Mughal Empire / Emperor Shah Alam II, first reign

Mughal Empire - Emperor Shah Alam II, first reign (10 October 1760 - 31 July 1788)

Ali Gohar, historically known as Shah Alam II, was the sixteenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II. Shah Alam II became the emperor of a crumbling Mughal empire. His power was so depleted during his reign that it led to a saying in the Persian language, Sultanat-e-Shah Alam, Az Dilli ta Palam, meaning, "The empire of Shah Alam is from Delhi to Palam", Palam being a suburb of Delhi.

Shah Alam faced many invasions, mainly by the Emir of Afghanistan, Ahmed Shah Abdali, which led to the Third Battle of Panipat between the Maratha Empire, who maintained suzerainty over Mughal affairs in Delhi and the Afghans led by Abdali. In 1760, the invading forces of Abdali were driven away by the Marathas, led by Sadashivrao Bhau, who deposed Shah Jahan III, the puppet Mughal emperor of Feroze Jung III, and installed Shah Alam II as the rightful emperor under the Maratha suzerainty.

Shah Alam II was considered the only and rightful emperor, but he wasn't able to return to Delhi until 1772, under the protection of the Maratha general Mahadaji Shinde. He also fought against the British East India Company at the Battle of Buxar.

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Emperor Shah Alam II, first reign: Details
CountryMughal Empire
From10 October 1760
To31 July 1788
Personal Information Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II
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Country Details
NameMughal Empire
From1526
To1857
WikiSee Wikipedia page
FlagFlag of Mughal Empire