Victor Amadeus III (Vittorio Amadeo Maria) was King of Sardinia from 1773 to his death. Although he was politically conservative, he carried out numerous administrative reforms until he declared war on Revolutionary France in 1792. He was the father of the last three mainline Kings of Sardinia.
Born at the Royal Palace of Turin, he was a son of Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia and his second wife Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg. He was styled the Duke of Savoy from birth until he succeeded to his father's throne.
At the outbreak of the French Revolution, Victor Amadeus III allowed his two sons-in-law, the Counts of Artois, Provence and the Princesses Marie Adélaïde and Victoire to stay in his kingdom under his protection. After four years of fighting, the French under Bonaparte had finally beaten the Piedmontese army. On April 26 the French proclaimed the Republic of Alba on the occupied territories. Two days later, with the Armistice of Cherasco, the Republic was ceded back to Victor Amadeus. He was forced to sign the Treaty of Paris on May 15 abandoning the First Coalition against the French Republic. The terms of the treaty required him to cede the fortresses of Cuneo, Ceva, Alessandria and Tortona to France, and allow free passage of the latter's armies towards Italy. He was also compelled to cede Nice and Savoy.
He died on 16 October, 1796 at the Castle of Moncalieri having suffered an attack of apoplexy. Victor Amadeus died leaving an economically damaged kingdom and two key provinces - Savoy and Nice - devastated having suffered at the hands of French revolutionary forces. He was buried at the Basilica of Superga in Turin.