was awarded the right to mint coins for the colony; the reverse sides of the 10 pfennig, half, one, two, five, ten and 20 Mark coins all bore the image of a bird of paradise. This colonial currency was produced at the mint in Berlin, but was only recognised as legal tender within the German New Guinea protectorate.

Bavarian Central Mint - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bavarian_Central_Mint

The Bavarian Central Mint is a European Coin mint located in the city of Munich. It is one of the four German coin mints. All coins from the BCM contain a "D" mark for tracking purposes. The Bavarian Central Mint has been in operation since 1871.

Hamburgische Münze
http://www.muenzehamburg.de/

The Hamburgische Münze is a European coin mint located in the city of Hamburg. It is one of the four German coin mints. The earliest coins minted by the Hamburgische Münze are dated 834 CE, making it the oldest mint in Germany currently in operation. Since 1875, all coins minted at the Hamburgische Münze have had a "J" mark stamped on them for tracing purposes.

Hamburgische Münze - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamburgische_Münze

The Hamburgische Münze is a European coin mint located in the city of Hamburg. It is one of the four German coin mints. The earliest coins minted by the Hamburgische Münze are dated 834 CE, making it the oldest mint in Germany currently in operation. Since 1875, all coins minted at the Hamburgische Münze have had a "J" mark stamped on them for tracing purposes.

Staatliche Münzen Baden-Württemberg - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staatliche_Münzen_Baden-Württemberg

The Staatliche Münzen Baden-Württemberg (SMBW), is a coin mint in Germany, producing coins of the euro currency.

It was established in 1998 as the result of a merger between the Karlsruhe and Stuttgart mints. Notwithstanding the merger, the two formerly separate mints have retained their respective identification letters: "F" for Stuttgart and "G" for Karlsruhe.

Staatliche Münze Berlin
https://www.muenze-berlin.de/

The Staatliche Münze Berlin (SMB) is a European coin mint located in the city of Berlin.

It is one of the four German coin mints. All coins from the SMB contain an "A" mark for tracking purposes. The SMB has been in operation since 1750 CE during the era of Frederic II of Prussia.

Staatliche Münze Berlin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staatliche_Münze_Berlin

The Staatliche Münze Berlin (SMB) is a European coin mint located in the city of Berlin.

It is one of the four German coin mints. All coins from the SMB contain an "A" mark for tracking purposes. The SMB has been in operation since 1750 CE during the era of Frederic II of Prussia.

German gold mark - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_gold_mark

The Goldmark (officially just Mark, sign: ℳ) was the currency used in the German Empire from 1873 to 1914. The Papiermark refers to the German currency from 4 August 1914 when the link between the Mark and gold was abandoned.

New Guinean mark - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Guinean_mark

The Mark (German plural: Mark, English plural: marks) was the currency of the colony of German New Guinea between 1884 and 1911. It was equal to the German Mark, which was also legal tender in the colony.

Монеты России и СССР: The Sestroretsk ruble. Part 1.
http://monety-rossii.com/sestroretsk-ruble-part-1/

The Sestroretsk copper ruble is the largest round copper coin in the world, with a diameter of about 76 mm., being 26 mm. thick and weighing about 1,000 grams. The only known dates are 1770 and 1771, the minting initiated under Catherine II. A small number of novodels were struck with the original dies in the 1840’s and 1850’s.

Монеты России и СССР: The Swedish 5 Kopek Pieces 1787
http://monety-rossii.com/swedish-5-kopek-pieces-1787/

In 1788 when Gustaf III of Sweden went to war against Russia, he ordered Russian 5 kopek pieces to be made for use by his troops in Russia proper and the frontier regions. These rare pieces have been found in a number of Swedish and a few Russian coin collections, and they deserve special mention. Only a couple of years after their striking, Catherine II’s secretary writes in his diary: "Count Pushkin has sent us some 5 kopek pieces that the Swedes have used to pay Russian workers in the war zone. The Swedes say that they have taken them as prize on Russian ships, but we feel that they are forgeries, although they are as good as ours."

Монеты России и СССР: The Siberian Coinage 1763 -1781
http://monety-rossii.com/the-siberian-coinage-1763-1781/

To alleviate the shortage of coins in Siberia during the reign of Catherine II a new mint was erected to supply the province with currency in the form of copper coins.

In the Altai mountains mines and factories already existed at Kolyvan—Voskres-sensk, property of the Czar. Here silver was mined, as well as copper. In fact, because of the primitive refining method, this copper contained silver, and even some gold.

Монеты России и СССР: The Recoinage of 1796: The Cipher Series
http://monety-rossii.com/the-recoinage-of-1796-the-cipher-series/

Catherine II’s lightweight coinage of 1796, the cipher series, has always interested numismatists, and continuous research since its inception has gradually revealed the extent of the series and the reason it was undertaken. There are still some uncertainties, but recent Soviet findings by L’vov, Koretzki, and Gornung have resolved many of them.

Coin Books: The Sestroretsk and Pugachev Rubles
http://www.coinbooks.org/esylum_v18n24a28.html

The advent of eBay and other online auction sites has greatly expanded the availability of rare and unusual numismatic items. I have an interest in the copper coinage of 19th century Russia, especially the coins issued under the reigns of Peter III, limited to 1762 and Catherine II (The Great), covering 1762-96. There are numerous instances of coins being struck over coins of earlier rulers, of which I have made a particular specialty. The presence of eBay has allowed me to purchase a number of nice coins, some of them directly from Russia. I have two pieces in my collection that have been struck from the dies of the same design. One is renowned as the world’s largest round copper coin, and the other is a famous fantasy piece struck especially for collectors. Both are copper, but that is where their commonality ends.

Royal Mint: Guinea coin
http://www.royalmint.com/our-coins/ranges/guinea

The gold guinea was undoubtedly the major British coin of the eighteenth century. It was born in the aftermath of the English Civil War when the republican issues were replaced with a more impressive coinage bearing the portrait of the newly restored King, Charles II. Romantically named ‘guinea’ since gold for coining was then supplied by the Africa Company operating along the Guinea Coast, it was given a nominal value of 20 shillings. Its actual value fluctuated until finally stabilising, in 1717, at 21 shillings, a monetary unit used up decimalisation in 1971.

Unite (English coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unite_(English_coin)

The Unite was the second English gold coin with a value of twenty shillings or one pound first produced during the reign of King James I. It was named after the legends on the coin indicating the king's intention of uniting his two kingdoms of England and Scotland. The unite was valued at twenty shillings until 1612 when the increase in the value of gold throughout Europe caused it to be raised to twenty-two shillings. The coin was produced during James I's second coinage (1604–1619), and it was replaced in the third coinage by the Laurel worth twenty shillings. All the coins were produced at the Tower Mint in London.

Scottish coinage - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_coinage

From c.1124 until 1709 the coinage of Scotland was unique, and minted locally. A wide variety of coins, such as the plack, bodle, bawbee, dollar and ryal were produced over that time.

Irish Coinage
http://www.irishcoinage.com/

Information about Irish coins for numismatists, collectors, archaeologists and others who have an interest in the currency in use in Ireland from earliest times to the present day.

Jaggards
http://www.jaggards.com.au/

Jaggards Pty Ltd was inaugurated in 1963, and Robert Jaggard commenced trading in Professional Numismatics, and over many years of dealing and collecting often the rarest of rare items, Robert subsequently developed a reputation for his expertise and unique experiences both locally and internationally in Australian Rare Coins and Banknote investments and Precious Metal Investments.

Travancore rupee - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Travancore_rupee

The Travancore rupee was the currency of the State of Travancore. Unlike the Indian rupee issued by the British, the rupee of Travancore was subdivided into 7 panam, each of 4 chakram, each of 16 cash. The Travancore currency was issued until 1949 before being replaced by the Indian rupee.

As of 1901, silver coins were issued in the denominations or 2 chakrams, 4 chakrams, 7 chakram (1/4 rupee), 14 chakram (1/2 rupee). Copper coins were struck in the denominations of 1 cash, 4 cash, 8 cash, and 1 chakram (=16 cash). The exchange rate with the British Indian rupee was set at 1 British Indian rupee = 28 chakram, 8 cash; equivalently, 1 Tranvancore rupee = 15 annas, 8.63 pies of a British Indian rupee.

Museum Victoria Collections: George Kruger Gray, Designer, Painter & Medallist (1880-1943)
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/1984

George Kruger Gray was a designer, painter and medallist. He was born George Edward Kruger, and graduated from the Royal College of Art. After his marriage in 1918 he adopted his wife's surname.

Gray was a leading designer for the Royal Mint. He mostly designed coin reverses which he signed "KG" or "G".

Museum Victoria Collections: Australian Nickel Patterns
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/3778

Melbourne began experimenting with a new coinage for the penny and halfpenny in 1919. The new coins would be of nickel and would be square with rounded corners so the there would be no confusion with the silver coinage.

Museum Victoria Collections: Establishment of Melbourne Mint, 1872
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/3776

The discovery of gold in Victoria in 1851 occurred at a time when the colony used British Imperial coins. Prime among these coins was the gold sovereign, a coin of international repute whose gold content fixed the value of the pound. These gold coins were made at the Royal Mint in London - gold taken to the mint would be returned without charge in gold coins which were legal tender without limit. The gold being discovered in Australia could therefore be turned into money once it got to London. This was a problem for the diggers - they wanted to dig for more gold, not spend a year traveling to and from London by sailing ship.

Museum Victoria Collections: Melbourne Mint
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/3775

The Melbourne Branch of the Royal Mint began operation on 12 June 1872. It was the second branch to be opened in Australia, the Sydney Branch having opened in 1855.

American Numismatic Association
https://www.money.org/

The American Numismatic Association is a nonprofit educational organization dedicated to educating and encouraging people to study and collect money and related items. The Association serves the academic community, collectors and the general public with an interest in numismatics.

The ANA helps all people discover and explore the world of money through its vast array of programs including its education and outreach, museum, library, publications, conventions and seminars.

James & Chester Brett
http://www.jamesandchesterbrett.co.uk/

Numismatists: buy, sell and trade coins, tokens and banknotes.

SCV History: Copper in the Hopper
http://www.scvhistory.com/orig/scvhistory/signal/coins/worden-coinage0606.htm

Certain mysteries have intrigued numismatists for decades. Who made the five 1913 Liberty head nickels? How did a bunch of "contraband" $20 gold pieces escape the Philadelphia Mint in 1933? Why do some 1943 Lincoln cents, which should have been "steelies," exist in bronze?

The jury is out on the first two questions. But now, after more than 60 years, comes a compelling tale that, if true, could unravel one part of the mystery of the 1943 bronze cent.

Banco de México: Banknotes and Coins
http://www.banxico.org.mx/billetes-y-monedas/indexEn.html

In order to fulfill the constitutional mandate of providing the economy with domestic currency, Banco de México issues banknotes and orders the minting of coins, and puts both into circulation.

Banco de México: Banknotes and Coins
http://www.banxico.org.mx/billetes-y-monedas/indexEn.html

In order to fulfill the constitutional mandate of providing the economy with domestic currency, Banco de México issues banknotes and orders the minting of coins, and puts both into circulation.

Banco de México (Bank of Mexico)
http://www.banxico.org.mx/

Banco de México is the central bank of Mexico. By constitutional mandate, it is autonomous in both its operations and management. Its main function is to provide domestic currency to the Mexican economy and its main priority is to ensure the stability of the domestic currency's purchasing power. Its other functions are to promote both the sound development of the financial system and the optimal functioning of the payment systems.

Bank of Mexico - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_of_Mexico

The Bank of Mexico (Spanish: Banco de México), abbreviated BdeM or Banxico, is Mexico's central bank, monetary authority and lender of last resort. The Bank of Mexico is autonomous in exercising its functions, and its main objective is to achieve stability in the purchasing power of the national currency.

Casa de Moneda de México (Mexican Mint)
http://www.cmm.gob.mx/

La Casa de Moneda de México is the national mint of Mexico and is the oldest mint in the Americas.

The Mexican Mint was established in 1535 by the Spanish viceroy Antonio de Mendoza by a decree from the Spanish Crown to create the first mint in the Americas. The mint's silver eight-real coins and its successor coin, the silver peso, circulated widely in the Americas and Asia well into the 19th century and became the basis of the modern national currencies of many countries in these parts of the world, including the United States dollar, the Japanese yen and the Chinese yuan.

Mexican Mint - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican_Mint

La Casa de Moneda de México is the national mint of Mexico and is the oldest mint in the Americas.

The Mexican Mint was established in 1535 by the Spanish viceroy Antonio de Mendoza by a decree from the Spanish Crown to create the first mint in the Americas. The mint's silver eight-real coins and its successor coin, the silver peso, circulated widely in the Americas and Asia well into the 19th century and became the basis of the modern national currencies of many countries in these parts of the world, including the United States dollar, the Japanese yen and the Chinese yuan.

Museum Victoria: Australian Commonwealth Coinage
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/3777

Although the Commonwealth of Australia was formed in 1901, it was to be 1909 before any steps were made for a national coinage. In 1902 and again in 1911 British Imperial coins were authorised for use in Australia.

Museum Victoria Collections: Edgar Bertram Mackennal, Sculptor (1863-1931)
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/1930

Sir Edgar Bertram Mackennal, sculptor, was born on 12 June 1863 in Fitzroy, the second son of architectural modeller and sculptor John Simpson Mackennal and his wife Annabella, both Scottish. He was educated the the Melbourne Model School and King's College. His initial training was undertaken by his father, and reinforced by studies at the National Gallery School of Design.

