Adolphe (Adolf Wilhelm August Karl Friedrich) was the last sovereign Duke of Nassau, reigning from 20 August 1839 until the duchy's annexation to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1866. In 1890, He became Grand Duke of Luxembourg following the death of King William III of the Netherlands, ending the personal union between the Netherlands and Luxembourg, until his own death in 1905. He was the first monarch of Luxembourg from the House of Nassau-Weilburg.
Adolphe became Duke of Nassau in August 1839, following the death of his father William. After Austria's defeat in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the duchy of Nassau was annexed to the Kingdom of Prussia and he lost his throne.
From 1815 to 1839, the grand duchy of Luxembourg was ruled by the kings of the Netherlands as a province of the Netherlands. Following the 1839 Treaty of London, Luxembourg became independent but remained in personal union with the Netherlands. Following the death of his sons, King William III, had no male heirs to succeed him. In the Netherlands, females were allowed to succeed to the throne in 1887. Luxembourg, however, followed salic law which barred females from succession. Thus, upon William's death, the crown of the Netherlands passed to his only daughter Wilhelmina while that of Luxembourg passed to Adolphe, in accordance with the Nassau Family Pact.
Adolphe died in 1905 and was succeeded as Grand Duke by his son, William IV.