Granada: Information

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Granada (1238 - 1492)

The Emirate of Granada (Arabic: إمارة غرﻧﺎﻃﺔ‎‎, transliteration: Imarat Gharnāṭah), also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (Spanish: Reino Nazarí de Granada), was an emirate established in 1238 following the defeat of Muhammad an-Nasir of the Almohad dynasty by an alliance of Christian kingdoms at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212. After Prince Idris left Iberia to take the Almohad leadership, the ambitious Mohammed I ibn Nasr established the last Muslim dynasty on the Iberian peninsula - the Nasrids. The Nasrid emirs were responsible for building the Alhambra palace complex as it is known today. By 1250, the Emirate was the last part of the Iberian peninsula held by the Muslims. Andalusian Arabic was the official language and mother tongue of the majority of the population. For two more centuries, the region enjoyed considerable cultural and economic prosperity.

The Emirate's attack on the Castilian frontier town of Zahara in December 1481 led to a prolonged war. The Granada War began in 1482, with Christian forces capturing Alhama de Granada in February 1482. This marked the beginning of a grinding 10-year war. The Christian force was made up of troops provided by Castilian nobles, towns, and the Santa Hermandad, as well as Swiss mercenaries. The Catholic Church also encouraged other Christian countries to offer their troops and their finances to the war effort. Meanwhile, civil war erupted in Granada as a result of succession struggles in the Nasrid ruling house. Castile used this internal strife as an opportunity to push further into Granada. By 1491, the city of Granada itself lay under siege. On November 25, 1491, the Treaty of Granada was signed, setting out the conditions for surrender. On January 2, 1492, the last Muslim leader, Muhammad XII, known as Boabdil to the Spanish, gave up complete control of Granada, to Ferdinand and Isabella, Los Reyes Católicos ("The Catholic Monarchs").

Granada: List of Rulers.
Reign / RuleFromToCoins Issued
محمد ابن الأحمر (Sultan Muhammed I ibn Nasr) 1232 1273
Sultan Muhammed II al-Faqih 1273 8 April 1302
Sultan Muhammed III 8 April 1302 1309
Sultan Nasr 1309 1314
Sultan Ismail I 1314 6 July 1325
Sultan Muhammed IV 6 July 1325 25 August 1333
Sultan Yusuf I 25 August 1333 19 October 1354
Sultan Muhammed V (first reign) 19 October 1354 August 1359
Sultan Ismail II August 1359 24 June 1360
Sultan Muhammed VI 24 June 1360 25 April 1362
Sultan Muhammed V (second reign) 25 April 1362 16 January 1391
Sultan Yusuf II 16 January 1391 1392
Sultan Muhammed VII 1392 1408
يوسف الثالث‎‎ (Sultan Yusuf III) 1408 1417
Sultan Muhammed VIII (first reign) 1417 1419
Sultan Muhammed IX (first reign) 1419 1427
Sultan Muhammed VIII (second reign) 1427 1429
Sultan Muhammed IX (second reign) 1430 1431
Sultan Yusuf IV 1 January 1432 April 1432
Sultan Muhammed IX (third reign) April 1432 1445
Sultan Muhammed X (first reign) 1445 1445
Sultan Yusuf V (first reign) 1445 1446
Sultan Muhammed X (second reign) 1446 1447
Sultan Muhammed IX (fourth reign) 1448 1453
Sultan Muhammed XI 1453 1455
Sultan Sa'ad (first reign) 1455 1462
Sultan Yusuf V (second reign) 1462 1462
Sultan Sa'ad (second reign) 1462 1464
أبو الحسن علي (Sultan Abu l-Hasan Ali), first reign 1464 1482
أبو عبد الله محمد الثاني عشر‎‎‎‎ (Sultan Muhammed XII), first reign 1482 1483
أبو الحسن علي (Sultan Abu l-Hasan Ali), second reign 1483 1485
Sultan Muhammed XIII 1485 1486
أبو عبد الله محمد الثاني عشر‎‎‎‎ (Sultan Muhammed XII), second reign 1487 2 January 1492
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Granada: Details
Official NameGranada
Original Nameإمارة غرﻧﺎﻃﺔ
FlagFlag of Granada
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