Ayutthaya: Information

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Ayutthaya (1351 - 1767)

The Kingdom of Ayutthaya (Thai: อยุธยา; also spelled Ayudhya or Ayodhaya) was a Siamese kingdom that existed from 1351 to 1767. Ayutthaya was friendly towards foreign traders, including the Chinese, Vietnamese, Indians, Japanese and Persians, and later the Portuguese, Spaniards, Dutch and French, permitting them to set up villages outside the walls of the capital, also called Ayutthaya.

In the sixteenth century, it was described by foreign traders as one of the biggest and wealthiest cities in the East. The court of King Narai (1656–88) had strong links with that of King Louis XIV of France, whose ambassadors compared the city in size and wealth to Paris.

By 1550, the kingdom's vassals included some city-states in the Malay Peninsula, Sukhothai, Lan Na and parts of Burma and Cambodia. This part of the Kingdom's history is sometimes referred to as "The Ayutthayan Empire".

In foreign accounts, Ayutthaya was called Siam, but many sources say the people of Ayutthaya called themselves Tai, and their kingdom Krung Tai "The Tai country" (กรุงไท).

In 1765, a combined 40,000-strong force of Burmese armies invaded the territories of Ayutthaya from the north and west. Major outlying towns quickly capitulated. The only notable example of successful resistance to these forces was found at the village of Bang Rajan. After a 14 months' siege, the city of Ayutthaya capitulated and was burned in April 1767. Ayutthaya's art treasures, the libraries containing its literature, and the archives housing its historic records were almost totally destroyed, and the Burmese brought the Ayutthaya Kingdom to ruin.

The Burmese rule lasted a mere few months. The Burmese, who had also been fighting a simultaneous war with the Chinese since 1765, were forced to withdraw in early 1768 when the Chinese forces threatened their own capital.

With most Burmese forces having withdrawn, the country was reduced to chaos. All that remained of the old capital were some ruins of the royal palace. Provinces proclaimed independence under generals, rogue monks, and members of the royal family.

One general, Phraya Taksin, former governor of Tak, began the reunification effort. He gathered forces and began striking back at the Burmese. He finally established a capital at Thonburi, across the Chao Phraya from the present capital, Bangkok. Taak-Sin ascended the throne, becoming known as King Taak-Sin or Taksin of modern Thailand.

Ayutthaya: List of Rulers.
Reign / RuleFromToCoins Issued
รามาธิบดีที่ 1 (King Ramathibodi I) 1350 1369
สมเด็จพระราเมศวร (King Ramesuan), first reign 1369 1370
สมเด็จพระบรมราชาธิราชที่ 1 (King Borommarachathirat I) 1370 1388
ทองลัน (King Thong Lan) 1388 1388
สมเด็จพระราเมศวร (King Ramesuan), second reign 1388 1395
รามราชาธิราช (King Ramrachathirat) 1395 1409
อินทราชา (King Intharacha) 1409 1424
สมเด็จพระบรมราชาธิราชที่ 2 (King Borommarachathirat II) 1424 1448
บรมไตรโลกนาถ (King Borommatrailokkanat) 1448 1488
สมเด็จพระบรมราชาธิราชที่ 3 (King Borommarachathirat III) 1488 1491
รามาธิบดีที่ 2 (King Ramathibodi II) 1491 1529
สมเด็จพระบรมราชาธิราชที่ 4 (King Borommarachathirat IV) 1529 1533
รัษฎาธิราช (King Ratsadathirat) 1533 1534
ไชยราชาธิราช (King Chairachathirat) 1534 1546
ยอดฟ้า (King Yotfa) 1546 10 June 1548
มหาจักรพรรดิ (King Maha Chakkraphat), first reign 11 November 1548 1564
วรวงศาธิราช (King Worawongsathirat) 1548 11 November 1548
มหินทราธิราช (King Mahinthrathirat), first reign 1564 1568
มหาจักรพรรดิ (King Maha Chakkraphat), second reign 1568 1569
มหินทราธิราช (King Mahinthrathirat), second reign 1569 1569
มหาธรรมราชาธิราช (King Mahathammarachathirat) 1569 1590
นเรศวร (King Naresuan) 29 July 1590 25 April 1605
เอกาทศรถ (King Ekathotsarot) 25 April 1605 1620
ศรีเสาวภาคย์ (King Si Saowaphak) 1620 1620
ทรงธรรม (King Songtham) 1620 1628
เชษฐาธิราช (King Chetthathirat) 1628 1629
อาทิตยวงศ (King Athittayawong) 1629 1629
ปราสาททอง (King Prasatthong) 1629 1656
ศรีสุธรรมราชา (King Si Suthammaracha) August 1656 26 October 1656
นารายณ (King Narai) 26 October 1656 11 July 1688
ไชย (King Chai) 1656 1656
เพทราชา (King Phetracha) 11 July 1688 February 1703
สุริเยนทราธิบดี (King Suriyenthrathibodi) 1703 1709
ท้ายสระี (King Thai Sa) 1709 1732
บรมโกศ (King Borommakot) 1733 1758
อุทุมพร (King Uthumphon) 1758 1758
เอกทัศ (King Ekkathat) 1758 7 April 1767
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Ayutthaya: Details
Official NameKingdom of Ayutthaya
Original Nameอยุธยา
FlagFlag of Ayutthaya
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