Te Ara: Coins and banknotes
http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/coins-and-banknotes/page-1

In the early 19th century a range of foreign coins circulated in New Zealand. In 1847 new exchange rates were fixed. From that year British coins dominated circulation as the exchange rate was unfavourable for other foreign coinage. British coin became legal tender (currency that has to be accepted to immediately clear a debt) in New Zealand in 1858. Gold coins minted in Australia by branches of the Royal Mint were also legal tender. From 1897 British coin minted by the Royal Mint in London was the only legal-tender coin.

The first New Zealand coins were issued in 1933.

New Zealand Post: New Zealand currency today
https://coins.nzpost.co.nz/about-coins-collecting/new-zealand-currency-today

New Zealand coin currency today consists of five decimal coins that represent different aspects of our culture and heritage.

New Zealand Post: Historical coin issues
https://coins.nzpost.co.nz/about-coins-collecting/historical-coin-issues

Welcome to the historical coins section where you can view issues that are no longer available as well as all the commemorative products released each year.

New Zealand Post: A brief history of New Zealand currency
https://coins.nzpost.co.nz/about-coins-collecting/brief-history-new-zealand-currency

The use of coins in New Zealand dates back to the early 1800's when currencies from around the world were traded based on their metal content.

New Zealand Post: Coins
https://coins.nzpost.co.nz/

New Zealand Post issues collectable coins on behalf of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand.

Reserve Bank of New Zealand: Museum
http://www.rbnzmuseum.govt.nz/

The Reserve Bank Museum celebrates and records New Zealand's economic and banking history.

Coin.co.nz
http://www.coin.co.nz/

Coin co NZ is based in New Zealand and is an automated auction and barter system for the use of all New Zealand residents over the age of 18. Residents from the rest of the world may bid, place wanted advertisements or buy from this site with the permission of the individual seller but residents from anywhere else in the world may not sell or offer auctions or items for sale here.

Gold Bank IE: How to spot counterfeit gold coins
http://goldbank.ie/goldbank-blog/172-how-to-spot-counterfeit-gold-coins.html

Many new buyers of gold coins worry as to the authenticity of their purchase. Obviously the lack of familiarity with gold coins can leave new buyers more vulnerable to fake coins. Firstly fake coins are not that common but they do exist and a buyer needs to be able to detect one.

The Perth Mint coin collector: Why two cent coins are being hunted by collectors
http://blog.perthmint.com.au/2012/07/20/why-two-cent-coins-are-being-hunted-by-collectors/

The Perth Mint made 16,995,000 two cent coins for issue in 1968. Now, some of these early decimals are becoming increasingly sought-after.

The Australian two cents was introduced in 1966 (and withdrawn from circulation in 1992). The coin’s reverse portrayed a Frill-necked Lizard by Stuart Devlin, whose initials appeared under its belly. Except that on an unknown number of these coins, the famous designer’s initials are missing!

California Diamond Jubilee half dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California_Diamond_Jubilee_half_dollar

The California Diamond Jubilee half dollar was a United States commemorative fifty cent piece struck at the San Francisco Mint in 1925. It was issued to celebrate the 75th anniversary of California statehood.

The San Francisco Citizens' Committee wished to issue a commemorative coin as a fundraiser for a celebration of the statehood diamond jubilee. A California congressman attached authorization for it to another coinage bill, which was approved in early 1925. Designs by sculptor Jo Mora met a hostile reception at the Commission of Fine Arts, but the Citizens' Committee would not change them, and they were approved. The coin has been widely praised for its beauty in the years since.

1913 Liberty Head nickel - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1913_Liberty_Head_nickel

The 1913 Liberty Head nickel is an American five-cent piece which was produced in extremely limited quantities unauthorized by the United States Mint, making it one of the best-known and most coveted rarities in American numismatics. In 1972, one specimen of the five cent coin became the first coin to command a price of US$100,000; in 1996, another specimen became the first to break the million-US$ barrier. In 2003 one coin was sold for under three million dollars. In 2010, the Olsen piece sold for US$3.7 million at a public auction. Only five examples are known to exist: two in museums and three in private collections.

Museum Victoria: Coin - Crown (5 Shillings), Queen Anne, Great Britain, 1707
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/items/61446

In 1707 the Act of the Union was passed joining England and Scotland into a single realm, this coin was struck after that so the arms of England and Scotland are halved within a shield and repeated twice. Before the Union each set of arms occupied its own shield.

The legend on the coin reads as a single title from front to back, it translates as 'Anne by the Grace of God Queen of Great Britain, France and Ireland".

The Liberty Nickel Collector Society: The Mysterious 1913 Liberty Nickel
http://www.libertynickels.org/1913liberty.php

In 1996, numismatic history was made as Jay Parino paid over 1 million dollars for the Eliasberg specimen of the 1913 liberty nickel. This was the first coin to break the million-dollar barrier, with a final hammer price of $1,485,000 after a 10% buyer's fee was added. This amount surpassed the previous record paid, set in 1989, of $990,000 for the Dexter specimen of the 1804 Dollar and the $962,500 paid for the Reed Hawn Specimen of the 1913 Liberty Nickel. You can read a transcript of this sale, and even listen to the actual auction call by clicking here. The mystery surrounding this coin is that, while there are 5 known specimens, there is no record at the mint of any being produced.

Great American Coin Company
http://www.greatamericancoincompany.com/

The Great American Coin Company has an extensive collection of gold and silver United Sates coins available for purchase as well as silver and gold certificates and notes and Federal Reserve Notes. Additionally, they sell international currencies including the Vietnamese Dong, Iraqi Dinar, Indonesian Rupiah and out of circulation former currency from the Republic of Zimbabwe.

Lincoln cent - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lincoln_cent

The Lincoln cent or Lincoln penny is a cent coin (or penny) (1/100 of a dollar) that has been struck by the United States Mint since 1909. The obverse or heads side was designed by Victor David Brenner, as was the original reverse. The coin has seen several reverse, or tails, designs and now bears one by Lyndall Bass depicting a Union shield.

United States Mint: What's So Special About the 1943 Copper Penny?
http://www.usmint.gov/about_the_mint/fun_facts/?action=fun_facts2a

According to the American Numismatic Association, the 1943 copper-alloy cent is one of the most idealized and potentially one of the most sought-after items in American numismatics. Nearly all circulating pennies at that time were struck in zinc-coated steel because copper and nickel were needed for the Allied war effort. 40 1943 copper-alloy cents are known to remain in existence. Coin experts speculate that they were struck by accident when copper-alloy 1-cent blanks remained in the press hopper when production began on the new steel pennies.

Austin Rare Coins and Bullion
http://www.austincoins.com/

This company offers gold, silver, rare coins and collectibles.

CoinQuest
http://coinquest.com/

CoinQuest is not about coin collecting, it is about coin appraisal. Here you find the needed tools to understand the value of your rare and valuable coins, even if you are not a coin collector. The subject is quite complicated, and there are many scam artists in the world of coin dealers. Honest coin dealers pay honest prices for coins they buy from the general public, but the scam artists steal coins from unsuspecting sellers and overcharge inexperienced buyers. Your best bet for finding honest dealers is to know what your coins are worth before you meet with any dealer. Use CoinQuest for this purpose.

Coin Values: 1911 Lincoln Wheat Pennies
http://www.coinvalues.com/wheat-pennies/1911

1911 Lincoln Wheat Penny coins were the first one-cent pieces to be struck by the Denver Mint, which began operation a few years earlier in 1906. Lincoln cents that were struck in 1911 are much more common than the famous 1909 Wheat Pennies that often are the object of desire for most Penny collectors and a thing of intrigue for non-collectors that have “heard about” these coins. However, 1911 Pennies are definitely among the oldest Lincoln Cents, and many of them have been cleaned or otherwise damaged, which sometimes makes it substantially difficult to find examples that are decent enough for inclusion in a coin album.

Slovak euro coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovak_euro_coins

The Slovak euro coins are the European monetary union euro coins issued by Slovakia since 2009. They feature three separate designs for the three series of coins.

Slovakia has been a member of the European Union since May 2004, and is a member of the European Economic and Monetary Union. Slovakia adopted the euro on 1 January 2009, replacing its previous currency, the Slovak koruna.

Triton: The 1942 pennies
http://www.triton.vg/P42.html

Australian pennies dated 1942 were minted in Perth and Bombay. Besides using distinctly different obverse and reverse dies, the Perth issues were identified by a small dot after the Y in PENNY whereas the Bombay issues had larger dots before and after PENNY which were probably part of the design rather than mint marks as such. Slight variations in the position of the Perth mint mark indicate the use of multiple working dies.

Slovak koruna - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovak_koruna

The Slovak koruna or Slovak crown (Slovak: slovenská koruna, literally meaning Slovak crown) was the currency of Slovakia between 8 February 1993 and 31 December 2008, and could be used for cash payment until 16 January 2009. It is no longer the official Slovak currency. The ISO 4217 code was SKK and the local abbreviation was Sk. The Slovak crown (koruna) was also the currency of the Nazi-era Slovak Republic between 1939 and 1945. Both korunas were subdivided into 100 haliers (abbreviated as "hal." or simply "h", singular: halier). The abbreviation is placed after the numeric value.

Coin Site: 1943 U.S. Copper Cent
http://coinsite.com/1943-copper-us-lincoln-cent/

In 1943 the United States Congress voted to make Lincoln cents out of zinc-coated steel. The country was fighting World War II and copper supplies were needed to make cartridge casings for the war effort.

The steel pennies of 1943 were called silver cents because of their silver grey color. These cents range in color from grey to black because the zinc coating tended to wear off quickly leaving the steel vulnerable to corrosion.

Were any 1943 pennies made of copper? Yes! As we have explained, there shouldn’t have been. An unknown number were made, due to an accident at the mint…

Fun Times Guide: The Ultimate Guide to the 1944 Steel Penny
http://coins.thefuntimesguide.com/2013/01/1944-steel-penny.php

While the U.S. Mint struck more than a billion steel pennies in 1943, about 35 examples of the zinc-coated steel cent are known to have been inadvertently struck bearing the date 1944.

Coin Facts: 1943 Copper Cent
http://www.coinfacts.com/small_cents/lincoln_cents/wheat_ear_cents/1943_copper_cent.htm

In 1943, the U.S. Mint began using steel blanks for the Cents in an effort to conserve copper for use in World War II. Over a billion "Steelies" (as they are known popularly) were struck by the three Mints combined in 1943; Philadelphia alone produced over 684,000,000 examples. However, a handful of rare 1943 Cents have been discovered struck in error on old-style, bronze blanks.

Fun Times Guide: U.S. Coins Values
http://coins.thefuntimesguide.com/category/hobbies-crafts/coin-values-worth

Articles about various US coins..

Fun Times Guide: 1943 Lincoln Cents: The Value of Steel vs Copper Pennies
http://coins.thefuntimesguide.com/2008/09/1943_lincoln_cent.php

One of the most interesting varieties the U.S. Mint created over its decades of producing Lincoln cents came in 1943. That’s when the Mint, pursuant to 1942’s Public Law 815, temporarily suspended use of copper in pennies to ration the metal for use in war materials.

Banknotes of the Czechoslovak koruna (1919) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banknotes_of_the_Czechoslovak_koruna_(1919)

The first banknotes in First Czechoslovak Republic were issues of the Austro-Hungarian Bank to which adhesive stamps were affixed. Denominations were of 10, 20, 50, 100 and 1000 korun (provisional issue). Regular banknotes of Czechoslovak koruna were subsequently issued (initially dated 15 April 1919) by the Republic of Czechoslovakia between 1919 and 1926, in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 korun. The Czechoslovak National Bank took over production in 1926, issuing notes for 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 korun. The new designs were made by Alfons Mucha, one of the founders of Art Nouveau and a Slavic nationalist. The urgency of the task led him to reuse a previous portrait of Josephine Crane Bradley as Slavia for the 100 koruna bill.

Banknotes of the Czechoslovak koruna (1945) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banknotes_of_the_Czechoslovak_koruna_(1945)

In 1945, four kinds of banknotes of Czechoslovak koruna were introduced. The first were issues of Bohemia and Moravia and Slovakia, to which adhesive stamps were affixed. Denominations issued were 100, 500 and 1000 korun. The second (dated 1944) were printed in the Soviet Union and were issued in denominations of 1, 5, 20, 100, 500 and 1000 korun. The third were locally printed notes issued by the government in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 korun. The fourth were issues of the Czechoslovak National Bank, in denominations of 1000 and 5000 korun. The National Bank issued 500 korun notes from 1946, whilst the government continued to issue notes between 5 and 100 korun, the 1 korun note being replaced by a coin in 1946.

Banknotes of the Czechoslovak koruna (1953) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banknotes_of_the_Czechoslovak_koruna_(1953)

The first banknotes of the third Czechoslovak koruna were issued by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia in denominations of 1, 3 and 5 korun (state notes) and by the State Bank in denominations of 10, 25, 50 and 100 korun (banknotes). From 1958, new 25, 10, 100 and finally 50 Kčs banknotes were designed, and the state notes were gradually replaced by coins during the 1960s. The 20 Kčs banknote was printed from 1970 to replace the 25 Kčs note. The 500 Kčs banknote appeared in 1973. Starting with the 1000 Kčs banknote in 1985, a new, more uniform series (designer: Albín Brunovský) was issued adding a new denomination each year. This process was interrupted by the fall of the communism (and finally by the dissolution of the country) : the new 100 Kčs note issued in 1989 depicted Klement Gottwald, a prominent communist and was speedily withdrawn after the Velvet Revolution. A new 500 Kčs banknote was never issued.

