Halfpenny 1807, Coin from United Kingdom - detailed information

Halfpenny 1807, Coin from United Kingdom (demonetised 1870)
CoinHalfpenny 1807

The British pre-decimal halfpenny coin (abbreviated as ½d), usually simply known as a halfpenny or half penny, was a unit of currency that equalled half of a penny or one four-hundred-and-eightieth of a pound sterling (there were 20 shillings to a pound, and 12 pence to a shilling so one pound was equal to 240 pence, so 480 of these coins made up £1).

The denomination continues the tradition of earlier halfpenny coins of Great Britain, which also featured the figure of Britannia. In 1801 the parliaments of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland each passed an Act of Union, uniting the two kingdoms and creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Re-coinage followed in 1806 and these coins are part of it; they are known as the "Fourth Issue" copper coinage of King George III, the first three coinages being while the country was still just Great Britain.

Between 1770 and the end of the century the practice of counterfeiting had become so prevalent in England that scarcely any genuine British copper coins remained in circulation. The 1770-1775 issue was melted in huge quantities and made into lightweight counterfeit coins; the only other pieces in circulation were the merchants' tokens issued by private firms for their own convenience.

It was during this period that Matthew Boulton offered a solution to the problem by proposing that (1) each coin should contain its intrinsic value of metal, (2) a retaining collar should be used to maintain a constant diameter and (3) a broad raised rim should be used to save the coin from undue wear. He further proposed that a steam powered coinage press be used to produce a more uniformly finished coin with a greater rate of output. A total of £357,869 worth of halfpennies were coined by Boulton at the Soho Mint in the years 1799, 1806 and 1807. The dies were produced by Conrad Heinrich Küchler, a talented Flemish die cutter. The faces of these coins are slightly concave to protect the design from wear and prevent counterfeiting. The design is identical to that of the one penny and farthing coins minted in the same years; the difference is only in size. Typically for British coinage of the time, the denomination (or, indeed, the country of issue) is not spelled out on the coin.

This format of the denomination was short-lived. After 1807, no halfpenny coins were issued until 1825, when a smaller version was introduced, with a different design and traditional flat surfaces. All these halfpennies were minted in copper, but after 1860 the denomination changed to bronze with an even smaller size; all British copper coinage was demonetised after 31 December 1869.

This was the second (and last) halfpenny minted as part of the "Fourth Issue" copper coinage of King George III.

MintSoho Mint Mint MarkSOHO Total Mintageunknown
Obverse
United Kingdom / Halfpenny 1807 - obverse photo

Within a beaded border, the obverse of the coin shows the laureate and draped bust of King George III facing right.

Around, the monarch's legend GEORGIUS III · D : G · REX.. Translated from Latin: George the Third, by the Grace of God, King. Below that, the date 1807.

On the neck truncation, a tiny letter K represents the designer's initial (for [Conrad Heinrich] Küchler).

Obverse Inscription GEORGIUS III · D : G · REX. 1807
Reverse
United Kingdom / Halfpenny 1807 - reverse photo

Within a beaded border, the reverse of the coin shows the figure of Britannia - the female personification of Great Britain - seated on a rock, facing left, holding a trident and extending an olive branch; a shield decorated with the British flag rests against the rock at right. In the background to the left, a sailing ship.

Around above, the legend BRITANNIA.

The mint name, SOHO, is in relief on the right end of the rock. At the foot of Britannia's trident, between its shaft and the shield, a tiny letter K represents the designer's initial (for [Conrad Heinrich] Küchler).

Reverse Inscription BRITANNIA
EdgeSecurity groove (grained)Edge InscriptionNone
Notes

A total of £357,869 worth of halfpennies (equal to 171,777,120, or more than 171 mln coins) were coined by Boulton at Soho in the years 1799, 1806 and 1807. Separate mintage for each year is not known.

References to additional information:

[Book] Bressett, Kenneth E. 1962. A Guidebook of English Coins, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Wisconsin, USA. p22
[Book] Remick, Jerome. 1971. The Guide Book and Catalogue to British Commonwealth Coins., p196

