One Cent, Liberty Head, Coin Type from United States - detailed information

One Cent, Liberty Head, Coin Type from United States (issued 1816 - 1857)
Coin TypeOne Cent, Liberty Head

The United States one-cent coin (often called a penny, from the British coin of the same name) is a unit of currency equalling one-hundredth of a United States dollar. The cent's symbol is ¢. It has been the lowest-value physical unit of U.S. currency since the abolition of the half-cent in 1857.

The earliest one cent coins were large and made of copper. The designs changed relatively often. There were three different types in 1793 alone, the Flowing Hair / Chain Cent, the Flowing Hair / Wreath Cent and the Liberty Cap Cent - the latter issued until 1796, after which came the Draped Bust type (1796 to 1807) and the so-called Classic Head Cent (1808 to 1814).

In 1815, no one cent coins were struck because the Philadelphia Mint could not order copper planchets from its supplier Boulton & Watt in England, due to the 1812-185 war between the United States and the United Kingdom. In 1816, the denomination was resumed with a new design generally known as the Liberty Head Cent (which is somewhat confusing, as all large cents had the head of Liberty on the obverse, only in different interpretations), or the Coronet Cent after the coronet (or diadem) that Liberty wears on this design. The obverse was re-worked a couple of times, with the different versions being known as the Matron Head Cent (1816 - 1836) - being the original design, the Young Head (or Modified Matron Head) - with the portrait showing a somewhat younger Liberty (1837 - 1839), and finally the Braided Hair Cent, with Liberty's hairstyle displaying braids (1839 - 1857).

The large copper format of the one cent denomination was discontinued by the Coinage Act of February 21, 1857 and was replaced by a smaller bronze coin. While withdrawn from circulation and not used any more, these coins have never been officially demonetised though.

Obverse
United States / One Cent, Liberty Head - obverse photo

The obverse of the coin shows, within a denticled (toothed) border, the head of Liberty, facing left, with long hair tied back in a bun.

She wears a coronet or diadem, on which the inscription LIBERTY is in relief.

All around, thirteen six-pointed stars represent the first thirteen states that formed the United States.

Below, the date of issue: [year].

Obverse Inscription ************* [year]
Reverse
United States / One Cent, Liberty Head - reverse photo

On two lines at its centre, the coin displays its value and denomination: ONE CENT, surrounded by an olive/laurel wreath.

There is a bar (horizontal line) below the word "CENT".

Around, within a denticled (toothed) border, the legend UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

Reverse Inscription ONE CENT UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
EdgePlainEdge InscriptionNone
Coin Type: One Cent, Liberty Head - (42) Coins
Coin NameMintageSymbolLegend
One Cent 1816 Matron Head 2,820,982 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1816
One Cent 1817 Matron Head 3,948,400 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1817
One Cent 1818 Matron Head 3,167,000 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1818
One Cent 1819 Matron Head 2,671,000 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1819
One Cent 1820 Matron Head 4,407,550 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1820
One Cent 1821 Matron Head 389,000 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1821
One Cent 1822 Matron Head 2,072,339 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1822
One Cent 1823 Matron Head 1,262,000 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1823
One Cent 1824 Matron Head 1,262,000 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1824
One Cent 1825 Matron Head 1,461,100 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1825
One Cent 1826 Matron Head 1,517,425 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1826
One Cent 1827 Matron Head 2,357,732 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1827
One Cent 1828 Matron Head 2,260,624 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1828
One Cent 1829 Matron Head 1,414,500 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1829
One Cent 1830 Matron Head 1,711,500 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1830
One Cent 1831 Matron Head 3,359,260 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1831
One Cent 1832 Matron Head 2,362,000 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1832
One Cent 1833 Matron Head 2,739,000 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1833
One Cent 1834 Matron Head 1,855,100 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1834
One Cent 1835 Matron Head 3,878,400 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1835
One Cent 1836 Matron Head 2,111,000 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1836
One Cent 1837 Young Head 5,558,300 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1837
One Cent 1838 Young Head 6,370,200 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1838
One Cent 1839 Young Head 3,128,661 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1839
One Cent 1840 Braided Hair 2,462,700 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1840
One Cent 1841 Braided Hair 1,597,367 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1841
One Cent 1842 Braided Hair 2,383,390 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1842
One Cent 1843 Braided Hair 2,425,342 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1843
One Cent 1844 Braided Hair 2,398,752 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1844
One Cent 1845 Braided Hair 3,894,804 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1845
One Cent 1846 Braided Hair 4,120,800 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1846
One Cent 1847 Braided Hair 6,183,669 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1847
One Cent 1848 Braided Hair 6,415,799 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1848
One Cent 1849 Braided Hair 4,178,500 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1849
One Cent 1850 Braided Hair 4,426,844 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1850
One Cent 1851 Braided Hair 9,889,707 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1851
One Cent 1852 Braided Hair 5,063,094 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1852
One Cent 1853 Braided Hair 6,641,131 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1853
One Cent 1854 Braided Hair 4,236,156 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1854
One Cent 1855 Braided Hair 1,574,829 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1855
One Cent 1856 Braided Hair 2,690,463 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1856
One Cent 1857 Braided Hair 333,456 Liberty, Portrait ************* 1857
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One Cent, Liberty Head: Details
CountryUnited States
CurrencyUS Dollar
Sub-type ofOne Cent
From1816
To1857
Face Value1 (x Cent)
CurrentNo; withdrawn 1857
MaterialCopper
Designer
TechnologyMilled (machine-made)
ShapeRound
OrientationCoin Alignment (Axis 6)
Size29.000 mm
Mass10.890 g