Czech Republic and the euro - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czech_Republic_and_the_euro

The Czech Republic uses the Czech koruna as its currency and does not participate in European Exchange Rate Mechanism II. It is bound by its 2003 Treaty of Accession to the European Union to join the eurozone once it has satisfied the euro convergence criteria.

Coins of the Czechoslovak koruna (1953) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Czechoslovak_koruna_(1953)

After the 1953 currency reform a new series of coins were introduced. Coins were first issued in denominations of 1, 3, 5, 10, 25 h – the 1, 3 and 5 Kčs denominations only existed as paper money (state notes). The haler coins dated 1953 were all minted in Leningrad. The 1, 3 and 5 Kčs state notes were replaced by coins in 1957, 1965 and 1966, respectively. The 50 h coin appeared in 1963. In 1972 the 25 h and 3 Kčs coins were withdrawn, and – from 1972 – 20 h (as part of the new series) and 2 Kčs coins were introduced instead. The 3 h coin was withdrawn in 1976. A redesigned series of haler coins was released into circulation during the 1970s.

Coins of the Czechoslovak koruna (1945) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Czechoslovak_koruna_(1945)

Between 1946 and 1948, 20 and 50 haléřů and 1 and 2 koruny coins were introduced. The lower two denominations were struck in bronze, the higher two in cupro-nickel. The designs of all but the 2 koruny were based on those of the interwar coins but the coins were smaller. In 1950, aluminium 1 korun coins were introduced, followed by aluminium 20 and 50h in 1951. 5 korun coins were minted but not introduced. A monetary reform occurred in 1953.

Coins of the Czechoslovak koruna (1919) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Czechoslovak_koruna_(1919)

In 1921, coins were introduced in denominations of 20 and 50 haleru, followed by 10h and 1 koruna in 1922, 2 and 5h in 1923, 5 korun in 1925, 10 korun in 1930, and 25h and 20 korun in 1933. The 2h was struck in zinc, the 5 and 10h in bronze, and the 20, 25 and 50h and 1 koruna in cupro-nickel. The 5 koruna was struck in cupro-nickel until 1928, when a silver version was introduced. This denomination reverted to cupro-nickel in 1938. The 10 and 20 korun were issued in silver.

Státní tiskárna cenin (Czech Republic banknote printing)
http://www.stc.cz/

The origin of Státní tiskárna cenin, s. p. (STC) is connected with the establishment of the independent Czechoslovak Republic. The emergence of the country triggered the need for its own monetary system and production of banknotes. There was no specialised facility for the production of banknotes in Czechoslovakia. The first Czechoslovak banknotes were issued in 1919 and 1920. Lower denominations were printed under state control in several Czech printing facilities, while higher denominations were produced abroad. The state aimed to secure the entire production of Czechoslovak paper money in a local facility with the desired quality. A new printing facility for banknotes was built between 1924 and 1927. The newly established Czechoslovak National Bank launched the production of banknotes in the new facility in January 1928.

Dutch rijksdaalder - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_rijksdaalder

The rijksdaalder (Dutch, "dollar of the realm") was a Dutch coin first issued by the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in the late 16th century during the Dutch Revolt. Featuring an armored half bust of William the Silent, rijksdaalder was minted to the Saxon reichsthaler weight standard - 448 grains of .885 fine silver. Friesland, Gelderland, Holland, Kampen, Overijssel, Utrecht, West Friesland, Zeeland, and Zwolle minted armored half bust rijksdaalders until the end of the 17th century.

Heller (money) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heller_(money)

The Heller or Häller, originally a German coin valued at half a pfennig, took its name from the city of Hall am Kocher (today Schwäbisch Hall). Mints produced the coin from the beginning of the 13th century, based on a previously produced silver pfennig (Häller Pfennig, sometimes called Händelheller for its depiction of a hand on the front face), but its composition deteriorated with the mixing in copper little by little so that it was no longer considered to be a silver coin. There were red, white and black Hellers. Beginning in the Middle Ages it became a symbol of low worth, and a common German byword is "keinen (roten) Heller wert", lit.: not worth a (red) Heller, i.e. "not worth a tinker's curse".

Japanese military yen - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_military_yen

Japanese military yen (Chinese and Japanese: 日本軍用手票, also 日本軍票 in short), commonly abbreviated as JMY, was the currency issued to the soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army and the Imperial Japanese Navy as a salary. The Imperial Japanese government first started issuing the military yen during the Russo-Japanese War in 1904. The military yen reached its peak during the Pacific War period, when the Japanese government excessively issued to all of its occupied territories. In Hong Kong, the military yen was forced upon the local population as the sole official currency of the territory. Since the military yen was not backed by gold, and did not have a specific place of issuance, the military yen could not be exchanged for Japanese yen. Forcing local populations to use the military yen officially was one of the ways the Japanese government could dominate the local economies.

Bellevue Rare Coins
http://bellevuerarecoins.com/

Bellevue Rare Coins is a family-owned and operated business that specializes in rare coins, currency, gold, silver and jewelry.

Maravedí - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maraved%C3%AD

The maravedí was the name of various Iberian coins of gold and then silver between the 11th and 14th centuries and the name of different Iberian accounting units between the 11th and 19th centuries.

Fils (currency) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fils_(currency)

The fils (Arabic alphabet: فلس) is a subdivision of currency used in many Arab countries, such as Iraq and Bahrain; the term is a modern retranscription of fals, an early medieval Arab coin. "Fils" is the singular form in Arabic, not plural (as its final consonant might indicate to an English speaker). The plural form of fils is fulūs (فلوس); this latter term is also used to refer to small amount of money or money in general in many varieties of Arabic, particularly Egyptian.

Gold dinar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gold_dinar

The first dated coins that can be assigned to the Muslims are copies of silver Dirhams of the Sassanian ruler Yazdegerd III, struck during the Caliphate of Uthman. These coins differ from the original ones in that an Arabic inscription is found in the obverse margins, normally reading "In the Name of Allah". The subsequent series was issued using types based on drachmas of Khosrau II, whose coins probably represented a significant proportion of the currency in circulation.

Falus - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falus

The falus was a bronze/copper currency of Morocco. Minted between 1672–1901, denominations of ¼, ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 falus are recorded in the Standard Catalogue.

Fals - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fals

The fals (plural fulus) was a copper coin produced by the Umayyad caliphate (661-750) and the Abbasid caliphate (750-1258) beginning in the late 7th century. The name is a corruption of follis, a Roman and later Byzantine copper coin. The fals usually featured ornate Arabic script on both sides. Various copper fals were produced until the 19th century.

Dirham - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dirham

Dirham or dirhem or "Dirhm" (درهم) is a unit of currency in several Arab states and formerly, the related unit of mass (the Ottoman dram) in the Ottoman Empire and Persian states. The name derives from the Greek currency drachma or didrachm (2 drachmae).

Roman currency - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_currency

Roman currency for most of Roman history consisted of gold, silver, bronze, and copper coinage. From its introduction to the Republic, during the third century BC, well into Imperial times, Roman currency saw many changes in form, denomination, and composition. A persistent feature was the inflationary debasement and replacement of coins over the centuries. Notable examples of this followed the reforms of Diocletian. This trend continued into Byzantine times.

Siliqua - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siliqua

The siliqua is the modern name given to small, thin, Roman silver coins produced in the 4th century A.D. and later. When the coins were in circulation, the Latin word siliqua was a unit of weight defined as one twenty-fourth of the weight of a Roman solidus.

Spanish dinero - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_dinero

The dinero was the currency of the Christian states of Spain from the 10th century. It was copied from the French denier and served in turn as the model for the Portuguese dinheiro.

Soldo - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soldo

Soldo was the name an Italian medieval silver coin, issued for the first time in the late 12th century at Milan by Emperor Henry VI. The name derives from the late Roman coin solidus.

Portuguese dinheiro - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portuguese_dinheiro

The dinheiro was the currency of Portugal from around the late 12th century until approximately 1502. For accounting purposes, twelve dinheiros equalled one soldo and twenty soldos equal one libra. The basis of the monetary system was that of the Roman Empire (denarii, solidi, librae).

Portuguese real - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portuguese_real

The real (meaning "royal", plural: réis or [archaic] reais) was the unit of currency of Portugal from around 1430 until 1911. It replaced the dinheiro at the rate of 1 real = 840 dinheiros and was itself replaced by the escudo (as a result of the Republican revolution of 1910) at a rate of 1 escudo = 1000 réis. The escudo was further replaced by the euro at a rate of 1 euro = 200.482 escudos in 2002.

Portuguese euro coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portuguese_euro_coins

Portuguese euro coins show three different designs for each of the three series of coins. However, they are quite similar in that all contain old Portuguese royal mints and seals within a circle of seven castles and five escutcheons with silver bezants (all similar to what can be seen in the coat of arms and flag of Portugal) and the word "Portugal". Also featured in the designs, all done by Vítor Manuel Fernandes dos Santos, are the 12 stars of the EU and the year of minting.

Banco de Portugal: Collector Coins
http://www.bportugal.pt/en-US/NotaseMoedas/MoedasEuro/Pages/MoedasdeColeccao.aspx

In view of existing traditions in this area, Member States may continue to issue collector coins; however, the following rules shall be complied with: their face value has to be different from that of the 8 denominations intended for circulation, but may coincide with the low denominations of euro banknotes;
colour, diameter and thickness should differ significantly from the coins intended for circulation; the issuing Member State should be clearly and easily identifiable.

Given that these coins may feature various types of finish, with the use of several metals or alloys, they may be sold at or above face value, in the case of coins with a special finish.

Banco de Portugal: Commemorative Coins
http://www.bportugal.pt/en-US/NotaseMoedas/MoedasEuro/Pages/Moedascomemorativas.aspx

These coins commemorate events, anniversaries or important national and international personalities.

Each Member State of the Eurosystem is entitled to issue two €2 commemorative coins once a year. These coins have the same common side as normal €2 coins and a national side with a commemorative design.

Banco de Portugal: Current Coins
http://www.bportugal.pt/en-US/NotaseMoedas/MoedasEuro/MoedasCorrentes/Pages/default.aspx

Current coins have a european common side and a national side. The national sides of euro coins minted in Portugal were designed by Vítor Manuel Fernandes dos Santos, who drew inspiration from Portuguese historical symbols, and depict the 3 royals seals of the first king of Portugal, Afonso Henriques.

Banco de Portugal: Euro Coins
http://www.bportugal.pt/en-US/NotaseMoedas/MoedasEuro/Pages/default.aspx

The legal tender status of euro coins differs depending on their category. Current coins and commemorative coins intended for circulation are legal tender throughout the euro area. Collector coins are legal tender solely in the territory of the issuing Member State.

Banco de Portugal
http://www.bportugal.pt/

Banco de Portugal was established on 19 November 1846 and is the central bank of the Portuguese Republic.

The Bank is part of the Eurosystem - comprising the ECB and the national central banks of the Member States whose currency is the euro - since its creation on 1 January 1999.

Banco de Portugal - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banco_de_Portugal

The Banco de Portugal (English: Bank of Portugal) is the central bank of the Portuguese Republic. Established by a royal charter on 19 November 1846 to act as a commercial bank and issuing bank, it came about as the result of a merger of the Banco de Lisboa and the Companhia de Confiança Nacional, an investment company specialised in the financing of the public debt. The bank issues legal tender that is designated as the national currency – the real until 1911, the escudo from 1911 until 1998, and the euro since 1999.

Portuguese escudo - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portuguese_escudo

The escudo (sign $; code: PTE) was the currency of Portugal prior to the introduction of the euro on 1 January 1999 and its removal from circulation on 28 February 2002. The escudo was subdivided into 100 centavos.

National Printing House and Mint, Portugal: Commemorative Collector Coins
https://www.incm.pt/portal/mpm_mcc.jsp?lang=en

The INCM regularly mints collector coins, with normal or special finishing, to celebrate events and personalities of national and international relevance. Commemorative collector coins have visual and dimensional characteristics that distinguish them from circulation coins and have limited issue.

National Printing House and Mint, Portugal: Annual Series
https://www.incm.pt/portal/mpm_seriesa.jsp?lang=en

Continuing our country's strong tradition of collecting, INCM mints and commercialises on special packages and properly certified the annual series of euro circulation coins, with three different kinds of special finishing: uncirculated (FDC), brilliant uncirculated (BU) or numismatical proof (Proof).

National Printing House and Mint, Portugal: Euro
https://www.incm.pt/portal/mpm_euro.jsp?lang=en

The creation of a single currency was an historic moment of capital importance for the future of the European Union and Portugal. Its minting was an industrial and technical challenge, reachable only by internationally recognized Mints among which is the INCM.

National Printing House and Mint, Portugal: Circulation Coins
https://www.incm.pt/portal/mpm_mcr.jsp?lang=en

The minting of circulation coins in order to meet the needs of the Portuguese State in terms of monetary circulation is an activity that has a tradition of seven centuries, as well as a mission that forms part of the INCM identity.

Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda (National Printing House and Mint, Portugal)
https://www.incm.pt/

The Portuguese Mint and Official Printing Office (INCM ), whose motto is "The value of Security", is a state owned company in charge of providing fundamental goods and services to the Portuguese State, such as minting metallic coins and publishing the Official Journal (Diário da República).

Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imprensa_Nacional-Casa_da_Moeda

The Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda (National Printing House, and Mint), is the Portuguese mint and national press, owned by the Portuguese Government and administratively subordinated to the Portuguese Ministry of Finance.

Mint (coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mint_(coin)

A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.

The history of mints correlates closely with the history of coins. In the beginning, hammered coinage or cast coinage were the chief means of coin minting, with resulting production runs numbering as little as the hundreds or thousands. In modern mints, coin dies are manufactured in large numbers and planchets are made into milled coins by the billions.

Rand Refinery - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rand_Refinery

Rand Refinery (Pty) Limited is the largest integrated single-site precious metals refining and smelting complex in the world.

Rand Refinery
http://www.randrefinery.com/

Established by the Chamber of Mines of South Africa in 1920, Rand Refinery is the largest integrated single-site precious metals refining and smelting complex in the world.

Synonymous with integrity and quality, the Rand Refinery mark can be found on cast bars, minted bars, minted coins, coin blanks and medallions. The internationally acclaimed Krugerrand is the world’s premium bullion coin with over 60 million in circulation, making it one of Rand Refinery’s top investment products.

South African Mint Company / Collectable Coins
http://www.samint.co.za/Collectable%20coins.aspx

The Numismatic Division of the South African Mint produces proof quality premium products made mainly in gold and silver specifically for the collector's market. These include the world famous Krugerrand, as well as the Natura and Protea Series, amongst others. Minted in limited numbers.

South African Mint Company / Educational / Krugerrand Authenticity
http://www.samint.co.za/Krugerrand%20Authenticity.aspx

Whether you are an investor, collector, or simply looking to educate yourself about the technical aspects of a Krugerrand, click here for information on testing the authenticity of a Krugerrand coin.

South African Mint Company / South African Coins / One Cent (1c)
http://www.samint.co.za/1c.aspx

The design of two sparrows on a mimosa branch was drawn by Kruger Gray and was depicted on the farthing from 1923 to 1960 and on the ½ cent between 1961 and 1964. A new design appeared on the 1 cent from 1965 to 1990. With the launch of the new coin series in 1991, a design by William Lumley, based on the Kruger Gray original, was approved for the 1 cent. The Cape Sparrow (Passer Melaniurus) is found throughout South Africa - except in the extreme east - in grasslands, cultivated land and near human habitation. Sparrows breed throughout the year, the incubation period being 12 - 14 days. Their characteristic call is a clear, piercing "chirrup-chirrup" and "chissk". During the Anglo-Boer War (1899 -1902) a group of women in the Bethulie concentration camp adopted the following Bible text as their motto for survival: "Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing and one of them shall not fall to the ground without your Father knowing it?" - Matthew 10:29. These women vowed that if South Africa ever issued a farthing (1/4 penny), Ha'penny or cent, they would endeavour to have the sparrow - a symbol of faith and hope - depicted on the coin. The women succeeded and since 1923, the sparrow has been portrayed on South Africa's lowest denomination.

Note: Production of the 1c coin was stopped in 2002 but it remains legal tender.

South African Mint Company / South African Coins / Two Cent (2c)
http://www.samint.co.za/2c.aspx

The Fish Eagle (Haliaetus Vocifer). The call of the fish eagle is probably one of the most familiar sounds associated with Southern African wildlife. The fish eagle is found in the region south of the Sahara down to the southern Cape in areas with suitable habitat such as rivers, dams and estuaries. The greatest concentration of fish eagles is found along the Chobe River and in the Okavango Delta. There are approximately 500 breeding pairs in South Africa. The fish eagle is approximately 70 cm long, the female being slightly larger than her mate. The birds have an unmistakable white head, breast and mantle, black back and wings and chestnut belly. The immature bird is brown, gradually becoming darker on attaining adulthood. Now retired after 40 years, Arthur Sutherland Chief Engraver of the South African Mint Company, modelled the fish eagle, portrayed on the reverse of the South African 2c.

Note: Production of the 2c coin ceased in 2002 but it remains legal tender.

South African Mint Company / South African Coins / Five Cent (5c)
http://www.samint.co.za/5c.aspx

The Blue Crane (Anthropoides Paradisea) is our national bird and is found throughout the large Savannah areas of South Africa, usually near water. Each bird is about 105 cm tall with both sexes identical. Identification is easy because of the large head with dark brown irises and a pinkish bill. Nesting pairs seem to mate for life and use the same nesting sites. The Blue Crane population is thriving. As the Blue Crane is more-or-less confined to South Africa, it has been used only on South African coins. Our second decimal series. 1965 to 1990, had the Blue Crane on the nickel 5c and it was retained on the copper plated 5c on the third decimal series, but with a redesigned image. The Blue Crane portrayed on the reverse of the South African 5c was modeled by G Richard; the obverse was modeled by A Sutherland. The design was developed from an original artwork by the well-known artist, Dick Findley. The artwork is on display at the South African Mint's museum.

South African Mint Company / South African Coins / Ten Cent (10c)
http://www.samint.co.za/10c.aspx

The Arum Lily (Zantedeschia Aethiopica) is a distinguished South African flower. It originally appeared on the 50c coin from 1965 to 1989, as part of South Africa's second decimal series. In 1989 the third decimal coin series was introduced and the Arum Lily was selected for the 10c coin. The design was developed from the original artwork by Cynthna Letty. The Arum Lily is also known as the white calla lily, aronskelk or varkblom (pig lily). The latter name is due to the fact that the plant's nutritious rootstock is favoured by pigs and to some extent by porcupines. The plant is also used medicinally in various ways. The white Arum Lily can be evergreen or deciduous, depending on how much water is gets. The spathe (flower) varies in colour from white to cream and a green and white variation is also found in semi shaded areas.

South African Mint Company / South African Coins / Twenty Cent (20c)
http://www.samint.co.za/20c.aspx

The remarkable South African flower, the Protea cynaroids was one of the first distinctive South African symbols that appeared on the tickey and sixpence coins from 1925 to 1960. With the introduction of South Africa's first decimal series (1961 - 1964) the Protea was again depicted on the 2½c and 5c coins which were designed by the die-cutter, Kruger Gray. With the second decimal coin series (1965 - 1989), an outstanding South African horticultural artist, Cynthna Letty was responsible for the artwork. The new Protea design depicted the Protea plant with three flowers in various stages on the nickel 20c coin. Die-sinker Tommy Sasseen modelled the design from the original watercolour painting which can be viewed at the South African Mint museum. In 1989 the third decimal coin series was introduced and the Protea was selected for the new bronze plated 20c coin. Die-sinker, Susan Erasmus developed the design from the first artwork. In 1996, the design underwent a slight modification to accommodate a larger "20c" numeral on the coin.

South African Mint Company / South African Coins / Fifty Cent (50c)
http://www.samint.co.za/50c.aspx

The Strelitzia (Strelitzia Reginae) Crane Flower or Bird-of-Paradise flower, occurs in the warm valleys of Zululand near the sea. With its long lasting, brilliant orange and blue flowers, this indigenous plant was introduced into cultivation in England towards the end of the 18th century and became a popular florist plant. This South African native has adapted so happily to foreign climates that it has even been adopted as the civic emblem of the American City of Los Angeles. The Strelitzia, together with the arum lily and blue agapanthus, first appeared on the 50c coin that was introduced in 1965 as part of the second decimal series. Representing the national flag, this flower design was modelled by Tommy Sasseen from a drawing by Cynthna Letty. With the introduction of South Africa's third and current coin series, the Strelitzia is once again portrayed on the 50c coin. Die-sinker, Linda Lotriet modelled the design.

South African Mint Company / South African Coins / One Rand (R1)
http://www.samint.co.za/R1.aspx

The first Springbok appeared as long ago as 1947 as a true South African symbol on our silver crown size coins. The original design is still viewed as one of the best designs in the world. Based on the original artwork of one of South Africa's famous sculptors, Coert Steynberg, the Springbok was used on various other South African coins. These were the gold one-pound and ½ pound coins, and later the gold R1 and R2 coins. From 1960 to 1964, the Springbok reappeared on the reverse of the 50c. This prancing buck was also chosen to be the symbol on the Krugerrand from 1967 to date. The Springbok was also depicted on the R1 nickel coins from 1977 - 1990. When introducing the current coin series in 1989, the Springbok was once again the chosen design for the reverse of the new smaller R1 coin. The words "SOLI DEO GLORIA" ("To God alone the Glory") appear on the R1 coins. In 2002, The Johannesburg World Summit (a United Nations Convention) was held in South Africa. To commemorate this prestigious event, a couple of million "World Summit" R1 circulation coins were manufactured and put into circulation.

South African Mint Company / South African Coins / Two Rand (R2)
http://www.samint.co.za/R2.aspx

As part of the third decimal series, it was agreed that the Kudu be portrayed on South Africa's first R2 circulation coin. Initially, a leopard design was considered for the R2 but it was decided that designs for the R1, R2 and R5 should be the antelope. The Kudu is known as the "King of the Antelope" because of its magnificent horns.

South African Mint Company / South African Coins / Five Rand (R5)
http://www.samint.co.za/R5.aspx

The Black Wildebeest or Gnu, is portrayed on the reverse of the R5 coin. They are found in the northern grassveld regions of the Cape Province, throughout the Orange Free State to KwaZulu-Natal and the southern regions of Gauteng. Wildebeest hides were at one stage an important commodity in Kwa-Zulu-Natal. Although South Africa's first decimal coin series was released in 1961, no R5 coins were minted until 1994.

Blue Sheet: 1937 Pattern Penny
http://www.bluesheet.com.au/Australia/Commonwealth_Coinage/One_Penny/George_VI/Type_I/1937_Pattern_PR.html

The penny switched over to the Kruger Gray, or Kangaroo reverse in 1937 though no business strikes were issued until 1938.

Roxbury's Auction House
https://www.roxburys.com/

Roxbury's is a world class Auction House established in 1990 by Bob and Jacquie Innes. Bob and Jacquie have a proud reputation for integrity and the highest level of professional service. As a testimony to this, Bob is twice a past President of the Australasian Numismatic Dealers Association (ANDA) and is dedicated to ensuring integrity for the Numismatic industry.

Perth Mint: The Australian Historical Coin Collection
http://www.perthmint.com.au/the-australian-historical-coin-collection.aspx

Coins issued by the Perth Mint as a tribute to Australian historical coins.

Royal Numismatic society of New Zealand
http://www.rnsnz.org.nz/

The Royal Numismatic Society of New Zealand (incorporating the Wellington Coin Club) is a non-profit organisation which was founded in 1931 to encourage and promote the study of numismatics and other related historical subjects.

South West District Coin Club
http://www.southwestdistrictcoinclub.com/

Coin collectors' club in Bunbury, West Australia..

Perth Numismatic Society
http://www.pns.org.au/

The Perth Numismatic Society Inc (PNS) covers all aspects of numismatics, and is the Western Australia sponsoring society for the Numismatic Association of Australia. The PNS holds regular Coin, Medal, Banknote and Stamp fairs. Membership is made up of collectors and dealers, and is open to individuals in Australia and overseas.

Numismatic Association of Victoria
http://www.navic.org.au/

The Numismatic Association of Victoria was founded in 1946 and its aims and activities have largely remained unchanged over the years. Members are invited to attend our monthly meetings and receive the quarterly journal. The purposes of the association are:

- to encourage the study of Numismatics in all its branches
- to represent generally the views and interests of numismatists
- to provide education in the field of Numismatics
- to encourage sound and methodical collecting practices.

Queensland Numismatic Society
http://qns.org.au/

The QNS is a non-profit organisation, for the encouragement of the study of numismatics in all its forms; the dissemination of knowledge of this and associated fields including the arts and sciences by means of meetings and publications, and the fostering of interchange of information and assistance between numismatists, collectors, societies and clubs in Australia and other parts of the world.

Illawarra Numismatic Association
http://www.illawarranumismatic.com/

Some members have been collecting coins and banknotes for years whilst other are new to the hobby however all members are willing to share their knowledge.

Monthly meetings have a theme where members are encourage to bring along items that are related to the theme to show and talk about to other members. Sell and swap events are also held in conjunction with some meetings during the year.

The Australian Numismatic Society
http://www.the-ans.com/

The Society promotes the scientific study and practice of numismatics by providing formal and informal facilities for the purpose, including the establishment of formal courses and classes. Spreads knowledge of numismatics by arranging meetings, seminars, forums, exhibitions, and the publication of papers, books, journals etc. Assists with interchange of information between members, numismatists, and collectors, throughout Australia and other parts of the world. Encourages members to undertake numismatic research, by general advice and, at the discretion of the Council, may provide financial assistance and/or other facilities to the researcher and arrange for the publication, of the method and result of the research.

Rai stones - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rai_stones

Rai, or stone money (Yapese: raay), are large, circular stone disks carved out of limestone formed from aragonite and calcite crystals. Rai stones were quarried on several of the Micronesian islands, mainly Palau, but briefly on Guam as well, and transported for use as money to the island of Yap. They have been used in trade by the Yapese as a form of currency.

Numismatic Association of Australia
http://www.numismatics.org.au/

The Numismatic Association of Australia acts as a united voice for all the major State numismatic organisations in Australia and has close ties with the Royal Numismatic Society of New Zealand and those Australian public institutions with numismatic collections. The NAA publishes an annual journal of international standard that covers all forms of currency and medals, and holds a biennial conference. Membership is made up of collectors, dealers, academics and museum numismatists, and is open to individuals and institutions in Australia and overseas.

