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Information about Holy Roman Empire.

Country: Holy Roman Empire
From year800
Existed to1806

The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.

On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar, in 924. The title was revived in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries. Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars generally concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role.

The precise term "Holy Roman Empire" was not used until the 13th century, but the concept of translatio imperii, the notion that he held supreme power inherited from the emperors of Rome, was fundamental to the prestige of the emperor. The office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although frequently controlled by dynasties. The German prince-electors, the highest-ranking noblemen of the empire, usually elected one of their peers as "King of the Romans", and he would later be crowned emperor by the Pope; the tradition of papal coronations was discontinued in the 16th century. The empire never achieved the extent of political unification formed in France, evolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units, principalities, duchies, counties, Free Imperial Cities, and other domains.

The power of the emperor was limited, and while the various princes, lords, bishops and cities of the empire were vassals who owed the emperor their allegiance, they also possessed an extent of privileges that gave them de facto independence within their territories. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806, after the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by Napoleon.

Tuscany, March of 8461115
Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire) 8551806
Germany, Kingdom of (Holy Roman Empire) 9191806
Florence, Duchy of 15321569
Tuscany 15691859
Brunswick-L√ľneburg (Electorate of Hanover) 16921807
Monarch reigns
King Charlemagne of the Franks 25 December 800 28 January 814
King Louis the Pious of the Franks 11 September 813 20 June 840
King Lothair I of Francia 817 29 September 855
King Louis II of Italy 844 12 August 875
King Charles II the Bald of the Franks 29 December 875 6 October 877
King Charles III the Fat of the Franks 12 February 881 13 January 888
King Arnulf of Carinthia (disputed) 22 February 896 8 December 899
King Otto I of Germany 2 February 962 7 May 973