Germany: Coins Issued and Used

Showing only circulating coin types (regular coinage plus circulating commemoratives).

Germany (1918 - )
Information about what currencies were issued by Germany, with lists of coinage, as well as periods when foreign-issued currencies were used.
Currency: German Goldmark. Used in Germany: (1873 - 1914)
CurrencyGerman Goldmark
PeriodGoldmark
Used1873 - 1914
Description

The Goldmark (officially just Mark, sign: ℳ) was the currency used in the German Empire from 1873 to 1914. The Papiermark refers to the German currency from 4 August 1914 when the link between the Mark and gold was abandoned.

Currency: German Papiermark. Used in Germany: (1914 - 1923)
CurrencyGerman Papiermark
PeriodGerman Papiermark
Used1914 - 1923
Description

The name Papiermark (English: "paper mark", officially just Mark, sign: ℳ) is applied to the German currency from 4 August 1914 when the link between the Goldmark and gold was abandoned, due to the outbreak of World War I. In particular, the name is used for the banknotes issued during the hyperinflation in Germany of 1922 and especially 1923.

Currency: Rentenmark. Used in Germany: (1923 - 1948)
CurrencyRentenmark
PeriodRentenmark
Used1923 - 1948
Description

The Rentenmark (RM) was a currency issued on 15 October 1923 to stop the hyperinflation of 1922 and 1923 in Weimar Germany. It was subdivided into 100 Rentenpfennig.

The newly created Rentenmark replaced the old Papiermark. Because of the economic crisis in Germany after World War I, there was no gold available to back the currency. The new currency was backed by the land used for agriculture and business. This was mortgaged (Rente is a technical term for mortgage in German) to the tune of 3.2 billion Goldmarks, based on the 1913 wealth charge called Wehrbeitrag which had helped fund the German war effort in World War I. Notes worth 3.2 billion Rentenmarks were issued. The Rentenmark was introduced at a rate of one Rentenmark to equal one million million old marks, with an exchange rate of one United States dollar to equal 4.2 Rentenmarks.

The Act creating the Rentenmark backed the currency by means of twice yearly payments on property, due in April and October, payable for five years. Although the Rentenmark was not initially legal tender, it was accepted by the population and its value was relatively stable. The Act prohibited the recently privatised Reichsbank from continuing to discount bills and the inflation of the Papiermark immediately stopped.

Thus the monetary policy spearheaded by Schacht at the Reichsbank and the fiscal policy of Finance Minister Hans Luther brought the period of hyperinflation in Germany to an end. The Reichsmark became the new legal tender on 30 August 1924, equal in value to the Rentenmark. This marked a return to a gold-backed currency in connection with the implementation of the Dawes plan.

The Rentenbank continued to exist after 1924 and the notes and coins continued to circulate. The last Rentenmark notes were valid until 1948.

Currency: Reichsmark. Used in Germany: (1924 - 1948)
CurrencyReichsmark
PeriodReichsmark
Used1924 - 1948
Description

The Reichsmark (sign: ℛℳ) was the currency in Germany from 1924 until 20 June 1948 and in Austria from 1938 to 1945. The Reichsmark was subdivided into 100 Reichspfennig. The Mark is an ancient Germanic weight measure, traditionally a half pound, later used for several coins. From 1871 to 1918 Germany was called the Kaiserreich or the Deutsches Reich. Although Germany became a republic in 1919, the term "Reich" remained part of the country's official name.

In 1924, coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, and 50 Reichspfennig, and 1 and 3 mark (not Reichsmark). The 1 and 2 Reichspfennig were struck in bronze, and depicting a wheat sheaf. And the 5, 10, and 50 Reichspfennig were struck in aluminium-bronze and depicted wheat stocks crossed into a stylized pattern. The two highest denominations were struck in .500 fine silver and depicted the German eagle standard. In 1925, .500 fine silver 1 and 2 Reichsmark coins were introduced for circulation, along with the first of many commemorative 3 and 5 Reichsmark coins. In 1927, nickel 50 Reichspfennig coins were introduced along with regular-type 5 Reichsmark coins, followed by the 3 Reichsmark coin in 1931.