Bloomberg: Company Overview of New Zealand Mint Limited
http://www.bloomberg.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=115278817

New Zealand Mint Limited engages in minting gold and silver bullion, and commemorative coins; and creating jewellery. It sells its jewellery through retailers and online. The company was founded in 1967 and is based in Auckland, New Zealand.

New Zealand Mint (bullion)
http://www.nzmint.com/

The New Zealand Mint has been minting legal tender collectible coins, gold bullion and medallions for more than four decades. As New Zealand's only precious metal mint and one of the first world mints to adopt the .9999 standard for gold coin purity, New Zealand Mint prides itself on high quality design and production work.

New Zealand Mint
http://www.newzealandmint.com/

The New Zealand Mint has been minting legal tender collectible coins, gold bullion and medallions for more than four decades. As New Zealand's only precious metal mint and one of the first world mints to adopt the .9999 standard for gold coin purity, New Zealand Mint prides itself on high quality design and production work.

New Zealand Mint - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand_Mint

New Zealand Mint (Māori: Te Kamupene Whakanao o Aotearoa) is a privately owned company in Auckland, New Zealand. It is the only privately owned mint in New Zealand, purchasing refined gold from international sources to produce coins. The company trades in precious metals including gold bullion, and is a physical storage provider.

Niue dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niue_dollar

Niue, a sovereign state in free association with New Zealand, uses two official legal tender currencies. While they use the New Zealand dollar, the government also issues legal tender coins using the Niue dollar for collector's purposes.

Cook Islands dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cook_Islands_dollar

The dollar is the currency of the Cook Islands. The dollar is subdivided into 100 cents, although some 50 cent coins carry the denomination as "50 tene".

James Berry (artist) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Berry_(artist)

Reginald George James Berry OBE (20 June 1906 – 6 November 1979) was a New Zealand artist, noted for creating a large number of postage stamp and coin designs. He was born in London in 1906, and emigrated to New Zealand in 1925. He went on to become a commercial artist at a Wellington advertising agency, and in 1932 became a freelance artist. His work included book covers and illustrations, but is most famous for more than 1,000 stamp, coin and medal designs.

Museum Victoria: Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1938
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/items/57390

A bronze coin (30.8 mm diameter with plain edge) featuring a bare head of George VI facing left; around, GEORGIVS VI D:G: BR: OMN: REX F.D. IND: IMP: ; below head in small lettering the artist's initials HP. The reverse features a kangaroo leaping to the left; around above AUSTRALIA, around below, PENNY; the Federation star is in the field to the left of the kangaroo and the date, 1938 is in the field below its tail. The artist's initials KG are above the tip of the tail.

The Australian Coin Collecting Blog
http://www.australian-threepence.com/

The site is run by two passionate Australian coin collectors who love Aussie pre-decimal and decimal coins and have a particular interest in errors and mis-strikes. They also own and run The Purple Penny, administer Australia’s Busiest Coin Forum, and try to keep people updated with the latest coin news via their Facebook page.

The Australian Coin Collecting Blog: I’ve found an Australian 1930 Penny, Is it Real or Fake?
http://www.australian-threepence.com/collecting-coins/ive-found-australian-1930-penny-real-fake/

Even if you’re not a coin collector the Australian 1930 penny is the one you’ll know about. It’s the most famous Australian pre-decimal coin and as such is the most talked about, the most sought and the most faked coin. Find a 1930 penny and your heart will skip a beat, but the likelihood that it’s real is very small. Given the value of a real 1930 penny is upwards of $15,000 in any condition it’s one that you’re going to want to authenticate if you find a 1930 penny in Grandpas top drawer.

Museum Victoria: The 1930 Australian Penny
http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/3780

In 1930 the country was in an economic depression and the Melbourne Mint received no orders from the Commonwealth Government for new coins. Orders for silver coins were always treated differently at the mint to those for bronze; silver could only be struck after an order was received. Bronze however could be stockpiled.

The Sydney Morning Herald: Million dollar penny
http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/million-dollar-penny/2007/11/24/1195753368943.html

A rare Australian pre-decimal coin has cracked the $1 million mark for the first time. The owner of the 1930 penny, once described as the most famous copper coin of the 20th century, has knocked back an offer to sell for $1 million.

Triton: The 1930 penny
http://www.triton.vg/P30.html

The 1930 penny is probably the most famous of all the Australian Commonwealth coins. Its existence was not known for some time after the coin was released into circulation.

Coinworks: Australia's Magic Penny
http://www.coinworks.com.au/Australias-Magic-Penny.html

Earlier this year, Belinda Downie of Coinworks sold a 1930 penny for an amount she will only say was above the $1.5 million mark. Whatever it was, it was a record. The current market valuation is $1.65 million.

Sterling and Currency | 1930 Penny - Australia's Best Known Rare Coin
https://www.sterlingcurrency.com.au/research/1930-penny-australias-best-known-rare-coin

The 1930 penny is without doubt the one rare coin that most Australians know about - it started off as being the last coin to go into the Dansco press-in albums that were hugely popular in those days (in fact they're so rare hardly anyone ended up with a complete penny set), and it now rates as an heirloom and an investment.

Reserve Bank of New Zealand: History of New Zealand Coinage
http://www.rbnz.govt.nz/notes_and_coins/coins/0094086.html

In early 1840, Captain William Hobson, RN, the first Governor of New Zealand, extended British laws to New Zealand. This meant that certain sections of the Imperial Coinage Act, 1816 (UK) became relevant to the new colony. This allowed for the standard gold, silver and bronze British coins to circulate freely in New Zealand alongside the existing variety of foreign coins. British coins were made legal tender in terms of the above act by the passing of the English Laws Act in 1858.

Japanese government-issued Oceanian Pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_government-issued_Oceanian_Pound

The Japanese government-issued Oceanian Pound was one of several issues of Japanese invasion money used during World War II. Consisting of only four denominations, the Oceanian Pound was the shortest set (i.e., total number of denominations) issued.

Gold Cobs
http://www.goldcobs.com/

Professional numismatists with over four decades of experience specializing in the gold and silver coinage of the Spain's New World Empire who continue to find Spanish Colonial coinage a challenging and rewarding field of study.

New Guinean pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Guinean_pound

The pound was the currency of the Australia territory of New Guinea between 1915 and 1966. It replaced the mark when Australia occupied the former German colony at the end of World War I. It was equal to the Australian pound and Australian currency circulated, alongside coins issued specifically for New Guinea between 1929 and 1945. The pound was subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence.

Bank Indonesia
http://www.bi.go.id/

Bank Indonesia has one single overarching objective: to establish and maintain rupiah stability. This objective incorporates two key aspects: the first is a stable rupiah for goods and services, reflected by the inflation rate. The second is exchange rate stability against other foreign currencies, which is reflected by rupiah performance against other foreign currencies.

Bank Indonesia - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_Indonesia

Bank Indonesia (BI) is the central bank of the Republic of Indonesia.

West Irian rupiah - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Irian_rupiah

The rupiah was a distinct currency of West Irian (formerly West New Guinea) between 1963 and 1973. It replaced the West New Guinea gulden at par and was replaced by the Indonesian rupiah at the rate of 1 West Irian rupiah = 18.9 Indonesian rupiah.

Netherlands New Guinean gulden - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netherlands_New_Guinean_gulden

The gulden was the currency of Netherlands New Guinea until 1963. Until 1950, issues of the Netherlands Indies circulated. A separate currency came into being when West New Guinea became the only part of the Netherlands Indies to remain in Dutch control. The currency was fixed at parity with the Dutch gulden. It circulated until Netherlands New Guinea became part of Indonesia as West Irian in 1963. That year, the West Irian rupiah replaced the gulden at par.

Каталог монет России
http://rucoins.info/

Online catalogue of Russian coins, with many photos.

Royal Canadian Numismatic Association / l’Association royale de numismatique du Canada
http://www.rcna.ca/

The Royal Canadian Numismatic Association is devoted to serving those who enjoy coin collecting/numismatics by promoting fellowship, communication, education and providing advocacy and leadership for the hobby.

Royal Canadian Numismatic Association - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Canadian_Numismatic_Association

The Royal Canadian Numismatic Association was founded in 1950. It is a nonprofit association for coin collectors and other people interested in Canadian numismatics. It has members throughout Canada and in other countries. At times, it also works with the Canadian Association for Numismatic Education (CAFNE), an arms length organization, which is defined by the CRA as a Canadian educational and charitable organization. CAFNE provides funding for some of the RCNA's educational seminars and publications.

Canadian pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_pound

The pound (symbol £ or C£) was the unit of account for currency of the Canadas until 1858. It was subdivided into 20 shillings (s), each of 12 pence (d). In Lower Canada, the sou was used, worth 1⁄2 penny. Although the pounds, shillings, and pence accounting system had its origins in the British pound sterling, the Canadian pound was never linked to British currency.

Newfoundland pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_pound

The pound was the currency of Newfoundland until 1865. It was subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence. The Newfoundland pound was equal to the British pound and British coins circulated, supplemented by locally produced tokens and banknotes. In 1865, the dollar was introduced at a rate of 1 dollar = 4 shillings 2 pence, with the significance being 1 dollar was equal to exactly 50d (i.e. 50 old pence) for precise ease of exchange.

William Henry James Blakemore - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Henry_James_Blakemore

William Henry James Blakemore (1871,West Midlands Birmingham, England-1945) was an English engraver, and medallist at the Royal Mint London.[1] Signature: WHJB. During his long career with the Royal Mint William Blakemore was the craftsman for the engraving of master dies for the Royal Mint London, and other Royal Mint branches, like the Royal Canadian Mint. He also engraved the designs for the first Australian coins of 1910.

George William de Saulles - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_William_de_Saulles

eorge William de Saulles (1862 – 1903) was a British medallist. He authored and designed the obverse of coins from the United Kingdom and its colonies under Queen Victoria and Edward VII of the United Kingdom.

Leonard Charles Wyon - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonard_Charles_Wyon

Leonard Charles Wyon (23 November 1826 - 20 August 1891) was a British engraver of the Victorian era most notable for his work on the gold and silver coinage struck for the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria in 1887 and the bronze coinage of 1860 with the second ("bun") head portrait, in use from 1860 to 1894.

Bertram Mackennal - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bertram_Mackennal

Sir Edgar Bertram Mackennal, KCVO (12 June 1863 – 10 October 1931), usually known as Bertram Mackennal, was an Australian sculptor, most famous for designing the coinage and stamps bearing the likeness of King George V. Signature: "BM".

Percy Metcalfe - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Percy_Metcalfe

Percy Metcalfe, CVO, RDI (14 January 1895 Wakefield - 9 October 1970 Fulham Hospital, Hammersmith, London), (often spelled Metcalf without "e") was an English artist sculptor and designer. Metcalfe designed the first coinage of the Irish Free State in 1928. He was responsible for the design of the George Cross in 1940, particularly the head of King George VI on it; and was involved in the design of the Great Seal of the Realm. He produced designs for coinage of several countries including Ireland and Australia. He created a portrait of King George V which was used as the obverse for coins of Australia, Canada, Fiji, Mauritius, New Zealand and Southern Rhodesia.

In 2010, the Central Bank of Ireland issued euro coins featuring Metcalfe's Irish coin designs with slight modifications to represent the "new generation." This was the first time his work was presented on the euro currency.

Coins of the Newfoundland dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Newfoundland_dollar

The coins of Newfoundland are of historical importance as Newfoundland was a British colony until 1907, and a Dominion until 1949, when Newfoundland and Labrador became the tenth province of Canada.

Newfoundland fifty cents - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_fifty_cents

The Newfoundland fifty cent piece was the last denomination to be added to the Victorian coinage. Its first year of issue was 1870. The laureate portrait is stylistically unlike anything used for the rest of British North America. The denomination became very popular and assumed importance after the failure of the Commercial and Union Banks of Newfoundland during the financial crisis of 1894.

Newfoundland twenty-five cents - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_twenty-five_cents

Although twenty-cent coins were required during the reign of King George V, arrangements were being made to replace the denomination. The Ottawa Mint was going to start producing Newfoundland’s coins and Canadians did not like the Newfoundland twenty-cent piece. Newfoundland coins circulated throughout Canada as well and the Newfoundland twenty-cent coin was often confused with Canadian twenty-five cent coins. The Canadian government convinced Newfoundland’s government to discontinue the twenty-cent coin. A twenty-five coin was introduced and struck on the same standard as the corresponding Canadian coin. The obverse of the coin was exactly the same as that of the Canadian twenty-five cent coin.

Newfoundland twenty cents - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_twenty_cents

The first known pattern for the Newfoundland 20-cent piece is a bronze strike with an obverse derived from a New Brunswick coin. The reverse is from the die for the 1864 New Brunswick 20-cents. The twenty-cent denomination was very popular in Newfoundland and was minted on a consistent basis throughout the reign of Queen Victoria. Over the years the piece became unpopular with Canadians as it was easily confused with the Canadian 25-cent piece, which was similar in size and shape. Pressured by Canada, the government replaced it with a twenty-five cent coin during World War I.

Newfoundland ten cents - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_ten_cents

The Newfoundland ten cent coins exist as a bronze pattern with the adopted obverse from the New Brunswick coin (the words Newfoundland substitute New Brunswick). This design adoption is similar to that used for Newfoundland five cent coins.

