Maundy Fourpence (Pre-decimal), Coin Type from United Kingdom - detailed information

Maundy Fourpence (Pre-decimal), Coin Type from United Kingdom (issued 1817 - 1970)
Coin TypeMaundy Fourpence (Pre-decimal)

The Maundy fourpence (or four pence) coin is the highest denomination of Maundy money - coins specially minted in varying (but always small) mintage for ceremonial purposes and not intended as circulating currency. They are usually handed by the British monarch in person to selected deserving individuals once every year. They are issued in "prooflike" condition and usually remain in it, especially the more recent ones. Each recipient receives two purses: a red one with ordinary coins, and a white purse containing a particular amount (which varies every year) made up of one, two, three and four pence Maundy coins. Since the amounts are not always divisible by ten, the number (and mintage) of the respective denominations differ; in other words, they cannot always all be cleanly combined into a number of full sets. Note also that the coins are initially in purses; the sets that appear on the market are made from these later, and are not issued as sets by the Royal Mint.

The Royal Maundy is an ancient ceremony which has its origin in the commandment Christ gave after washing the feet of his disciples on the day before Good Friday. The commandment (also known as a "mandatum" from which the word Maundy is derived) "that ye love one another" (John XIII 34) is still recalled regularly by Christian churches throughout the world. The ceremony of washing the feet of the poor which was accompanied by gifts of food and clothing can be traced back to the fourth century.

Maundy money has remained in much the same form since 1670, and the coins used for the Maundy ceremony have traditionally been struck in sterling silver, save for the brief interruptions of King Henry VIII’s debasement of the coinage and the general change to 50% silver coins in 1920. The sterling silver standard (92.5%) was resumed following the Coinage Act of 1946. The current reverse was designed by Jean Baptiste Merlen in 1822 and has been issued every year since then with only minor modifications.

As there is no record of any denomination higher than one penny (then struck for circulation in silver) being used in the Maundy gift before 1731, sets from before then are most likely ordinary circulation strikes. At that time, coins used for the Maundy money distribution were indistinguishable from those struck for circulation. It was not until 1752 that coins not struck for circulation were used for the Maundy distribution. In a time when little silver was being struck by the Royal Mint, the coins distributed might bear a previous year's date.

To evade statutory prohibitions on the striking of silver coin during the Napoleonic Wars, all Maundy pieces issued from 1800 to 1815 bear the date 1800, though most were struck later. When the date was finally changed in 1816, after the prohibition ended, the size of the coins was slightly reduced, as the Royal Mint implemented a change from striking 62 shillings of silver coin from one troy pound of sterling silver to 66 shillings.The last year in which no Maundy coins were struck was 1821.

In 1689, the Royal Mint began using a design for the reverse of the four low-denomination silver coins depicting a crowned numeral. The designer is unknown (Richard Lobel, in his catalogue of British coins, suggests the artist was George Bower, an employee of the Royal Mint whose medals bear similar characteristics), but his work has endured, in a revised form, for over three hundred years. In 1822 an amended reverse was introduced, and has been struck every year since then in all four denominations.

The 1822 reverse design, which places the crowned numeral within an oak wreath was done by Jean Baptiste Merlen. This design is still struck each year, though the crown was altered in 1888, as was the appearance of the numeral "2" on the twopence. These changes were made by Royal Mint engraver Leonard Charles Wyon. A proposal by the Royal Mint in 1950 to return to the pre-1888 "2" as more artistic was refused by King George VI, who felt the current numeral was stylistically similar to the numerals on the other coins, and the pre-1888 "2" was not.

The original composition of the coins was sterling (0.925) silver. In common with all British silver coins, the fineness was reduced to 0.500 in 1921. In 1947 silver was removed from all circulating British coinage in favour of cupronickel, but as it was felt to be inappropriate to strike Maundy coins in base metal, their fineness was restored to 0.925.

On Decimal Day 15 February 1971, the pound sterling became decimalised, with 100 new pence instead of 20 shillings of 12 pence (240 pence) in a pound. No change was made to the design of the Maundy pieces, and all Maundy pieces, both pre- and post-Decimal Day are deemed denominated in new pence, more than doubling the face value of the pre-1971 pieces. The series continues as a decimal fourpence.

Obverse
United Kingdom / Maundy Fourpence (Pre-decimal) - obverse photo

Effigy of the ruling British monarch, legend (in Latin).

Obverse Inscription Legend of the ruling British monarch
Reverse
United Kingdom / Maundy Fourpence (Pre-decimal) - reverse photo

Within an open oak wreath, the numeral value 4 [pence].

