Almarhum Sultan Iskandar Ibni Almarhum Sultan Ismail Al-Khalidi was the 24th Sultan of Johor and the 4th Sultan of modern Johor. He succeeded his father, Sultan Ismail, upon the former's death on 10 May 1981, and was the eighth Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Malay for Supreme King or High King) of Malaysia, from 26 April 1984 to 25 April 1989. Sultan Iskandar's reign lasted for almost 29 years until his death in January 2010, upon which he was succeeded by his oldest son, Sultan Ibrahim. His children are married into the different royal houses of Malaysia.
As was the case with his grandfather, Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan Iskandar's independent mindset resulted in strained relations with the Malaysian federal government on numerous occasions. This was more so during his days as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, whereby a number of notable public incidents involved Sultan Iskandar. Nevertheless, Sultan Iskandar was reputed to show great concern to his subjects, and was held in high esteem by many of his subjects - particularly the Malays and Orang Aslis.
During his younger days as a prince, Iskandar was commonly known by his first name, "Mahmud" or his full name "Mahmud Iskandar". He largely discontinued the use of his first name after he became Sultan in 1981, although some people still referred to him by his full name on an occasional basis.