George III (George William Frederick) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire until his promotion to King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors he was born in Britain, spoke English as his first language, and never visited Hanover.
His life and reign, which were longer than any other British monarch before him, were marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdoms, much of the rest of Europe, and places farther afield in Africa, the Americas and Asia. Early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britain's American colonies were soon lost in the American Revolutionary War. Further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.
In the later part of his life, George III had recurrent, and eventually permanent, mental illness. Although it has since been suggested that he had the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established, and George III's eldest son, George, Prince of Wales, ruled as Prince Regent. On George III's death, the Prince Regent succeeded his father as George IV.
Laureate head by Droz on a pattern halfpenny
The King's effigy can be seen on this pattern halfpenny coin, the design of which was finally not approved so that no coins of this type were released.
|Reigned as||In Country||From||To||Coins Issued|
|King George III||Great Britain||25 October 1760||1 January 1801||3|
|King George III||Ireland, Kingdom of||25 October 1760||1 January 1801||1|
|Georg III. Wilhelm Friedrich (George William Frederick, Elector of Hanover)||Brunswick-Lüneburg (Electorate of Hanover)||25 October 1760||6 August 1806|
|King George III||Bahamas, British Crown Colony||25 October 1760||29 January 1820||2|
|King George III||Gibraltar||25 October 1760||29 January 1820|
|King George III, Lord of Mann||Isle of Man||10 May 1765||29 January 1820||4|
|King George III||New South Wales||18 January 1788||29 January 1820||2|
|King George III||United Kingdom||1 January 1801||29 January 1820||77|
|Georg III. Wilhelm Friedrich (King George William Frederick), King George III of the United Kingdom||Hanover, Kingdom of||12 October 1814||29 January 1820|
|King George III||Ceylon, British||10 March 1815||29 January 1820|
|Legend||Used From||Used To||Coins|
|GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX||1788||1804||4|
|GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA||1801||1813||22|
|GEORGIUS III · D : G · REX. [year]||1806||1808||7|
|GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA [year]||1816||1820||30|
|GEOR : III D : G : BRITT : REX F : D : [year]||1816||1820||10|
|GEORGIUS III D: G: BRITANNIAR: REX F: D: [year]||1817||1820||4|
|GEORGIVS III D : G : BRITANNIARUM REX F: D: [year]||1818||1820||5|
|King George III - Laureate Head, by Droz||1788||1|
|(no image yet)||King Goerge III - First Laureate Bust, by Conrad Küchler||1797|
|King George III - Crowned Bust, by Conrad Küchler||1799||1|
|Portrait by Lewis Pingo (Sixth Head)||1801||6|
|Second laureate bust by Conrad Küchler||1804||2|
|Seventh Head (Military Portrait)||1804||16|
|Laureate head by Conrad Küchler||1806||7|
|Laureate bust by Benedetto Pistrucci (Bull Head)||1816||2|
|Portrait by Benedetto Pistrucci (Laureate Head)||1817||12|