Albert I of Habsburg (German: Albrecht I.), the eldest son of King Rudolf I of Germany and his first wife Gertrude of Hohenburg, was a Duke of Austria and Styria from 1282 and King of Germany from 1298 until his assassination.
From 1273 Albert ruled as a landgrave over his father's Swabian (Further Austrian) possessions in Alsace. In 1282 his father, the first German monarch from the House of Habsburg, invested him and his younger brother Rudolf II with the duchies of Austria and Styria, which he had seized from late King Ottokar II of Bohemia and defended in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld. By the 1283 Treaty of Rheinfelden his father entrusted Albert with their sole government, while Rudolf II ought to be compensated by the Further Austrian Habsburg home territories - which, however, never happened until his death in 1290. Albert and his Swabian ministeriales appear to have ruled the Austrian and Styrian duchies with conspicuous success, overcoming the resistance by local nobles.
Albert had failed in his attempt to seize the counties of Holland and Zeeland, as vacant fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire, on the death of Count John I in 1299, but in 1306 he secured the crown of Bohemia for his son Rudolph III on the death of King Wenceslaus III. He also renewed the claim made by his predecessor, Adolf, on Thuringia, and interfered in a quarrel over the succession to the Hungarian throne. The Thuringian attack ended in Albert's defeat at the Battle of Lucka in 1307 and, in the same year, the death of his son Rudolph weakened his position in eastern Europe. His action in abolishing all tolls established on the Rhine since 1250, led the Rhenish prince-archbishops and the Elector of the Palatinate to form a league against him. Aided by the Imperial cities, however, he soon crushed the rising.
He was on the way to suppress a revolt in Swabia when he was murdered on 1 May 1308, at Windisch on the Reuss River, by his nephew Duke John, afterwards called "the Parricide" or "John Parricida", whom he had deprived of his inheritance.
Albert's royal style was:
|Reigned as||In Country||From||To||Coins Issued|
|Duke Albert I and Duke Rudolf II, joint rule||Austria, Duchy and Archduchy||27 December 1282||1 June 1283|
|Herzog Albrecht I. (Duke Albert I), first sole reign||Austria, Duchy and Archduchy||1 June 1283||21 November 1298|
|Duke Albert I and Duke Rudolf III (King of Bohemia as Rudolf I), joint rule||Austria, Duchy and Archduchy||21 November 1298||4 July 1307|
|Herzog Albrecht I. (Duke Albert I), second sole reign||Austria, Duchy and Archduchy||4 July 1307||1 May 1308|