The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство or, in Hellenized form, Российское царство), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from Ivan IV's assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 until Peter the Great's foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721.
From 1550 to 1700, Russia grew 35,000 km2 (about the size of the Netherlands) a year. The period includes the upheavals of the transition from the Rurik to the Romanov dynasties, drawn-out military conflict with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as well as the Russian conquest of Siberia, leading up to the 42-year reign of Peter the Great, who ascended in 1682 and transformed the Tsardom into a major European power. After a military victory over Sweden and Poland, he implemented substantial reforms and proclaimed the Russian Empire (Russian: Российская Империя) in 1721, making it a recognized power in Europe.
|Reign / Rule||From||To||Coins Issued|
|Царь Иван IV Грозный (Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible)||16 January 1547||28 March 1584|
|Царь Фёдор I Иванович (Tsar Fyodor I)||28 March 1584||17 January 1598|
|Царь Борис Годунов (Tsar Boris Godunov)||21 February 1598||23 April 1605|
|Царь Фёдор II Годунов (Tsar Fyodor II)||23 April 1605||10 June 1605|
|Царь Димитрий I (Лжедмитрий; Tsar Dmitry I)||10 June 1605||17 May 1606|
|Царь Василий IV Иванович Шуйский (Tsar Vasili IV)||19 May 1606||19 July 1610|
|Царь Владислав I (Tsar Vladislav I), King of Poland as Władysław IV||19 July 1610||21 February 1613|
|Царь Михаил Фёдорович (Tsar Michael I)||21 February 1613||12 July 1645|
|Царь Алексей Михайлович (Tsar Aleksey)||12 July 1645||29 January 1676|
|Царь Фёдор III Алексеевич (Tsar Feodor III)||8 February 1676||7 May 1682|
|Царь Иван V и Царь Пётр I (Tsar Ivan V and Tsar Peter I), joint rule||7 May 1682||8 February 1696|
|Царь Пётр I (Tsar Peter I), single rule||8 February 1696||2 November 1721||2|