The Kingdom of Sardinia was a state in Southern Europe which existed from the early 14th until the mid-19th century. It was the predecessor state of today's Italy.
When it was acquired by the Duke of Savoy in 1720, it was a small state with weak institutions. However, the Savoyards united it with their possessions on the Italian mainland and, by the time of the Crimean War in 1853, had built the resulting kingdom into a strong power. The country was sometimes called Savoy-Sardinia in this period and often called Piedmont-Sardinia or just Piedmont by modern French historians. Its final capital was Turin, the capital of Savoy since the Middle Ages.
The kingdom initially consisted of the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, sovereignty over both of which was claimed by the Papacy, which granted them as a fief, the regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae ("kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica"), to King James II of Aragon in 1297. Beginning in 1324, James and his successors conquered the island of Sardinia and established de facto their de jure authority. In 1420 the last competing claim to the island was bought out. After the union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile, Sardinia became a part of the burgeoning Spanish Empire. In 1720 it was ceded by the Habsburg and Bourbon claimants to the Spanish throne to Duke Victor Amadeus II of Savoy. The kingdom of Sardinia came to be progressively identified with the entire domain ruled by the House of Savoy, which included, besides Savoy and Aosta, dynastic possessions since the 11th century, the Principality of Piedmont (a possession built up in the 13th century), and the County of Nice (a possession since 1388). While in theory the traditional capital of the island of Sardinia and seat of its viceroys was Cagliari, the Piedmontese city of Turin was the de facto capital of Savoy.
When the mainland domains of the House of Savoy were occupied and eventually annexed by Napoleonic France, the king of Sardinia made his permanent residence on the island for the first time in its history. The Congress of Vienna (1814–15), which restructured Europe after Napoleon's defeat, returned to Savoy its mainland possessions and augmented them with Liguria, taken from the Republic of Genoa. In 1847–48, in a "perfect fusion", the various Savoyard states were unified under one legal system, with the capital in Turin, and granted a constitution, the Statuto Albertino. There followed the annexation of Lombardy (1859), the central Italian states and the Two Sicilies (1860), Venetia (1866), and the Papal States (1870). On 17 March 1861, to more accurately reflect its new geographic extent, the Kingdom of Sardinia changed its name to the Kingdom of Italy, and its capital was eventually moved first to Florence and then to Rome.
|Reign / Rule||From||To||Coins Issued|
|Giacomo II (King James II), King of Aragon||1323||2 November 1327|
|Alfonso IV (King Alfonso IV), King of Aragon||2 November 1327||24 January 1336|
|Pietro IV (King Peter IV), King of Aragon||24 January 1336||6 January 1387|
|Giovanni I (King John I), King of Aragon||6 January 1387||19 May 1396|
|King Martin I, King of Aragon||19 May 1396||31 May 1410|
|Ferdinando I (King Ferdinand I), King of Aragon||3 September 1412||2 April 1416|
|King Alfonso V, King of Aragon||2 April 1416||27 June 1458|
|Giovanni II (King John II), King of Aragon||27 June 1458||20 January 1479|
|Ferdinando II (King Ferdinand II), King of Aragon||20 January 1479||23 January 1516|
|Queen Joanna and King Charles I of Spain, Holy Roman Emperor||23 January 1516||12 April 1555|
|Carlo I (King Charles I), King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor||12 April 1555||16 January 1556|
|Filippo II (King Philip II), King of Spain||16 January 1556||13 September 1598|
|Filippo III (King Phillip III), King of Spain||13 September 1598||31 March 1621|
|Filippo IV (King Philip IV), King of Spain||31 March 1621||17 September 1665|
|Carlo II (King Charles II), King of Spain||17 September 1665||1 November 1700|
|Filippo V (King Philip V), King of Spain||1 November 1700||7 March 1714|
|Carlo III (King Charles III), Archduke of Austria and Holy Roman Emperor as Charles VI||7 March 1714||17 February 1720|
|Vittorio Amedeo II (King Victor Amadeus II)||17 February 1720||3 September 1730|
|Carlo Emanuele III (King Charles Emmanuel III)||3 September 1730||20 February 1773|
|Vittorio Amadeo III (King Victor Amadeus III)||20 February 1773||16 October 1796|
|Carlo Emanuele IV (King Charles Emmanuel IV)||16 October 1796||4 June 1802|
|Vittorio Emanuele I (King Victor Emmanuel I)||4 June 1802||12 March 1821|
|Carlo Felice (King Charles Felix)||12 March 1821||27 April 1831|
|Carlo Alberto I (King Charles Albert)||27 April 1831||23 March 1849|
|Vittorio Emanuele II (King Victor Emmanuel II)||23 March 1849||17 March 1861|