Halfpenny 1825, Coin from United Kingdom - detailed information

Halfpenny 1825, Coin from United Kingdom (demonetised 1869)
CoinHalfpenny 1825

The design of this coin is identical to that of the one penny coins minted in the same year; the difference is only in size. It differs from the farthing, which was still of the old type (Pistrucci portrait, lion behind Britannia on the reverse). Typically for British coinage of the time, the denomination (or, indeed, the country of issue) is not spelled out on the coin.

King George IV was never pleased with the portrait designed by Pistrucci for his coins. In 1824 William Wyon was commissioned to produce a new design which was used on most of the coins from 1825 to 1830. Halfpence of the Pistrucci design were never issued as only farthings were coined for the first five years of the reign.

MintRoyal Mint Mint MarkNo mint mark Total Mintage215,040
Obverse

Laureate head of King George IV facing left; around, the legend GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA (George the Fourth, by the Grace of God); below, the date 1825.

Obverse Inscription GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA 1825
Reverse

Figure of Britannia seated facing right, resting her right hand on a shield bearing a saltire of arms, and holding a trident in her left hand; around, the rest of the monarch's legend: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: (King of the Britains, Defender of the Faith); in exergue, a rose, a thistle and a shamrock combined.

Reverse Inscription BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF:
EdgePlainEdge InscriptionNone
Notes

References to additional information:

[Book] Bressett, Kenneth E. 1962. A Guidebook of English Coins, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Wisconsin, USA. pp22-23
[Book] Remick, Jerome. 1971. The Guide Book and Catalogue to British Commonwealth Coins., p197