Halfpenny 1807: Known varieties
Variety Proof FDC
Mintage Issued: unknown
Variety Bronzed Proof FDC
Mintage Issued: unknown
Variety Gilt Copper Proof FDC
Mintage Issued: unknown
Variety Silver Proof FDC
Mintage Issued: unknown
Variety Gold Proof FDC
Mintage Issued: unknown. Rarity: R3 (Extremely Rare)
Halfpenny 1807: References to Information Used
Showing 100 from a total of 135 coins of type: Halfpenny (Pre-decimal)
Coin NameMintageEffigyLegend
Halfpenny 1806 unknown King George III - Laureate Head by Küchler GEORGIUS III · D : G · REX. 1806
Halfpenny 1807 unknown King George III - Laureate Head by Küchler GEORGIUS III · D : G · REX. 1807
Halfpenny 1825 215,040 King George IV - Laureate Head by Wyon GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA · 1825 ·
Halfpenny 1826 9,031,630 King George IV - Laureate Head by Wyon GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA · 1826 ·
Halfpenny 1827 5,376,000 King George IV - Laureate Head by Wyon GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA · 1827 ·
Halfpenny 1831 806,400 King William IV - Bare Head GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1831
Halfpenny 1834 537,600 King William IV - Bare Head GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1834
Halfpenny 1837 349,440 King William IV - Bare Head GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1837
Halfpenny 1838 456,960 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1838
Halfpenny 1839 (Proof only) unknown Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1839
Halfpenny 1841 1,075,200 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1841
Halfpenny 1843 967,680 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1843
Halfpenny 1844 1,075,200 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1844
Halfpenny 1845 1,075,200 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1845
Halfpenny 1846 860,160 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1846
Halfpenny 1847 752,640 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1847
Halfpenny 1848 322,560 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1848
Halfpenny 1851 215,040 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1851
Halfpenny 1852 637,056 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1852
Halfpenny 1853 1,559,040 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1853
Halfpenny 1854 12,354,048 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1854
Halfpenny 1855 1,455,837 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1855
Halfpenny 1856 1,942,080 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1856
Halfpenny 1857 1,182,720 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1857
Halfpenny 1858 2,472,960 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1858
Halfpenny 1859 1,290,240 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1859
Halfpenny 1860 (Large) unknown Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1860
Halfpenny 1860 (Small) 6,630,400 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1861 54,118,400 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1862 61,107,200 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1863 15,948,800 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1864 537,600 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1865 8,064,000 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1866 2,508,800 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1867 2,508,800 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1868 3,046,400 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1869 3,225,600 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1870 4,350,739 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1871 1,075,280 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1872 4,659,410 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1873 3,404,880 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1874 6,365,265 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1875 6,685,215 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1876 6,809,600 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1877 5,209,505 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1878 1,425,535 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1879 3,582,545 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1880 2,423,465 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1881 3,799,515 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1882 4,480,000 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1883 3,000,725 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1884 6,989,580 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1885 8,600,574 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1886 8,586,155 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1887 10,701,305 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1888 6,814,070 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1889 7,748,234 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1890 11,254,235 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1891 13,192,260 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1892 2,478,335 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1893 7,229,344 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1894 1,767,635 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1895 3,032,154 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Halfpenny 1896 9,142,500 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Halfpenny 1897 8,690,315 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Halfpenny 1898 8,595,180 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Halfpenny 1899 12,108,001 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Halfpenny 1900 13,805,190 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Halfpenny 1901 11,127,360 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Halfpenny 1902 13,672,960 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1903 11,450,880 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1904 8,131,200 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1905 10,124,800 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1906 11,101,440 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1907 16,849,280 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1908 16,620,800 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1909 8,279,040 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1910 10,769,920 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1911 12,570,880 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1912 21,185,920 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1913 17,476,480 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1914 20,289,111 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1915 21,563,040 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1916 39,386,143 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1917 38,245,436 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1918 22,321,072 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1919 28,104,001 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1920 35,146,793 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1921 28,027,293 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1922 10,734,964 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1923 12,266,282 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1924 13,971,038 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1925 12,216,123 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1926 6,712,306 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1927 15,589,622 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1928 20,935,200 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1929 25,680,000 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1930 12,532,800 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1931 16,137,600 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1932 14,448,000 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Showing 1 to 100 of 135 Coins.
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Halfpenny 1807: Details
CountryUnited Kingdom
CurrencyPound Sterling (pre-decimal)
Coin TypeHalfpenny (Britannia, first design)
Issued1807
MonarchKing George III
EffigyKing George III - Laureate Head by Conrad Küchler
ReverseBritannia, Seated
Face Value1/2 (x Penny)
Mintageunknown
CurrentNo; demonetised 1870
MaterialCopper
DesignerConrad Heinrich Küchler
TechnologyMilled (machine-made)
ShapeRound
OrientationCoin Alignment (Axis 6)
Size28.700 mm
Mass9.220 g
OCC IDLBRP-ERRC-BQNP-EMNY
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Halfpenny 1807: Photos
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Coin - Halfpenny, George III, Great Britain, 1807
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Coin - Halfpenny, George III, Great Britain, 1807
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Great Britain 1807 half penny
Copyright: CoinFactsWiki / CC BY-SA
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Great Britain 1807 half penny
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Halfpenny 1807: Catalogue Reference IDs