The Duchy of Milan was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy. It was created in 1395, when it included twenty-six towns and the wide rural area of the middle Padan Plain east of the hills of Montferrat. During much of its existence, it was wedged between Savoy to the west, Venice to the east, the Swiss Confederacy to the north, and separated from the Mediterranean by Genoa to the south. The Duchy eventually fell to Habsburg Austria with the Treaty of Baden (1714), concluding the War of the Spanish Succession. The Duchy remained an Austrian possession until 1796, when a French army under Napoleon Bonaparte conquered it, and it ceased to exist a year later as a result of the Treaty of Campo Formio, when Austria ceded it to the new Cisalpine Republic.
After the defeat of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna of 1815 restored many other states which he had destroyed, but not the Duchy of Milan. Instead, its former territory became part of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, with the Emperor of Austria as its king. In 1859, Lombardy was ceded to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, which would become the Kingdom of Italy in 1861.
|Reign / Rule||From||To||Coins Issued|
|Luigi XII (Duke Louis XII), King of France||6 September 1499||16 June 1512|
|Francesco I (Duke Francis I), King of France||11 October 1515||19 November 1521|
|Filippo II (Duke Philip II), King of Spain||11 October 1540||13 September 1598|
|Filippo III (Duke Philip III), King of Spain||13 September 1598||31 March 1621|
|Filippo IV (Duke Philip IV), King of Spain||31 March 1621||17 September 1665|
|Carlo II (Duke Charles II), King of Spain||17 September 1665||1 November 1700|
|Filippo V (Duke Philip V), King of Spain||16 November 1700||24 September 1706|
|Carlo VI (Duke Charles VI), Holy Roman Emperor||12 January 1707||20 October 1740|
|Maria Teresa (Duchess Maria Theresa), Archduchess of Austria||20 October 1740||29 November 1780|
|Giuseppe (Duke Joseph), Holy Roman Emperor as Joseph II||29 November 1780||20 February 1790|
|Leopoldo (Duke Leopold), Holy Roman Emperor as Leopold II||20 February 1790||1 March 1792|
|Francesco II (Duke Francis II), Holy Roman Emperor||1 March 1792||15 May 1796|