The British pre-decimal halfpenny coin (abbreviated as ½d), usually simply known as a halfpenny or half penny, was a unit of currency that equalled half of a penny or one four-hundred-and-eightieth of a pound sterling (there were 20 shillings to a pound, and 12 pence to a shilling so one pound was equal to 240 pence, so 480 of these coins made up £1).
Bronze coins of these specifications were introduced in 1860 to replace earlier larger copper halfpennies. Between 1860 and 1895, the half penny had the third Britannia design on the reverse, and Queen Victoria's "Bun Head" effigy. In 1895, the reverse was updated to the fourth Britannia design, which was a simplified version of the earlier design; it was issued until 1936.
In 1937, the Britannia type was discontinued in favour of the new halfpenny issue of King George VI. Both the new obverse and reverse were designed by Thomas Humphrey Paget. The striking reverse design shows Sir Francis Drake’s ship, the Golden Hind.
Halfpenny coins issued in 1948 remained in circulation for 21 years until 1969, when they were demonetised prior to the decimalisation of the currency.
The obverse of the coin shows the bare (uncrowned) head of King George VI facing left.
Below the neck truncation in small letters, the artist's initials HP (for [Thomas] Humphrey Paget).
Around, the monarch's legend: GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.. Translated from Latin: George the Sixth, by the Grace of God, King of all the Britains, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India.
The reverse of the coin depicts, within a beaded border, the full port view of a three-masted sailing ship, with bowsprit, full rigging and bellowing sails (a representation of the Golden Hind of Sir Francis Drake), upon waves the lower outline of which is curved and concentric with the edge of the coin. Above the fore- and after-masts flutter the flags of St Andrew; above the main mast is a pennant incorporating the cross of St George.
Around above, the denomination HALF PENNY; below, the date 1948.
In the field, to the right of the stern, the designer's initials HP (for [Thomas] Humphrey Paget).
||HALF PENNY 1948
All half penny coins of 1948 have Obverse 1 and Reverse N (definitions by Freeman).
For information about Freeman obverse/reverse varieties, see descriptions on the halfpenny / ship type page.
References to additional information:
[Book] Bressett, Kenneth E. 1962. A Guidebook of English Coins, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Wisconsin, USA. pp28-29
[Book] Freeman, Michael J. 1970. The Bronze Coinage of Great Britain. Motherwell, Scotland, (2016 ed. p109)
[Book] Remick, Jerome. 1971. The Guide Book and Catalogue to British Commonwealth Coins., p199
|Included in Set|
|The 75th Birthday of His Majesty King Charles III Celebration Coinage Collection, mintage 1,000, limited to 1,000
|His Majesty King Charles III 1948 and 2023 Coinage Collection, mintage 2,023, limited to 2,023
|The Coronation of His Majesty King Charles III Celebration Coinage Collection, mintage 1,000, limited to 1,000