Newfoundland five cents - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_five_cents

Work on the coinage tools for the Newfoundland five-cent coin began after the one-cent coin, so the coin has no legend. The first pattern is derived from the New Brunswick obverse with Newfoundland substituted for New Brunswick.

Newfoundland one cent - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_one_cent

As Newfoundland did not join the Dominion of Canada until 1949, it had its own currency for many decades. It adopted its own decimal currency in 1863. Compared to other pre-Confederation British colonies, it had a wide selection of decimal coinage (including a twenty cent coin). The most important coin in Newfoundland was the Spanish American dollar (the 8-real piece), therefore, the Newfoundland government set its dollar equal in value to this coin. The new decimal cent was equal to the British halfpenny and $4.80 was equal to one pound sterling.

Royal Canadian Mint tokens and medallions - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Canadian_Mint_tokens_and_medallions

Starting in 1997, the Royal Canadian Mint started to sell hockey medallions to the public. To commemorate the induction of Mario Lemieux in the Hockey Hall of Fame, a set was issued honouring all three inductees. One set was issued in Sterling Silver while another was issued in Nickel. The success of the release led to future issues.

Coinscan
http://www.coinscan.com/

Coinscan is a division of the Canadian Numismatic Publishing Institute, established in 1958 by Somer James, publisher of many Canadian numismatic publications.

List of foreign countries with coinage struck at the Royal Canadian Mint - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_foreign_countries_with_coinage_struck_at_the_Royal_Canadian_Mint

Since its opening in 1908, the Royal Canadian Mint has produced coinage and planchets for over 73 countries. This list of foreign countries with coinage struck at the Royal Canadian Mint lists countries that have been serviced by the Crown corporation, as listed on the website of the Canadian Numismatic Publishing Institute.

Newfoundland 2 dollar coin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_2_dollar_coin

The Newfoundland 2 dollar coin was issued in intermittent years between 1865 and 1888. It was the only circulation gold coin issued by a British colony. Although few coins were issued, it was broadly used in Newfoundland and Eastern Canada. The coin became scarce in 1894 because of hoarding following the collapse of Newfoundland's banks and monetary system.

List of people on coins of Canada - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_people_on_coins_of_Canada

This is a list of notables on coins of Canada. Members of the Monarchy of Canada are not included.

Toonie - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toonie

The Canadian two dollar coin, commonly called the toonie, was introduced on February 19, 1996 by Public Works minister Diane Marleau. The toonie is a bi-metallic coin which on the reverse side bears an image of a polar bear by artist Brent Townsend. The obverse, like all other current Canadian circulation coins, has a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II. It has the words "ELIZABETH II / D.G. REGINA" in a different typeface from any other Canadian coin; it is also the only coin to consistently bear its issue date on the obverse.

Coins and Canada
http://www.coinsandcanada.com/

Rich information on Canadian coins, prices and valuations, online store, discussions and much more.

Loonie - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loonie

The Canadian one dollar coin, commonly called the loonie, is a gold-coloured one-dollar coin introduced in 1987. It bears images of a common loon, a bird which is common and well known in Canada, on the reverse, and of Queen Elizabeth II on the obverse. It is produced by the Royal Canadian Mint at its facility in Winnipeg.

Voyageur dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voyageur_dollar

The Voyageur Dollar was a coin of Canada struck for circulation from 1935 through 1986. Until 1968, the coin was composed of 80% silver. A smaller, nickel version for general circulation was struck from 1968 through 1986. In 1987, the coin was replaced by the loonie. However, like all of Canada's discontinued coins, the voyageur dollar coins remain legal tender.

50-cent piece (Canadian coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/50-cent_piece_(Canadian_coin)

The fifty-cent piece is the common name of the Canadian coin worth 50 cents. The coin's reverse depicts the coat of arms of Canada. At the opening ceremonies for the Ottawa branch of the Royal Mint, held on January 2, 1908, Governor General Earl Grey struck the Dominion of Canada’s first domestically produced coin. It was a silver fifty-cent piece bearing the effigy of King Edward VII.

Quarter (Canadian coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quarter_(Canadian_coin)

The quarter, short for quarter dollar, is a Canadian coin worth 25 cents or one-fourth of a Canadian dollar. It is a small, circular coin of silver colour. According to the Royal Canadian Mint, the official name for the coin is the 25-cent piece, but in practice and because of its similar size to an American coin of similar value, it is usually called a "quarter". The coin is produced at the Royal Canadian Mint's facility in Winnipeg.

Dime (Canadian coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dime_(Canadian_coin)

In Canada, a dime is a coin worth ten cents. It is the smallest (in physical size) of the currently issued Canadian coins. According to the Royal Canadian Mint, the official national term of the coin is the 10 cent piece, but in practice, the term dime predominates in English-speaking Canada. It is nearly identical in size to the American dime, but unlike its counterpart, the Canadian dime is magnetic due to a distinct metal composition: from 1968 to 1999 it was composed entirely of nickel, and since 2000 it has had a high steel content.

Nickel (Canadian coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nickel_(Canadian_coin)

The Canadian five-cent coin, commonly called a nickel, is a coin worth five cents or one-twentieth of a Canadian dollar. It was patterned on the corresponding coin in the neighbouring United States. Starting 4 February 2013, after the elimination of the penny, it became the smallest valued coin in the currency.

Penny (Canadian coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penny_(Canadian_coin)

In Canada, a penny is a coin worth one cent, or 1⁄100 of a dollar. According to the Royal Canadian Mint, the official national term of the coin is the "one-cent piece", but in practice the terms penny and cent predominate. Originally, "penny" referred to a two-cent coin. When the two-cent coin was discontinued, penny took over as the new one-cent coin's name. Penny was likely readily adopted because the previous coinage in Canada (up to 1858) was the British monetary system, where Canada used British pounds, shillings, and pence as coinage alongside U.S. decimal coins and Spanish milled dollars.

Ottawa Mint sovereign - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottawa_Mint_sovereign

The Ottawa Mint sovereign is a British one pound coin (known as a sovereign) minted between 1908 and 1919 at the Ottawa Mint (known today as the Ottawa branch of the Royal Canadian Mint). This has augmented debate among Canadian numismatists because some view these pieces as Canadian while others view them as British and thus distinct from the decimal series of Canadian coinage. Since the opening of the Ottawa Mint, the Dominion of Canada’s government wanted to produce decimal gold coins. As it was a branch of the Royal Mint, it was obligated to mint sovereigns on request. When sovereigns were requested, it was usually for export causes.

Canadian silver dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_silver_dollar

The Royal Canadian Mint issued the first silver dollar in 1935 to commemorate the Silver Jubilee of King George V. The coin’s reverse design was sculpted by Emanuel Hahn and portrays a voyageur and an aboriginal paddling a birch-bark canoe. The faint lines in the background represent the Northern Lights. The voyageur design was used on the dollar until 1986. It was then replaced with the 1987 Canadian 1 dollar coin (Loonie). 1967 marked the end of the silver dollar as a business strike, or a coin issued for circulation. After 1967, the dollar coin was made of nickel, except for non-circulating commemorative issues for the collector market, which continue to contain silver.

List of Royal Canadian Mint RCMP coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Royal_Canadian_Mint_RCMP_coins

Originally dispatched in the 19th Century to patrol the Western frontier, the scarlet-clad Mountie on horseback is a well-known image of Canada. Today, the cavalry drills the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) practised over a century ago are performed in front of audiences. The Musical Ride is part of Canada's national identity. The images of the RCMP have been featured on various Canadian coins.

Royal Canadian Mint Olympic coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Canadian_Mint_Olympic_coins

Most numismatists agree that the first true numismatic collection was the Olympic Five and Ten Dollar coins for the 1976 Montreal Olympics[citation needed]. Starting in February 1973, the Royal Canadian Mint (RCM) engaged in a very ambitious program. At the behest of the federal government, led by then-Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau, it was agreed that these coins would help finance and commemorate the 1976 Summer Olympics.

Royal Canadian Mint ice hockey coins - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Canadian_Mint_ice_hockey_coins

he Royal Canadian Mint has made coins with various themes. Most recently, ice hockey has been used for many numismatic releases. The first known ice hockey coin was for the 1988 Winter Olympics. Issued on February 25, 1986, the coin featured a goalie on the coin. Edge lettering was also used for the coin, the first time that it was used on silver coins.

Royal Canadian Mint numismatic coins 2010s - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Canadian_Mint_numismatic_coins_2010s

One of the most highly profitable aspects of the Royal Canadian Mint’s enterprise is in its Numismatic product line.

Royal Canadian Mint numismatic coins (2000s) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Canadian_Mint_numismatic_coins_(2000s)

One of the most highly profitable aspects of the Royal Canadian Mint’s enterprise is in its Numismatic product line. The euphoria surrounding the year 2000 led to the birth of the Millennium 25-cent coin program. The numismatic line included proof quality coins sold individually or as a complete set. This level of excess would come to signify the coming decade. The number of numismatic releases would increase on an annual basis starting in 2003. Numismatic three cents, five cents, and ten cents would be introduced, along with numismatic three dollars and eight dollars. Luxury coins would not be immune to the dramatic increases that ensued. Coins with face values of 250, 300 and 350 dollars would be introduced by 2006.

Royal Canadian Mint numismatic coins (20th century) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Canadian_Mint_numismatic_coins_(20th_century)

One of the most profitable aspects of the Royal Canadian Mint (RCM) is its numismatic product line. The first numismatic coin from the RCM was arguably the 1935 dollar commemorating the Silver Jubilee of His Majesty King George V. Though intended for circulation, it was the first Canadian coin commemorating an event. The decision to issue this coin was made in October 1934 by then-Prime Minister R.B. Bennett. There were economic and patriotic motivations for the release of a silver dollar, including a hope to boost the silver mining industry. In future years, the silver dollar would have a more emotional meaning for many Canadians because it was also the first coin to have the Voyageur motif on its reverse.

Bank of Canada / Banque du Canada
http://www.bankofcanada.ca/

The Bank of Canada is the country's central bank. Its role, as defined in the original Bank of Canada Act of 1934, is "to promote the economic and financial welfare of Canada".

Bank of Canada - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_of_Canada

The Bank of Canada, BoC (French: Banque du Canada) is Canada's central bank. The Bank was chartered by and under the Bank of Canada Act on July 3, 1934, as a privately-owned corporation. In 1938, the Bank was legally designated a federal Crown corporation, whose shares are owned by the Government of Canada, and executively administered by the Crown in Right of Canada through the Governor of the Bank of Canada. The Minister of Finance holds the entire share capital issued by the bank. "Ultimately, the [shares in the corporation comprising the] Bank [are] owned by the Minister of Finance on behalf of [the Crown] in Right of Canada".

Canadian dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_dollar

The Canadian dollar (symbol: $; code: CAD) is the currency of Canada. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or sometimes C$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents.

History of the Canada dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Canada_dollar

Canada has an extensive history with regard to its currency. Beginning in the early 16th century, items such as wampum and furs were actually considered currency. With the colonization by France and England, various coins were introduced in the 18th and 19th centuries. In the 20th century, it has issued many commemorative coins into circulation, temporarily replacing current coinage designs. There also exists a long history of numismatic coin issues.

Numismatic India
http://www.hobbyandbooks.com/

Rajesh Jain and Co. is one of the leading publishers and distributors of Numismatic and History books based in Delhi. The web site offers a large selection of books with numismatic information about India.

Brazilian cruzeiro - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazilian_cruzeiro

The cruzeiro was the currency of Brazil from 1942 to 1986 (two distinct currencies) and again between 1990 and 1993. In 1994 it was replaced with the real. The name refers to the constellation of the Southern Cross, known in Brazil as Cruzeiro do Sul, or simply Cruzeiro. Visible only in the Southern Hemisphere, the Southern Cross is the main astronomical reference to identify the south and is a common cultural icon in Brazilian history.

Brazilian real (old) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazilian_real_(old)

The first official currency of Brazil was the real (pl. réis). Its sign was Rs$. As the currency of the Portuguese empire it was in use in Brazil from the earliest days of the colonial period, and remained in use until 1942, when it was replaced by the cruzeiro.

The name real was resurrected in 1994 for the new currency unit (but with the new plural form reais). This currency is still in use. One modern real is equivalent to 2.75 × 1018 (2.75 quintillion) of the old réis.

Brazilian cruzeiro real - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazilian_cruzeiro_real

The cruzeiro real (plural: cruzeiros reais) was the short-lived currency of Brazil between August 1, 1993 and June 30, 1994. It was subdivided in 100 centavos, however, this unit was used only for accounting purposes. The currency had the ISO 4217 code BRR. The cruzeiro real was replaced with the current Brazilian real as part of the Plano Real.

Banco Central do Brasil (Central Bank of Brazil)
http://www.bc.gov.br/

The Bank of Brazil was originally set up with mixed responsibilities. As a Central Bank, it performed the roles of depositary, discount and issuing bank. In addition, it was responsible for selling the exclusive products of the State administration and Royal contracts. This dual role performed by the Bank of Brazil is seen as one of the factors that explains why it took so long before a true Central Bank was established.

In December 1964, a law was passed establishing the Central Bank of Brazil as a federal agency, part of the National Financial System.

Central Bank of Brazil - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bank_of_Brazil

The Central Bank of Brazil (Portuguese: Banco Central do Brasil) is Brazil's central bank. It was established on December 31, 1964.

The Central Bank is linked with the Ministry of Finance. Like other central banks, the Brazilian central bank is the principal monetary authority of the country. It received this authority when it was founded by three different institutions: the Bureau of Currency and Credit (SUMOC), the Bank of Brazil (BB), and the National Treasury.