Above the value, St Edward's Crown. Named after Saint Edward the Confessor, it has been traditionally used to crown English and British monarchs at their coronations since the 13th century (with a two-century gap between 1689 and 1911).

Divided by the value, the date of issue: [year].

Reverse Inscription 4 [year]
EdgePlainEdge InscriptionNone
Coin Type: Maundy Fourpence (Pre-decimal) - (152) Coins (Page 1 of 2)
Coin NameMintageEffigyLegend
Fourpence 1817 (Maundy) 1,386 King George III - Small Head GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA 1817
Fourpence 1818 (Maundy) 1,188 King George III - Small Head GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA 1818
Fourpence 1820 (Maundy) 990 King George III - Small Head GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA 1820
Fourpence 1822 (Maundy) 2,970 King George IV - Laureate Head GEORGIUS IIII D. G. BRITANNIAR. REX F. D.
Fourpence 1823 (Maundy) 1,980 King George IV - Laureate Head GEORGIUS IIII D. G. BRITANNIAR. REX F. D.
Fourpence 1824 (Maundy) 1,584 King George IV - Laureate Head GEORGIUS IIII D. G. BRITANNIAR. REX F. D.
Fourpence 1825 (Maundy) 2,376 King George IV - Laureate Head GEORGIUS IIII D. G. BRITANNIAR. REX F. D.
Fourpence 1826 (Maundy) 2,376 King George IV - Laureate Head GEORGIUS IIII D. G. BRITANNIAR. REX F. D.
Fourpence 1827 (Maundy) 2,772 King George IV - Laureate Head GEORGIUS IIII D. G. BRITANNIAR. REX F. D.
Fourpence 1828 (Maundy) 2,772 King George IV - Laureate Head GEORGIUS IIII D. G. BRITANNIAR. REX F. D.
Fourpence 1829 (Maundy) 2,772 King George IV - Laureate Head GEORGIUS IIII D. G. BRITANNIAR. REX F. D.
Fourpence 1830 (Maundy) 2,772 King George IV - Laureate Head GEORGIUS IIII D. G. BRITANNIAR. REX F. D.
Fourpence 1831 (Maundy) 3,564 King William IV - Bare Head GULIELMUS IIII D: G: BRITANNIAR: REX F: D:
Fourpence 1832 (Maundy) 2,574 King William IV - Bare Head GULIELMUS IIII D: G: BRITANNIAR: REX F: D:
Fourpence 1833 (Maundy) 2,574 King William IV - Bare Head GULIELMUS IIII D: G: BRITANNIAR: REX F: D:
Fourpence 1834 (Maundy) 2,574 King William IV - Bare Head GULIELMUS IIII D: G: BRITANNIAR: REX F: D:
Fourpence 1835 (Maundy) 2,574 King William IV - Bare Head GULIELMUS IIII D: G: BRITANNIAR: REX F: D:
Fourpence 1836 (Maundy) 2,574 King William IV - Bare Head GULIELMUS IIII D: G: BRITANNIAR: REX F: D:
Fourpence 1837 (Maundy) 2,574 King William IV - Bare Head GULIELMUS IIII D: G: BRITANNIAR: REX F: D:
Fourpence 1838 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1839 (Maundy) 4,125 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1840 (Maundy) 4,125 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1841 (Maundy) 2,574 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1842 (Maundy) 4,125 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1843 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1844 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1845 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1846 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1847 (Maundy) 4,488 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1848 (Maundy) 4,488 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1849 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1850 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1851 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1852 (Maundy) 4,488 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1853 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1854 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1855 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1856 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1857 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1858 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1859 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1860 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1861 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1862 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1863 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1864 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1865 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1866 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1867 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1868 (Maundy) 4,158 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1869 (Maundy) 4,488 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1870 (Maundy) 4,569 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1871 (Maundy) 4,627 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1872 (Maundy) 4,119 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1873 (Maundy) 4,162 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1874 (Maundy) 5,578 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1875 (Maundy) 4,154 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1876 (Maundy) 4,862 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1877 (Maundy) 4,850 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1878 (Maundy) 5,735 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1879 (Maundy) 5,202 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1880 (Maundy) 5,199 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1881 (Maundy) 6,001 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1882 (Maundy) 4,146 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1883 (Maundy) 5,096 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1884 (Maundy) 3,353 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1885 (Maundy) 5,791 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1886 (Maundy) 6,785 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1887 (Maundy) 1,888 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1888 (Maundy) 9,528 Queen Victoria - Jubilee Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1889 (Maundy) 6,088 Queen Victoria - Jubilee Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1890 (Maundy) 8,613 Queen Victoria - Jubilee Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1891 (Maundy) 10,000 Queen Victoria - Jubilee Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1892 (Maundy) 8,524 Queen Victoria - Jubilee Head VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D:
