Information about Sultan Muhammed XII of Granada

Sultan Muhammed XII of Granada (1460 - 1533)

Abu `Abdallah Muhammed XII (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد الثاني عشر‎‎ Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad al-thānī ‘ashar), known to the Castilians as Boabdil (a Spanish rendering of the name Abu Abdullah), was the twenty-second and last Nasrid ruler of Granada in Iberia.

Son of Abu l-Hasan Ali, sultan of the Emirate of Granada, Muhammad succeeded him in 1482.

Muhammad XII soon sought to gain prestige by invading Castile. He was taken prisoner at Lucena in 1483. Meanwhile, his father returned to power and then in 1485, his uncle Muhammed XIII, also known as Abdullah ez Zagal.

He only obtained his freedom and support to recover his throne in 1487 by consenting to hold Granada as a tributary kingdom under the Catholic monarchs and not to intervene in the Siege of Málaga (1487), in which Málaga was taken by the Christians.

In 1491, Muhammad XII was summoned by Ferdinand and Isabella to surrender the city of Granada, which was besieged by the Castilians. Eventually, on 2 January 1492, Granada was surrendered.

Shortly after his surrender, Muhammad Boabdil sent a long letter to the Marinid rulers of Morocco asking for refuge. 17th-century Historian Al-Maqqari wrote that Muhammad XII crossed the Mediterranean to Melilla then went to Fes where he built a palace. He stayed there until his death in 1533/1534 (in 940 A.H.). He was buried near the Musala (place of the special prayer during the Islamic festivals) located outside of "Bab Sheria" in Fes. Muhammad XII was survived by two sons; Yusef and Ahmed.

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