Brazilian real - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazilian_real

The real (pl. reais) is the present-day currency of Brazil. Its sign is R$ and its ISO code is BRL. It is subdivided into 100 centavos ("Cents"). In Portuguese the word real means both "royal" and "real".

Ten-baht coin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ten-baht_coin

The Thailand ten-baht coin is a currency unit of the Thai baht. Like every standard-issue coin in Thailand, its obverse features King Bhumibol Adulyadej. Its reverse features Wat Arun Ratchawararam Ratchawora Mahavihara seen from the Chao Phraya River. Raised dots corresponding to Braille cell dot 1 and dots 2-4-5, which correspond to the number 10, are at the 12 o'clock position on the reverse of the standard-issue 10-baht coin. Braille enumeration does not appear on coins of other denominations, nor on ten-baht coins frequently issued as commemorative coins (for example, the 50th and 60th Anniversary of Accession to the Throne of King Bhumibol Adulyadej).

Five-baht coin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five-baht_coin

The Thailand five-baht coin is a currency unit of the Thai baht.

Two-baht coin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-baht_coin

In Thailand, the two-baht coin is the coin which is worth 2 baht or 200 satang. The new 2-baht coin design features H.M. King Bhumibol Adulyadej, the Great on the obverse, like all other Thai legal tender coins presently in circulation. The reverse design depicts the Golden Mountain at Wat Saket Ratcha Wora Maha Wihan in Bangkok.

One-baht coin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One-baht_coin

The one-baht coin is a currency unit of the Thai baht. It is commonly called rian baht (Thai:เหรียญบาท) by Thai speakers (rian meaning "coin" in Thai). Like all coins in Thailand, its obverse features King Bhumibol Adulyadej. Its reverse features Wat Phra Sri Rattana Satsadaram or Wat Phra Kaew, the royal temple in Bangkok's Grand Palace complex.

Fifty-satang coin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fifty-satang_coin

The Thailand fifty-satang coin is currency unit equivalent to one-half of a Thai baht. It is also called สองสลึง (song salueng - "two salueng" while สลึง salueng is used to describe the 25-satang coin). In 2008, fifty satang coin was minted both old aluminium series bronze and new copper series.

Twenty-five-satang coin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twenty-five-satang_coin

The Thailand twenty-five-satang coin is a currency unit equivalent to one-fourth of a Thai baht. It is commonly called salueng (Thai: สลึง) by Thai speakers. Salueng is the name of a historical Thai measurement, equal to one quarter of a baht or three and three quarters of a gram.

Ten-satang coin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ten-satang_coin

The Thailand ten-satang coin is a currency unit equivalent to one-tenth of a Thai baht. It is rare in circulation but used in banking transactions. It was introduced in 1908 as a coin with a hole through its middle and minted until 1939.

Five-satang coin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five-satang_coin

The Thailand five-satang coin is a unit of currency equivalent to one-twentieth of a Thai baht. It was introduced in 1908 as a coin with a hole through its middle, which was minted until 1939. In 1946 the hole was removed and the new Thai monarch featured on the obverse: Rama IX. In 1996 a five-satang coin marked the 50th anniversary of his reign.

One-satang coin - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One-satang_coin

The Thailand one-satang coin is a currency unit equivalent to one-hundredth of a Thai baht. It is rare in circulation but used in banking transactions.

สำนักกษาปณ์ (Royal Thai Mint)
http://www.royalthaimint.net/

The Bureau of Royal Thai Mint, (Thai: สำนักกษาปณ์), is situated in Pathum Thani, Thailand. It is a sub-division of the Treasury Department, Ministry of Finance.

Royal Thai Mint - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Thai_Mint

The Bureau of Royal Thai Mint, (Thai: สำนักกษาปณ์), is situated in Pathum Thani, Thailand. It is a sub-division of the Treasury Department, Ministry of Finance.

ธนาคารแห่งประเทศไทย (Bank of Thailand)
https://www.bot.or.th/

The Bank of Thailand (BOT, Thai: ธนาคารแห่งประเทศไทย) is the central bank of Thailand.

Bank of Thailand - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_of_Thailand

The Bank of Thailand (BOT, Thai: ธนาคารแห่งประเทศไทย) is the central bank of Thailand.

Thai baht - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thai_baht

The baht (Thai: บาท, sign: ฿; code: THB) is the currency of Thailand. It is subdivided into 100 satang (สตางค์). The issuance of currency is the responsibility of the Bank of Thailand. According to SWIFT, as of October 2014, the Thai baht ranked as the tenth most frequently used world payment currency.

Malaysian ringgit - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaysian_ringgit

The Malaysian ringgit (plural: ringgit; symbol: RM; currency code: MYR; formerly the Malaysian dollar) is the currency of Malaysia. It is divided into 100 sen (cents). The ringgit is issued by the Bank Negara Malaysia.

Sudanese dinar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudanese_dinar

The dinar was the currency of Sudan between 1992 and 2007. Its ISO 4217 code is "SDD".

Sudanese pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudanese_pound

The Sudanese pound (Arabic: جنيه سوداني Junaih Sudani) is the currency of Sudan and was also used in South Sudan until finalisation of the introduction of the South Sudanese pound. Both Arabic and English names for the denominations appear on the country's banknotes and coins.

South Sudanese pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Sudanese_pound

The South Sudanese pound is the official currency of the Republic of South Sudan. It is subdivided into 100 piasters. It was approved by the Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly before secession on 9 July 2011 from Sudan. It was introduced on 18 July 2011, and replaced the Sudanese pound at par.

De Nederlandsche Bank
http://www.dnb.nl/

De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) is responsible for safeguarding financial stability. More particularly, DNB contributes to defining and implementing the single monetary policy of the countries which have introduced the euro promotes the smooth operation of the payment system, and supervises financial institutions and the financial sector.

De Nederlandsche Bank - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_Nederlandsche_Bank

De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB, The Dutch Bank) is the central bank of the Netherlands. It is part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).

Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt (Royal Dutch Mint)
http://www.knm.nl/

The Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt (Royal Dutch Mint), seated in Utrecht, the Netherlands, is a company owned entirely by the Dutch State, and since 1807 the only Dutch entity allowed to strike and give out coins.

Royal Dutch Mint - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Dutch_Mint

The Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt (Royal Dutch Mint), seated in Utrecht, the Netherlands, is a company owned entirely by the Dutch State, and since 1807 the only Dutch entity allowed to strike and give out coins.

Zeno - Oriental Coins Database
http://www.zeno.ru/

Large database, with photos, of Asian coins.

Rulers
http://www.rulers.org/

This site contains lists of heads of state and heads of government (and, in certain cases, de facto leaders not occupying either of those formal positions) of all countries and territories, going back to about 1700 in most cases. Also included are the subdivisions of various countries (the links are at the bottom of the respective country entries), as well as a selection of international organizations. Recent foreign ministers of all countries are listed separately.

Ottoman Bank - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_Bank

The Ottoman Bank (Turkish: Osmanlı Bankası) (formerly Imperial Ottoman Bank, Ottoman Turkish: Bank-ı Osmanî-i Şahane‎) was founded in 1856 in the Galata business section of İstanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, as a joint venture between British interests, the Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas of France, and the Ottoman government. It operated as the Imperial Ottoman Bank from 1863 to 1924. Privileged as a state bank, it carried out the functions of a central bank.

Ottoman lira - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_lira

The Ottoman lira was the currency of Ottoman Empire between 1844 and 29 October 1923. It replaced the kuruş as the principal unit of currency, with the kuruş continuing to circulate as a subdivision of the lira, with 100 kuruş = 1 lira. The para also continued to be used, with 40 para = 1 kuruş.

Sultani - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sultani

The sultani was an Ottoman gold coin. It was first minted during the reign of Mehmed II (r. 1451–1481), weighing about 3.45 grams. The sultani is the classic Ottoman gold coin also known generically as altın ("gold").

Para (currency) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Para_(currency)

The para (Cyrillic: пара, from Turkish para, from Persian pārah, "piece") was a former currency of the Ottoman Empire, Turkey, Montenegro, Albania and Yugoslavia and is the current subunit, although rarely used, of the Serbian dinar.

Akçe - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ak%C3%A7e

A silver coin, the akçe (Ottoman Turkish: آقچه‎) (pronounced akche) was the chief monetary unit of the Ottoman Empire. Three akçes were equal to one para. One-hundred and twenty akçes equalled one kuruş. Later after 1687 the kuruş became the main unit of account, replacing the akçe. In 1843, the silver kuruş was joined by the gold lira in a bimetallic system. Its weight fluctuated, one source estimates it between 1.15 and 1.18 grams. The name Akçe originally referred to a silver coin but later the meaning changed and it became a synonym for money.

Centralna banka Crne Gore (Central Bank of Montenegro)
http://www.cb-mn.org/

The Central Bank of Montenegro is the central bank of Montenegro. The mission of the central bank is to establish and maintain a sound banking system and monetary policy.

Central Bank of Montenegro - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bank_of_Montenegro

The Central Bank of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Centralna Banka Crne Gore) is the central bank of Montenegro. The mission of the central bank is to establish and maintain a sound banking system and monetary policy.

Thaler - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thaler

The Thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years. Its name lives on in the many currencies called dollar and until recently, the Slovenian tolar. Further, the name of the Romanian and Moldovan currencies (Romanian and Moldovan Leu) comes from the Thaler via one of the Dutch daalders, the leeuwendaalder ("lion thaler").

Montenegrin perun - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montenegrin_perun

The perun (Serbian Cyrillic: Перун, older spelling: Перунъ) was the currency that was planned for introduction in Montenegro by Petar II Petrović Njegoš in 1851. However, he died the same year, and Montenegro remained without a currency until the 1906 introduction of the perper by Nicholas I of Montenegro. It was named after Perun, whom Njegoš considered to be the supreme god of Slavic mythology. If introduced, one Perun would have had equal value to two thalers. Montenegro later used the Austrian currencies until 1906 when Montenegro started using the Montenegrin perper.

Montenegrin perper - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montenegrin_perper

The perper (Serbian Cyrillic: Перпер; plural перпери) was the currency of Montenegro between 1906 and 1918. The name was adopted in accordance to the earlier Serbian perper, the currency of the Serbian Empire, to which the Principality, later Kingdom of Montenegro, consider itself a successor. It was divided into 100 pare (singular para, Serbian: паре, пара) and was equivalent to the Austro-Hungarian krone. The perper was replaced by the dinar when Montenegro became part of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia).

Stavraton - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stavraton

The stavraton or stauraton (Greek: σταυράτον) was a type of silver coin used during the last century of the Byzantine Empire.

Miliaresion - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miliaresion

The miliaresion (Greek: μιλιαρήσιον, from Latin: miliarensis), was a name used for a number of Byzantine silver coins. In its most specific sense, it refers to a type of silver coin struck in the 8th–11th centuries.

Hexagram (currency) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hexagram_(currency)

The hexagram (Greek: ἑξάγραμμα, hexagramma) was a large silver coin of the Byzantine Empire issued primarily during the 7th century AD.

Serbian perper - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serbian_perper

The Perper was the currency used in Serbia under Emperor Dušan. Its name comes from the Byzantine coin hyperpyron.

Ragusan perpera - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ragusan_perpera

The Ragusan perpera (Croatian: Dubrovačka perpera) was a type of silver coin issued and used in the Republic of Ragusa/Republic of Dubrovnik (Croatian: Dubrovačka republika).

It was minted between 1683 and 1803 and depicted the image of Saint Blaise (Croatian: Sveti Vlaho), the patron of the Republic, on the obverse, carrying a model of Dubrovnik city as well as a bishop's crosier in his left hand and giving a blessing with his right one.

Medieval Bulgarian coinage - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_Bulgarian_coinage

Medieval Bulgarian coinage are the coins minted by the Bulgarian Emperors during the Middle Ages at the time of the Second Bulgarian Empire.

There is no evidence that coins were minted during the First Bulgarian Empire, and minting ceased after the fall of the Second Empire with Ottoman domination in 1396 or 1422. They were gold (perperi), silver (aspri), billon (coinage of silver and copper) and copper coins, all flat and hollow. The inscriptions were usually in Bulgarian language and rarely in Greek. Due to the limited space the inscriptions were abbreviated, often written with a few letters and special signs. Artistically, they continued the Byzantine numismatic tradition but the designs were often more schematic. The main means of expression were lines and dots. The Bulgarian coins had images different from the Byzantine and Slav coinage, so they form a distinct group. The coins are an important source for the history of the Second Bulgarian Empire.

Hyperpyron - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperpyron

The hyperpyron (Greek: νόμισμα ὑπέρπυρον) was a Byzantine coin in use during the late Middle Ages, replacing the solidus as the Byzantine Empire's gold coinage.

Scyphate - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scyphate

Scyphate is a term frequently used in numismatics to refer to the concave or "cup-shaped" Byzantine coins of the 11th–14th centuries.

This usage emerged in the 19th century, when the term scyphatus, attested in south Italian documents of the 11th and 12th centuries, was erroneously interpreted as deriving from the Greek word skyphos (σκύφος, "cup"). In reality, the term probably derives from the Arabic word shafah, "edge, rim", and refers to the distinctive and conspicuous border of the early histamena gold coins. Due to this misunderstanding, the term "scyphate" has been widely applied to the concave gold, silver, and copper coins of the late Byzantine Empire and the foreign issues imitating it. These coins are more properly designated as trachea (singular: trachy, from Greek τραχύ, "rough, uneven").