Nazi Germany had a number of mints (coin factories). Each mint location had its own identifiable letter. It is therefore possible to identify exactly which mint produced what coin by noting the mint mark on the coin. Not all mints were authorized to produce coins every year. The mints were also only authorized to produce a set number of coins with some mints allocated a greater production than others. Some of the coins with particular mint marks are therefore scarcer than others. With the silver 2 and 5 Reichsmark coins, the mint mark is found under the date on the left side of the coin. On the smaller denomination Reichspfennig coins, the mint mark is found on the bottom center of the coin.

Four Reichspfennig coins were issued in 1932 as part of a failed attempt by the Reichskanzler Heinrich Brüning to reduce prices through use of 4 Reichspfennig pieces instead of 5 Reichspfennig coins. Known as the Brüningtaler or Armer Heinrich ("poor Heinrich"), they were demonetized the following year. The quality of the Reichsmark coins decreased more and more towards the end of World War II and misprints happened more frequently. This led to an increase in counterfeiting of money.

Production of silver 1 Reichsmark coins ended in 1927. In 1933, nickel 1 Reichsmark coins were introduced, and new silver 2 and 5 Reichsmark coins were introduced which were smaller but struck in .625 and .900 fineness so as to maintain the amount of silver. Between 1933 and 1939, a number of commemorative 5 Reichsmark pieces would be issued. Production of the 3 Reichsmark coin ceased altogether. In 1935, aluminium 50 Reichspfennig coins were introduced, initially for just the one year. In 1937, nickel 50 Reichspfennig coins were issued and continued to be produced up to 1939, before reverting to aluminum. From 1936 on, all coins except the 1 Reichsmark and the first version (1935–36) of the 5 Reichsmark coin (bearing the image of the late Reichspräsident Paul von Hindenburg) bore the Nazi state insignia. The eagle had two standard designs on most coin denominations, a soaring eagle and large swastika depicted on most earlier issues, and a more "aggressive" eagle with less prominent swastika which became predominant in the 1940s. From 1933 until 1948, a stylized script lettering was also adopted on all denominations as opposed to a typeface style.

During World War II, bronze and aluminium-bronze coins were replaced by zinc and aluminium, with the 2 Reichspfennig discontinued for potential of being too easily mistaken for the 10 Reichspfennig when being struck in the same metal. The 1, 2, and 5 Reichsmark coins were no longer issued, replaced instead by banknotes. Aluminium 50 Reichspfennig coins were reintroduced to replace the nickel versions. This time around they had a longer run, being produced from 1939 to 1944. Lower denominations were produced in zinc from 1940 onwards. Due to their composition, these coins had poor durability and are hard to find in very good condition. The last production of coins bearing the swastika was in 1944 (1, 5, 10, and 50 Reichspfennig) and 1945 (1 and 10 Reichspfennig only).

Currency: Deutsche Mark. Used in Germany: (1948 - 2002)
CurrencyDeutsche Mark
PeriodDeutsche Mark
Used1948 - 2002
Description

The Deutsche Mark (German mark), abbreviated DM, was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002. It was first issued under Allied occupation in 1948 to replace the Reichsmark, and served as the Federal Republic of Germany's official currency from its founding the following year until the adoption of the euro. In English, but not in German, it is commonly called the "Deutschmark".

The Mark was sub-divided into 100 Pfennigs, abbreviated Pf. Circulating denominations included the 1 Pf., 2 Pf., 5 Pf., 10 Pf. and 50 Pf.. Note that, unlike earlier German currencies, there was no 20 Pf. denomination.

In 1999, the mark was replaced by the Euro; its coins and banknotes remained in circulation, defined in terms of euros, until the introduction of euro notes and coins in early 2002. The Deutsche Mark ceased to be legal tender immediately upon the introduction of the euro - in contrast to the other eurozone nations, where the euro and legacy currency circulated side by side for up to two months. Mark coins and banknotes continued to be accepted as valid forms of payment in Germany until 28 February 2002.