Halfpenny 1825: Known varieties
Variety Proof FDC
Mintage unknown
All (136) Coins of Country: United Kingdom, Type: Halfpenny (Pre-decimal)
Coin NameMintageEffigyLegend
Halfpenny 1806 unknown Laureate head by Conrad Küchler GEORGIUS III · D : G · REX. 1806
Halfpenny 1807 unknown Laureate head by Conrad Küchler GEORGIUS III · D : G · REX. 1807
Halfpenny 1825 215,040 Portrait by William Wyon (Laureate Head) GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA 1825
Halfpenny 1826 9,031,630 Portrait by William Wyon (Laureate Head) GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA 1826
Halfpenny 1827 5,376,000 Portrait by William Wyon (Laureate Head) GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA 1827
Halfpenny 1831 806,400 Portrait by William Wyon GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1831
Halfpenny 1834 537,600 Portrait by William Wyon GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1834
Halfpenny 1837 349,440 Portrait by William Wyon GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1837
Halfpenny 1838 456,960 Portrait by William Wyon (Young Head) VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1838
Halfpenny 1839 (Proof only) unknown Portrait by William Wyon (Young Head) VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1839
Halfpenny 1841 1,075,200 Portrait by William Wyon (Young Head) VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1841
Halfpenny 1843 967,680 Portrait by William Wyon (Young Head) VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1843
Halfpenny 1844 1,075,200 Portrait by William Wyon (Young Head) VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1844
Halfpenny 1845 1,075,200 Portrait by William Wyon (Young Head) VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1845
Halfpenny 1846 860,160 Portrait by William Wyon (Young Head) VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1846
Halfpenny 1847 752,640 Portrait by William Wyon (Young Head) VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1847
Halfpenny 1848 322,560 Portrait by William Wyon (Young Head) VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1848
Halfpenny 1851 215,040 Portrait by William Wyon (Young Head) VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1851
Halfpenny 1852 637,056 Portrait by William Wyon (Young Head) VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1852
Halfpenny 1853 1,559,040 Portrait by William Wyon (Young Head) VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1853
Halfpenny 1854 12,354,048 Portrait by William Wyon (Young Head) VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1854
Halfpenny 1855 1,455,837 Portrait by William Wyon (Young Head) VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1855
Halfpenny 1856 1,942,080 Portrait by William Wyon (Young Head) VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1856
Halfpenny 1857 1,182,720 Portrait by William Wyon (Young Head) VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1857
Halfpenny 1858 2,472,960 Portrait by William Wyon (Young Head) VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1858
Halfpenny 1859 1,290,240 Portrait by William Wyon (Young Head) VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1859
Halfpenny 1860 (Large) unknown Portrait by William Wyon (Young Head) VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1860
Halfpenny 1860 (Small) 6,630,400 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1861 54,118,400 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1862 61,107,200 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1863 15,948,800 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1864 537,600 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1865 8,064,000 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1866 2,508,800 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1867 2,508,800 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1868 3,046,400 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1869 3,225,600 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1870 4,350,739 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1871 1,075,280 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1872 4,659,410 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1873 3,404,880 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1874 6,365,265 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1875 6,685,215 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1876 6,809,600 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1877 5,209,505 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1878 1,425,535 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1879 3,582,545 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1880 2,423,465 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1881 3,799,515 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1882 4,480,000 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1883 3,000,725 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1884 6,989,580 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1885 8,600,574 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1886 8,586,155 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1887 10,701,305 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1888 6,814,070 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1889 7,748,234 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1890 11,254,235 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1891 13,192,260 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1892 2,478,335 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1893 7,229,344 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1894 1,767,635 Portrait by Leonard Charles Wyon (Bun Head) VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Halfpenny 1895 3,032,154 Portrait by Sir Thomas Brock (Veiled Head) VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Halfpenny 1896 9,142,500 Portrait by Sir Thomas Brock (Veiled Head) VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Halfpenny 1897 8,690,315 Portrait by Sir Thomas Brock (Veiled Head) VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Halfpenny 1898 8,595,180 Portrait by Sir Thomas Brock (Veiled Head) VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Halfpenny 1899 12,108,001 Portrait by Sir Thomas Brock (Veiled Head) VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Halfpenny 1900 13,805,190 Portrait by Sir Thomas Brock (Veiled Head) VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Halfpenny 1901 11,127,360 Portrait by Sir Thomas Brock (Veiled Head) VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Halfpenny 1902 13,672,960 Portrait by George William de Saulles (Bare Head) EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1903 11,450,880 Portrait by George William de Saulles (Bare Head) EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1904 8,131,200 Portrait by George William de Saulles (Bare Head) EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1905 10,124,800 Portrait by George William de Saulles (Bare Head) EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1906 11,101,440 Portrait by George William de Saulles (Bare Head) EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1907 16,849,280 Portrait by George William de Saulles (Bare Head) EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1908 16,620,800 Portrait by George William de Saulles (Bare Head) EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1909 8,279,040 Portrait by George William de Saulles (Bare Head) EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1910 10,769,920 Portrait by George William de Saulles (Bare Head) EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1911 12,570,880 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1912 21,185,920 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1913 17,476,480 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1914 20,289,111 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1915 21,563,040 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1916 39,386,143 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1917 38,245,436 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1918 22,321,072 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1919 28,104,001 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1920 35,146,793 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1921 28,027,293 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1922 10,734,964 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1923 12,266,282 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1924 13,971,038 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1925 12,216,123 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1926 6,712,306 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1927 15,589,622 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1928 20,935,200 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1929 25,680,000 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1930 12,532,800 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1931 16,137,600 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1932 14,448,000 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1933 10,560,000 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1934 7,704,000 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1935 12,180,000 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1936 19,807,200 King George V - Bare Head, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Halfpenny 1937 Edward VIII (not released) unknown King Edward VIII by Thomas Humphrey Paget EDWARDVS VIII D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Halfpenny 1937 George VI 27,732,002 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Halfpenny 1938 40,320,000 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Halfpenny 1939 28,924,800 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Halfpenny 1940 32,162,400 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Halfpenny 1941 45,120,000 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Halfpenny 1942 71,908,800 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Halfpenny 1943 76,200,000 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Halfpenny 1944 81,840,000 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Halfpenny 1945 57,000,000 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Halfpenny 1946 22,725,600 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Halfpenny 1947 21,266,400 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Halfpenny 1948 26,947,200 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Halfpenny 1949 24,744,000 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX FIDEI DEF.
Halfpenny 1950 24,171,113 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX FIDEI DEF.
Halfpenny 1951 14,888,000 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX FIDEI DEF.
Halfpenny 1952 33,278,400 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX FIDEI DEF.
Halfpenny 1953 8,950,000 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick ELIZABETH II DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REGINA F: D: +
Halfpenny 1954 19,375,200 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Halfpenny 1955 18,465,600 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Halfpenny 1956 21,799,200 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Halfpenny 1957 39,672,000 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Halfpenny 1958 66,283,200 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Halfpenny 1959 79,224,000 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Halfpenny 1960 41,340,000 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Halfpenny 1962 41,779,200 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Halfpenny 1963 44,766,080 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Halfpenny 1964 72,134,400 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Halfpenny 1965 105,964,800 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Halfpenny 1966 96,081,600 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Halfpenny 1967 146,491,200 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Halfpenny 1970 750,476 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Advertising
Family-run store trading in rare coins and bullion, plus jewellery design and sales
Family-run store trading in rare coins and bullion, plus jewellery design and sales
Halfpenny 1825: Details
CountryUnited Kingdom
CurrencyPound Sterling (pre-decimal)
Coin TypeHalfpenny (Britannia, second design)
Issued1825
MonarchKing George IV
EffigyPortrait by William Wyon (Laureate Head)
Face Value1/2 (x Penny)
Total Mintage215,040
CurrentNo; demonetised 1869
MaterialCopper
DesignerWilliam Wyon
TechnologyMilled (machine-made)
ShapeRound
Size (mm)28
Mass (g)8.8000
OCC IDYRVP-OVRC-NPLD-ODQG
Advertising (helps this site)
Buy coins at Amazon
Share or Bookmark this Page
Halfpenny 1825: Catalogue Reference IDs