Coinage of the Republic of Venice - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coinage_of_the_Republic_of_Venice

The Coinage of the Republic of Venice include the coins produced by the Republic of Venice from the late 12th century to 1866.

Byzantine coinage - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_coinage

Byzantine currency, money used in the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the West, consisted of mainly two types of coins: the gold solidus and a variety of clearly valued bronze coins. By the end of the empire the currency was issued only in silver stavrata and minor copper coins with no gold issue.

Venetian grosso - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venetian_grosso

The Venetian grosso (plural Grossi) is a silver coin first introduced in Venice in 1193 under doge Enrico Dandolo. It originally weighed 2.18 grams, was composed of 98.5% pure silver, and was valued at 26 dinarii. Its name is from the same root as groschen and the English groat, all deriving ultimately from the denaro grosso ("large penny").

Ducat - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ducat

The ducat was a gold or silver coin used as a trade coin in Europe from the later medieval centuries until as late as the 20th century. Many types of ducats had various metallic content and purchasing power throughout the period. The gold ducat of Venice gained wide international acceptance, like the medieval Byzantine hyperpyron and the Florentine florin, or the modern British pound sterling and the United States dollar.

Basilikon - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basilikon

The basilikon (Greek: βασιλικόν [νόμισμα], "imperial [coin]"), commonly also referred to as the doukaton (Greek: δουκάτον), was a widely circulated Byzantine silver coin of the first half of the 14th century. Its introduction marked the return to a wide-scale use of silver coinage in the Byzantine Empire, and presaged the total abandonment of the gold coins around the middle of the century.

Sequin (coin) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sequin_(coin)

The sequin (Venetian/Italian: zecchino) is a gold coin weighing 3.5 grams (0.12 oz) of .986 gold, minted by the Republic of Venice from the 13th century onwards. The design of the Venetian gold ducat, or zecchino, remained unchanged for over 500 years, from its introduction in 1284 to the takeover of Venice by Napoleon in 1797. No other coin design has ever been produced over such a long historical period. The 500-year run of the zecchino is unique in history.

French franc - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_franc

The franc (sign: F, commonly also FF or Fr) was a currency of France. Between 1360 and 1641, it was the name of coins worth 1 livre tournois and it remained in common parlance as a term for this amount of money. It was re-introduced (in decimal form) in 1795 and remained the national currency until the introduction of the euro in 1999 (for accounting purposes) and 2002 (coins and banknotes). It was a commonly held international reserve currency in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Livre parisis - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livre_parisis

The livre parisis (Paris pound) was a standard for minting French coins and a unit of account. Like the livre tournois, which was divided into 20 sols tournois each of 12 deniers tournois, the livre parisis was also divided into 20 sols parisis each of 12 deniers parisis, but the livre parisis was worth 25 sols tournois (i.e., the livre tournois was worth 4/5 of the livre parisis). Each sol parisis was thus worth 15 deniers tournois, and each denier parisis worth 11⁄4 deniers tournois.

French denier - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_denier

The denier was a medieval coin which takes its name from the Frankish coin first issued (as the denarius) in the late seventh century; in English it is sometimes referred to as a silver penny. Its appearance represents the end of gold coinage, which, at the start of Frankish rule, had either been Byzantine or "pseudo-imperial" (minted by the Franks in imitation of Byzantine coinage). Silver would be the basis for Frankish coinage going forward.

Livre tournois - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livre_tournois

The livre tournois (Tours pound) was one of numerous currencies used in France in the Middle Ages, and also a unit of account (i.e., a monetary unit used in accounting) used in France in the Middle Ages and the early modern period.

French livre - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_livre

The livre was the currency of France from 781 to 1794. Several different livres existed, some concurrently. The livre was the name of both units of account and coins.

Jersey livre - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jersey_livre

The livre was currency of Jersey until 1834. It consisted entirely of French coins.

John Thomas Stamps and Collectables
http://www.jtsandc.com/

Supplies for stamp, coin, banknote and phonecard collecting, as well as the occasional stamp. Australian orders only.

Draped Bust Coins
http://drapedbustcoins.reidgold.com/

The material on Draped Bust coins presented here is an elaboration of articles that appeared in the January 2001 and May 2001 issues of Coins magazine and the June 2002 issue of COINage magazine.

Counterfeit Draped Bust Dollars
http://drapedbustcoins.reidgold.com/page_7.html

Counterfeits have been a part of coinage since the inception of coinage. Big-ticket items such as Draped Bust dollars are a favorite of counterfeiters for the obvious reason that fakes of them can bring in big money. Online auction houses such as eBay are an increasingly common outlet for these forgeries because of the relative anonymity they afford sellers.

Pound sterling in the South Atlantic and the Antarctic - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pound_sterling_in_the_South_Atlantic_and_the_Antarctic

The United Kingdom possesses a number of islands in the South Atlantic Ocean as well as a section of the Antarctic continent. These territories are St. Helena with Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and the British Antarctic Territory. The official currency in these territories is either Pound sterling or a local currency that evolved from sterling and is at a fixed one-to-one parity with sterling.

Saint Helena pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Helena_pound

The Saint Helena pound (also called simply "pound") is the currency of the Atlantic islands of Saint Helena and Ascension, which are constituents of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. It is fixed at parity with the pound sterling and is subdivided into 100 pence.

Isle of Man Government
https://www.gov.im/

The Isle of Man Government (Manx: Reiltys Ellan Vannin) is the government of the Isle of Man. The formal head of the Isle of Man Government is the Lieutenant Governor, representing Queen Elizabeth II, Lord of Mann. The executive head is the Chief Minister.

Isle of Man Government - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isle_of_Man_Government

The Isle of Man Government (Manx: Reiltys Ellan Vannin) is the government of the Isle of Man. The formal head of the Isle of Man Government is the Lieutenant Governor, representing Queen Elizabeth II, Lord of Mann. The executive head is the Chief Minister.

Coins of the Manx pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_Manx_pound

The official coinage of the Isle of Man are denominated in Manx pounds. The coins are minted by Pobjoy Mint Limited. Due to matching appearance and value of Pound Sterling coins, these coins often appear in circulation within the United Kingdom. However, they are not legal tender there. Conversely, the Isle of Man does recognise Pound Sterling coins.

Commemorative coins of the Isle of Man - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commemorative_coins_of_the_Isle_of_Man

In 1972, the government of the Isle of Man, signed a long-term contract with the Pobjoy Mint of Tadworth, Surrey, England, to mint coins for the state. They have produced commemorative coinage.

Manx pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manx_pound

The Manx pound (Manx: Punt Manninagh) is the currency of the Isle of Man, in parity with the pound sterling. The Manx pound is divided into 100 pence. Government notes and coins, denominated in pounds and pence, are issued by the Isle of Man Government.

Professional Coin Grading Service (PCGS)
http://www.pcgs.com/

Professional Coin Grading Service (PCGS) is an authentication and grading service for rare coins. PCGS was started by seven coin dealers in 1985 to standardise coin grading. Today it is the leading coin grading company in American numismatics and it now has divisions in Europe and Asia. PCGS is owned by parent company Collectors Universe, Inc..

Numismatic Guaranty Corporation (NGC)
http://www.ngccoin.com/

The Numismatic Guaranty Corporation (or NGC) is a multinational coin grading service provider based in Florida, USA. NGC is the world's largest third-party coin grading service by unit volume having graded more than 30 million coins as of April 2014. It is the official grading service of the American Numismatic Association since 1995 and the official grading service of the Professional Numismatists Guild since 2004. NGC currently employs nearly 30 full-time graders.

Independent Coin Graders (ICG)
http://www.icgcoin.com/

Independent Coin Graders (ICG) is an independent third-party grading service for numismatic collectors and dealers, offering professional and accurate grading. ICG has been grading coins, tokens and medals from around the world for collectors and dealers in the industry since 1998.

American Numismatic Association Certification Service (ANACS)
http://www.anacs.com/

In the early 1970's the ANA Board of Governors recognised that something significant needed to be done about the counterfeit and altered coins that were plaguing the coin community. Their solution was ANACS, the American Numismatic Association Certification Service.

PCG Grading (India)
http://pcggrading.in/

The operations of the PCG relates to the estimation of the conservation status of coins and providing protective packaging systems. Quality of the currency is certified by a team of professionals whose many years of experience in this field is a guarantee of competence.

Numismatic Guarantee Service of India
http://ngsofindia.com/

Numismatic Guarantee Service of India is India's first professional grading and certification service for coins and paper money of South Asia. NGS grades and certifies all coins, tokens, medals and banknotes of the Indian sub-continent from 600 BC to the present.

Sarawak dollar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarawak_dollar

The dollar was the currency of Sarawak from 1858 to 1953. It was subdivided into 100 cents. The dollar remained at par with the Straits dollar and its successor the Malayan dollar, the currency of Malaya and Singapore, from its introduction until both currencies were replaced by the Malaya and British Borneo dollar in 1953.

Polish marka - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_marka

The marka (Polish: marka polska, Polish mark, abbreviated mp, Polish-language plural declensions: marki, marek) was the currency of the Kingdom of Poland and of the Republic of Poland between 1917 and 1924. It was subdivided into 100 fenigs (a Polish spelling of German "pfennig"), much like its German original after which it was modelled.

Guernsey pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guernsey_pound

The pound is the currency of Guernsey. Since 1921, Guernsey has been in currency union with the United Kingdom and the Guernsey pound is not a separate currency but is a local issue of banknotes and coins denominated in pound sterling, in a similar way to the banknotes issued in Scotland and Northern Ireland.

Gibraltar pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gibraltar_pound

The Gibraltar pound (currency sign: £; banking code: GIP) is the currency of Gibraltar. It is pegged to - and exchangeable with - the British pound sterling at par value. The central bank controlling the GIP, with responsibility of minting coins and printing notes, is the Government of Gibraltar.

Falkland Islands pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland_Islands_pound

The pound is the currency of the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory in the South Atlantic Ocean. The symbol is the pound sign, £, or alternatively FK£, to distinguish it from other pound-denominated currencies. The ISO 4217 currency code is FKP.

Jersey pound - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jersey_pound

The pound is the currency of Jersey. Jersey is in currency union with the United Kingdom, and the Jersey pound is not a separate currency but is an issue of banknotes and coins by the States of Jersey denominated in pound sterling, in a similar way to the banknotes issued in Scotland and Northern Ireland. It can be exchanged at par with other sterling coinage and notes.

中華民國中央銀行 (Central Bank of the Republic of China)
http://www.cbc.gov.tw/

The Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) (CBC; Chinese: 中華民國中央銀行; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Zhōngyāng Yínháng), known in English from 1924 to 2007 as the Central Bank of China, is the central bank of the Republic of China, now commonly known as Taiwan.

Its legal and common name in Chinese is literally translated as the "Central Bank". The central bank is administered under the Executive Yuan of the ROC government.

Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bank_of_the_Republic_of_China_(Taiwan)

The Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) (CBC; Chinese: 中華民國中央銀行; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Zhōngyāng Yínháng), known in English from 1924 to 2007 as the Central Bank of China, is the central bank of the Republic of China, now commonly known as Taiwan.

Its legal and common name in Chinese is literally translated as the "Central Bank". The central bank is administered under the Executive Yuan of the ROC government.

Central Mint of Taiwan: Commemorative Coins
http://www.cmc.gov.tw/product.jsp?ptype=4

List of commemorative coins produced by the Central Mint of Taiwan.

Central Mint of Taiwan: Circulation Coins
http://www.cmc.gov.tw/product.jsp?ptype=1

List of coins for general circulation produced by the Central Mint of Taiwan.

中央造幣廠 (Central Mint of Taiwan)
http://www.cmc.gov.tw/

The Central Mint (Chinese: 中央造幣廠; pinyin: zhōngyāng zàobìchǎng; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: tiong-iong chō-pè-chhiú) is a subsidiary of the Central Bank of Taiwan. The major activities of the mint are minting and melting circulation and commemorative coins, and producing commemorative medals and other kind of casting products for government institutions and businesses.

Central Mint - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Mint

The Central Mint (Chinese: 中央造幣廠; pinyin: zhōngyāng zàobìchǎng; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: tiong-iong chō-pè-chhiú) is a subsidiary of the Central Bank of Taiwan. The major activities of the mint are minting and melting circulation and commemorative coins, and producing commemorative medals and other kind of casting products for government institutions and businesses.

China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China_Banknote_Printing_and_Minting_Corporation

China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation (CBPMC, simplified Chinese: 中国印钞造币总公司; traditional Chinese: 中國印鈔造幣總公司; pinyin: Zhōngguó Yìnchāo Zàobì Zǒnggōngsī) is a state-owned corporation which carries out the minting of all renminbi coins and printing of renminbi banknotes for the People's Republic of China headquartered in Beijing.

Casa de Moneda de Chile
http://www.cmoneda.cl/

A gold coin with the effigy of King Ferdinand VI of Spain was the first piece struck in the workshops of the Chilean Mint, founded in 1743. With a history that spans close to three centuries, the Mint is Chile’s oldest operating establishment for minting coins and printing currency bills, which, among its list of clients include Chile, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, El Salvador, Venezuela, Paraguay, Argentina, Bolivia, Uruguay, Thailand and the Philippines among others.

Japan Mint: International Sales
http://www.mint.go.jp/eng/buy-eng/eng_coin_international_index.html

Online sales of commemorative coins and mint sets by the Japan Mint.

Japan Mint: Commemorative Coins