Five Marks (demonetised 2002)
46 coins (1951 - 2001)
Coin NameMintage
Five Marks 1951 79,800,000
Five Marks 1956 3,360,023
Five Marks 1957 4,988,000
Five Marks 1958 3,443,100
Five Marks 1959 1,901,000
Five Marks 1960 4,926,050
Five Marks 1961 2,382,000
Five Marks 1963 5,552,100
Five Marks 1964 6,086,600
Five Marks 1965 14,352,313
Five Marks 1966 20,004,170
Five Marks 1967 11,335,500
Five Marks 1968 5,678,023
Five Marks 1969 10,113,700
Five Marks 1970 14,015,340
Five Marks 1971 20,037,000
Five Marks 1972 23,025,100
Five Marks 1973 15,118,100
Five Marks 1974 17,924,000
Five Marks 1975 251,506,000
Five Marks 1976 30,917,000
Five Marks 1977 32,460,000
Five Marks 1978 30,432,000
Five Marks 1979 30,712,000
Five Marks 1980 32,380,000
Five Marks 1981 32,264,000
Five Marks 1982 34,602,000
Five Marks 1983 24,300,000
Five Marks 1984 23,256,000
Five Marks 1985 19,219,000
Five Marks 1986 19,176,000
Five Marks 1987 26,180,000
Five Marks 1988 46,180,000
Five Marks 1989 66,180,000
Five Marks 1990 80,580,000
Five Marks 1991 90,225,000
Five Marks 1992 80,225,000
Five Marks 1993 16,245,000
Five Marks 1994 20,225,000
Five Marks 1995 (mint sets only) 325,000
Five Marks 1996 (mint sets only) 475,000
Five Marks 1997 (mint sets only) 575,000
Five Marks 1998 (mint sets only) 575,000
Five Marks 1999 (mint sets only) 575,000
Five Marks 2000 (mint sets only) 575,000
Five Marks 2001 (mint sets only) 1,040,000
Two Marks (demonetised 2002)
102 coins (1951 - 2001). Showing first 50 only.
Coin NameMintage
Two Marks 1951 75,289,563
Two Marks 1957 Max Planck 27,597,876
Two Marks 1958 Max Planck 49,601,685
Two Marks 1959 Max Planck 1,223,062
Two Marks 1960 Max Planck 14,598,316
Two Marks 1961 Max Planck 13,506,224
Two Marks 1962 Max Planck 12,858,250
Two Marks 1963 Max Planck 18,959,319
Two Marks 1964 Max Planck 15,764,487
Two Marks 1965 Max Planck 14,562,603
Two Marks 1966 Max Planck 19,518,540
Two Marks 1967 Max Planck 15,582,483
Two Marks 1968 Max Planck 9,226,153
Two Marks 1969 Max Planck 10,059,800
Two Marks 1969 Konrad Adenauer 28,017,000
Two Marks 1970 Max Planck 20,393,340
Two Marks 1970 Konrad Adenauer 28,060,000
Two Marks 1970 Theodor Heuss 28,063,000
Two Marks 1971 Max Planck 32,919,000
Two Marks 1971 Konrad Adenauer 28,011,000
Two Marks 1971 Theodor Heuss 28,000,000
Two Marks 1972 Konrad Adenauer 28,036,000
Two Marks 1972 Theodor Heuss 28,058,000
Two Marks 1973 Konrad Adenauer 42,738,000
Two Marks 1973 Theodor Heuss 42,768,000
Two Marks 1974 Konrad Adenauer 20,257,000
Two Marks 1974 Theodor Heuss 20,286,000
Two Marks 1975 Konrad Adenauer 17,703,000
Two Marks 1975 Theodor Heuss 17,755,000
Two Marks 1976 Konrad Adenauer 17,706,000
Two Marks 1976 Theodor Heuss 17,686,000
Two Marks 1977 Konrad Adenauer 22,774,000
