The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000-1946 with the exception of 1918-1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation of the first king Stephen I at Esztergom in about the year 1000; his family (the Árpád dynasty) led the monarchy for 300 years. By the 12th century, the kingdom became a European middle power within the Western world.
Due to the Ottoman occupation of the central and southern territories of Hungary in the 16th century, the country was partitioned into three parts: the Habsburg Royal Hungary, Ottoman Hungary and the semi-independent Principality of Transylvania. The House of Habsburg held the Hungarian throne after the Battle of Mohács until 1918 and also played a key role in the liberation wars against the Ottoman Empire.
From 1867 territories connected to the Hungarian crown were incorporated into Austria-Hungary under the name of Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen. The monarchy ended with the deposition of the last king Charles IV in 1918, after which Hungary became a republic. The kingdom was nominally restored during the "Regency" of 1920-46, ending with the Soviet occupation in 1946.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a multiethnic state from its inception until the Treaty of Trianon and it covered what is today Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Transylvania and other parts of what is now Romania, Carpathian Ruthenia (now part of Ukraine), Vojvodina (now part of Serbia), Burgenland (now part of Austria), and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders. From 1102 it also included Croatia, being in personal union with it, united under the King of Hungary.
Today, the feast day of the first king Stephen I (20 August) is a national holiday in Hungary, commemorating the foundation of the state (Foundation Day).
|Reign / Rule||From||To||Coins Issued|
|Albert (King Albert), Duke of Lower Austria as Albert V||18 December 1437||27 October 1439|
|V. László (King Ladislaus V the Posthumous)||15 May 1440||23 November 1457|
|Hunyadi Mátyás (King Matthias Corvinus)||24 January 1458||6 April 1490|
|I. Ferdinánd (King Ferdinand I), Holy Roman Emperor||17 December 1526||25 July 1564|
|II. János - Szapolyai János Zsigmond István (King John II Sigismund Zápolya) first reign, contested||13 September 1540||19 July 1551|
|II. János - Szapolyai János Zsigmond István (King John II Sigismund Zápolya) second reign, contested||22 October 1556||16 August 1570|
|Miksa (King Maximilian), Holy Roman Emperor as Maximilian II||8 September 1563||12 October 1576|
|King Rudolf, Holy Roman Emperor as Rudolf II||25 September 1572||25 June 1608|
|II. Mátyás (King Matthias II), Holy Roman Emperor as Matthias||25 June 1608||1 July 1618|
|II. Ferdinánd (King Ferdinand II), Holy Roman Emperor||1 July 1618||15 February 1637|
|Bethlen Gábor (Prince Gabriel Bethlen of Transylvania), contested||25 August 1620||31 December 1621|
|III. Ferdinánd (King Ferdinand III), Holy Roman Emperor||8 December 1625||2 April 1657|
|I. Lipót (King Leopold I), Holy Roman Emperor||2 April 1657||5 May 1705|
|I. József (King Joseph I), Holy Roman Emperor||9 December 1687||17 April 1711|
|III. Károly (King Charles III), Holy Roman Emperor||17 April 1711||20 October 1740|
|Mária Terézia (Queen Maria Theresa), Archduchess of Austria||20 October 1740||29 November 1780|
|II. József (King Joseph II), Holy Roman Emperor||29 November 1780||20 February 1790|
|II. Lipót (King Leopold II), Holy Roman Emperor||20 February 1790||1 March 1792|
|I. Ferenc (King Francis I), Holy Roman Emperor as Francis II||1 March 1792||2 March 1835|
|V. Ferdinánd (King Ferdinand V)||2 March 1835||2 December 1848|
|I. Ferenc József (King Francis Joseph I)||2 December 1848||21 November 1916|
|IV. Károly (King Charles IV)||21 November 1916||11 November 1918|