Two Marks, Ludwig Erhard, Coin Type from Germany - detailed information

Two Marks, Ludwig Erhard, Coin Type from Germany (issued 1988 - 2001)
Coin TypeTwo Marks, Ludwig Erhard

The Two Marks coin, abbreviated 2 DM and known in English as 2 German Marks, was a relatively large circulating denomination of the Deutsche Mark (German mark), which was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later of unified Germany from 1990 until 2002.

The initial design was similar to the 1 Mark coin and was only issued in 1951. It was superseded by a design honouring Max Planck, which was issued between 1957 and 1971.

Those earlier coins were made of CuproNickel and were confusing to vending machines (which mistakenly accepted cheap foreign coins instead of 2 DM), so were demonetized in 1973 and replaced by a new series of coins called the "politicians series" because it depicts portraits of German politicians on the obverse. These coins are three-layered: CuproNickel with a Nickel core, which makes them magnetic unlike the earlier ones.

This fourth type of new coins honours Prof. Dr. Ludwig Erhard (1897 - 1977), a German politician who was the second Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1963 until 1966. He is often famed for leading the West German postwar economic reforms and economic recovery (Wirtschaftswunder, German for "economic miracle") in his role as Minister of Economic Affairs under Chancellor Konrad Adenauer from 1949 to 1963. During that period he promoted the concept of the social market economy (soziale Marktwirtschaft), on which Germany's economic policy in the 21st century continues to be based.

This type is called "2 Deutsche Mark VI. Ausgabe" ("sixth issue") in German by the Deutsche Bundesbank; it was struck between 1988 and 2001 by five different mints:
- Berlin Mint - mint mark A (from 1991; Berlin was in a different country - the German Democratic Republic - before that)
- Munich Mint - mint mark D
- Stuttgart Mint - mint mark F
- Karlsruhe Mint - mint mark G
- Hamburg Mint - mint mark J

Other coins of the "politicians series" include:
- Konrad Adenauer, 1969 - 1987
- Theodor Heuss, 1970 - 1987
- Kurt Schumacher, 1979 - 1993
- Franz Josef Strauß (Strauss), 1990 - 2001
- Willy Brandt, 1994 - 2001

Note that the introduction of new designs did not supplant the previous ones; older designs continued to be issued and used in parallel.

The edge inscription was the same throughout the history of the denomination: Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit, meaning "Unity and Justice and Freedom".

In 1999, the Deutsche Mark was replaced by the Euro; its coins and banknotes remained in circulation, defined in terms of euros, until the introduction of euro notes and coins on 1 January 2002. The Deutsche Mark ceased to be legal tender immediately upon the introduction of the euro - in contrast to the other eurozone nations, where the euro and legacy currency circulated side by side for up to two months. Mark coins and banknotes continued to be accepted as valid forms of payment in Germany until 28 February 2002.

Obverse
Germany / Two Marks, Ludwig Erhard - obverse photo

The obverse of the coin, designed by Franz Müller, features the portrait of Prof. Dr. Ludwig Erhard, the second Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1963 until 1966. His name is not written on the coin.

Around above, the currency name · DEUTSCHE MARK · (German Mark). Around below, separated by the portrait, are the dates 1948 1988, representing the 40th anniversary of the currency.

Obverse Inscription · DEUTSCHE MARK · 1948 1988
Reverse
Germany / Two Marks, Ludwig Erhard - reverse photo

The reverse of the coin, designed by Reinhart Heinsdorff, depicts at its centre the Federal Eagle of Germany, being a one headed eagle, its head facing left, its wings open and with open feathering.

Around left, the legend BUNDESREPUBLIK DEUTSCHLAND, meaning Federal Republic of Germany.

Around right, facing in the opposite direction, the value and denomination 2 DEUTSCHE MARK (2 German marks).

The date [year] is above the eagle's head. The mint mark of the mint which produced the coin is a small letter to the left of the numeral 2 of the value and under the eagle's left foot.

Reverse Inscription BUNDESREPUBLIK DEUTSCHLAND 2 DEUTSCHE MARK [year]
EdgeInscribed (incuse lettering)Edge InscriptionEINIGKEIT UND RECHT UND FREIHEIT
Coin Type: Two Marks, Ludwig Erhard - (14) Coins
Coin NameMintageSymbolLegend
Two Marks 1988 Ludwig Erhard 23,330,000 · DEUTSCHE MARK · 1948 1988
Two Marks 1989 Ludwig Erhard 40,180,000 · DEUTSCHE MARK · 1948 1988
Two Marks 1990 Ludwig Erhard 70,840,000 · DEUTSCHE MARK · 1948 1988
Two Marks 1991 Ludwig Erhard 20,225,000 · DEUTSCHE MARK · 1948 1988
Two Marks 1992 Ludwig Erhard 36,885,000 · DEUTSCHE MARK · 1948 1988
Two Marks 1993 Ludwig Erhard 3,225,000 · DEUTSCHE MARK · 1948 1988
Two Marks 1994 Ludwig Erhard 25,225,000 · DEUTSCHE MARK · 1948 1988
Two Marks 1995 Ludwig Erhard 2,800,000 · DEUTSCHE MARK · 1948 1988
Two Marks 1996 Ludwig Erhard (mint sets only) 475,000 · DEUTSCHE MARK · 1948 1988
Two Marks 1997 Ludwig Erhard (mint sets only) 575,000 · DEUTSCHE MARK · 1948 1988
Two Marks 1998 Ludwig Erhard (mint sets only) 575,000 · DEUTSCHE MARK · 1948 1988
Two Marks 1999 Ludwig Erhard (mint sets only) 575,000 · DEUTSCHE MARK · 1948 1988
Two Marks 2000 Ludwig Erhard (mint sets only) 575,000 · DEUTSCHE MARK · 1948 1988
Two Marks 2001 Ludwig Erhard (mint sets only) 1,040,000 · DEUTSCHE MARK · 1948 1988
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Two Marks, Ludwig Erhard: Details
CountryGermany
CurrencyDeutsche Mark
Sub-type ofTwo Marks
From1988
To2001
Face Value2 (x Mark)
CurrentNo (demonetised 2002)
MaterialCuproNickel-clad Nickel
DesignerFranz Müller, Reinhart Heinsdorff
TechnologyMilled (machine-made)
ShapeRound
OrientationMedal Alignment (Axis 0)
Size26.750 mm
Thickness1.790 mm
Mass7.000 g
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