Two Marks 1977 Theodor Heuss 22,714,000
Two Marks 1978 Konrad Adenauer 12,933,000
Two Marks 1978 Theodor Heuss 13,433,000
Two Marks 1979 Konrad Adenauer 12,712,000
Two Marks 1979 Theodor Heuss 12,712,000
Two Marks 1979 Kurt Schumacher 12,712,000
Two Marks 1980 Konrad Adenauer 26,000,000
Two Marks 1980 Theodor Heuss 8,040,000
Two Marks 1980 Kurt Schumacher 8,040,000
Two Marks 1981 Konrad Adenauer 31,593,999
Two Marks 1981 Theodor Heuss 7,964,000
Two Marks 1981 Kurt Schumacher 7,664,000
Two Marks 1982 Konrad Adenauer 37,222,000
Two Marks 1982 Theodor Heuss 12,312,000
Two Marks 1982 Kurt Schumacher 12,312,000
Two Marks 1983 Konrad Adenauer 6,365,120
Two Marks 1983 Theodor Heuss 6,290,000
Two Marks 1983 Kurt Schumacher 6,290,000
One Mark (demonetised 2002)
50 coins (1950 - 2001)
Coin NameMintage
One Mark 1950 230,959,350
One Mark 1954 20,002,190
One Mark 1955 15,796,020
One Mark 1956 47,771,100
One Mark 1957 23,683,427
One Mark 1958 16,375,357
One Mark 1959 39,993,185
One Mark 1960 20,406,336
One Mark 1961 25,891,208
One Mark 1962 38,325,213
One Mark 1963 58,075,313
One Mark 1964 31,267,466
One Mark 1965 32,658,279
One Mark 1966 42,918,170
One Mark 1967 38,205,500
One Mark 1968 9,350,023
One Mark 1969 50,099,800
One Mark 1970 68,449,340
One Mark 1971 94,411,000
One Mark 1972 80,252,000
One Mark 1973 56,067,999
One Mark 1974 80,444,000
One Mark 1975 70,384,000
One Mark 1976 60,375,000
One Mark 1977 80,296,000
One Mark 1978 60,216,000
One Mark 1979 70,356,000
One Mark 1980 58,990,000
One Mark 1981 80,314,000
One Mark 1982 70,312,000
One Mark 1983 70,290,000
One Mark 1984 32,656,000
One Mark 1985 45,219,000
One Mark 1986 40,176,000
One Mark 1987 12,180,000
One Mark 1988 80,180,000
One Mark 1989 150,180,000
One Mark 1990 354,170,000
One Mark 1991 150,225,000
One Mark 1992 150,225,000
One Mark 1993 40,225,000
One Mark 1994 83,425,000
One Mark 1995 405,000
One Mark 1996 (mint sets only) 475,000
One Mark 1997 (mint sets only) 575,000
One Mark 1998 (mint sets only) 575,000
One Mark 1999 (mint sets only) 575,000
One Mark 2000 (mint sets only) 575,000
One Mark 2001 (mint sets only) 1,040,000
One Mark 2001 Gold 1,000,000
Ten Pfennigs (demonetised 2002)
38 coins (1949 - 2001)
Coin NameMintage
Ten Pfennigs 1949 498,518,250
Ten Pfennigs 1950 1,689,048,300
Ten Pfennigs 1966 124,775,170
Ten Pfennigs 1967 51,257,499
Ten Pfennigs 1968 29,034,023
Ten Pfennigs 1969 181,311,800
Ten Pfennigs 1970 190,206,340
Ten Pfennigs 1971 300,826,000
Ten Pfennigs 1972 383,313,000
Ten Pfennigs 1973 100,226,000
Ten Pfennigs 1974 60,488,000
Ten Pfennigs 1975 60,383,000
Ten Pfennigs 1976 250,956,000
Ten Pfennigs 1977 250,345,000
Ten Pfennigs 1978 350,296,000
Ten Pfennigs 1979 400,356,000
Ten Pfennigs 1980 335,040,000