Fourpence 1893 (Maundy) 10,832 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Fourpence 1894 (Maundy) 9,385 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Fourpence 1895 (Maundy) 8,877 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Fourpence 1896 (Maundy) 8,476 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Fourpence 1897 (Maundy) 9,388 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Fourpence 1898 (Maundy) 9,147 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Fourpence 1899 (Maundy) 13,561 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Fourpence 1900 (Maundy) 9,571 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Fourpence 1901 (Maundy) 11,928 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Fourpence 1902 (Maundy) 10,117 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII D: G: BRITT: OMN: REX F: D: IND: IMP:
Fourpence 1903 (Maundy) 9,729 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII D: G: BRITT: OMN: REX F: D: IND: IMP:
Fourpence 1904 (Maundy) 11,568 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII D: G: BRITT: OMN: REX F: D: IND: IMP:
Fourpence 1905 (Maundy) 10,998 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII D: G: BRITT: OMN: REX F: D: IND: IMP:
Fourpence 1906 (Maundy) 11,065 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII D: G: BRITT: OMN: REX F: D: IND: IMP:
Fourpence 1907 (Maundy) 11,132 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII D: G: BRITT: OMN: REX F: D: IND: IMP:
Fourpence 1908 (Maundy) 9,929 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII D: G: BRITT: OMN: REX F: D: IND: IMP:
Fourpence 1909 (Maundy) 2,428 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII D: G: BRITT: OMN: REX F: D: IND: IMP:
Fourpence 1910 (Maundy) 2,755 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII D: G: BRITT: OMN: REX F: D: IND: IMP:
Fourpence 1911 (Maundy) 1,635 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP:
Fourpence 1912 (Maundy) 1,616 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP:
Fourpence 1913 (Maundy) 1,590 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP:
Fourpence 1914 (Maundy) 1,651 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP:
Fourpence 1915 (Maundy) 1,441 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP:
Fourpence 1916 (Maundy) 1,499 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP:
Fourpence 1917 (Maundy) 1,478 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP:
Fourpence 1918 (Maundy) 1,479 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP:
Showing 1 to 100 of 152 Coins.
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Royal Mint
Royal Mint
Maundy Fourpence (Pre-decimal): Details
CountryUnited Kingdom
CurrencyPound Sterling (pre-decimal)
From1817
To1970
Face Value4 (x Penny)
CurrentYes
Material0.925 Silver
DesignerJean Baptiste Merlen
TechnologyMilled (machine-made)
ShapeRound
OrientationCoin Alignment (Axis 6)
Size18.000 mm
Mass1.890 g
Maundy Fourpence (Pre-decimal): Photos
ImageDetails
Coin - Groat, George III, Great Britain, 1818
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: George III reverse (1817 - 1820).
Source
Coin - Groat, George IV, Great Britain, 1829
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Source
Coin - Groat (Maundy), Elizabeth II, Great Britain, 1957
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Source
Coin - Groat, George III, Great Britain, 1818
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: King George III (1817 - 1820).
Source
Coin - Groat, George IV, Great Britain, 1829
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: King George IV (1822 - 1830).
Source
Coin - Groat (Maundy), William IV, Great Britain, 1831
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Source
Coin - Groat (Maundy), Queen Victoria, Great Britain, 1882
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Source
Coin - Groat (Maundy), Queen Victoria, Great Britain, 1892
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Source
Great Britain 1893 4 pence
Copyright: CoinFactsWiki / CC BY-SA
Author:
Notes: Queen Victoria, old head (1893 - 1901).
Source
Great Britain 4 Pence 1902
Copyright: numis-kimel
Notes: King Edward VII (1902 - 1910).
Source
Coin - Groat (Maundy), George V, Great Britain, 1932
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: King George V (1911 - 1936).
Source
Great Britain 1953 4 pence
Copyright: CoinFactsWiki / CC BY-SA
Author:
Notes: Elizabeth II, Queen of all the Britains (1953).
Source
Coin - Groat (Maundy), Elizabeth II, Great Britain, 1957
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Queen Elizabeth II (1954 - 1970).
Source