Ten Pfennigs 1981 460,774,000
Ten Pfennigs 1982 291,602,000
Ten Pfennigs 1983 130,300,000
Ten Pfennigs 1984 200,256,000
Ten Pfennigs 1985 300,219,000
Ten Pfennigs 1986 160,176,000
Ten Pfennigs 1987 225,180,000
Ten Pfennigs 1988 420,180,000
Ten Pfennigs 1989 460,180,000
Ten Pfennigs 1990 700,180,000
Ten Pfennigs 1991 850,275,000
Ten Pfennigs 1992 400,225,000
Ten Pfennigs 1993 400,225,000
Ten Pfennigs 1994 500,225,000
Ten Pfennigs 1995 549,225,000
Ten Pfennigs 1996 450,225,000
Ten Pfennigs 1997 (mint sets only) 575,000
Ten Pfennigs 1998 (mint sets only) 575,000
Ten Pfennigs 1999 (mint sets only) 575,000
Ten Pfennigs 2000 (mint sets only) 575,000
Ten Pfennigs 2001 (mint sets only) 1,040,000
Five Pfennigs (demonetised 2002)
38 coins (1949 - 2001)
Two Pfennigs (demonetised 2002)
45 coins (1950 - 2001)
Coin NameMintage
Two Pfennigs 1950 100,908,200
Two Pfennigs 1958 80,067,100
Two Pfennigs 1959 83,088,075
Two Pfennigs 1960 58,495,075
Two Pfennigs 1961 91,859,000
Two Pfennigs 1962 111,489,000
Two Pfennigs 1963 104,669,000
Two Pfennigs 1964 83,537,600
Two Pfennigs 1965 122,523,280
Two Pfennigs 1966 205,182,170
Two Pfennigs 1967 89,013,500
Two Pfennigs 1968 84,917,023
Two Pfennigs 1969 156,318,799
Two Pfennigs 1970 196,456,340
Two Pfennigs 1971 276,045,000
Two Pfennigs 1972 201,246,000
Two Pfennigs 1973 100,595,000
Two Pfennigs 1974 225,605,000
Two Pfennigs 1975 226,089,000
Two Pfennigs 1976 300,509,000
Two Pfennigs 1977 325,388,000
Two Pfennigs 1978 325,216,000
Two Pfennigs 1979 350,386,000
Two Pfennigs 1980 367,250,000
Two Pfennigs 1981 355,084,000
Two Pfennigs 1982 217,852,000
Two Pfennigs 1983 275,300,000
Two Pfennigs 1984 225,256,000
Two Pfennigs 1985 75,219,000
Two Pfennigs 1986 150,176,000
Two Pfennigs 1987 25,190,000
Two Pfennigs 1988 200,180,000
Two Pfennigs 1989 200,180,000
Two Pfennigs 1990 275,170,000
Two Pfennigs 1991 575,225,000
Two Pfennigs 1992 300,225,000
Two Pfennigs 1993 49,725,000
Two Pfennigs 1994 275,225,000
Two Pfennigs 1995 1,400,225,000
Two Pfennigs 1996 200,225,000
Two Pfennigs 1997 (mint sets only) 575,000
Two Pfennigs 1998 (mint sets only) 575,000
Two Pfennigs 1999 (mint sets only) 575,000
Two Pfennigs 2000 (mint sets only) 575,000
Two Pfennigs 2001 (mint sets only) 1,040,000
One Pfennig (demonetised 2002)
39 coins (1948 - 2001)
Coin NameMintage
One Pfennig 1948 239,435,984
One Pfennig 1949 402,684,951
One Pfennig 1950 2,970,968,720
One Pfennig 1966 255,201,170
One Pfennig 1967 147,462,500
One Pfennig 1968 102,942,022
One Pfennig 1969 310,424,800
One Pfennig 1970 372,283,340
One Pfennig 1971 471,931,200
One Pfennig 1972 349,888,000
One Pfennig 1973 149,886,000
One Pfennig 1974 350,257,000
One Pfennig 1975 350,431,000
One Pfennig 1976 500,522,000
One Pfennig 1977 550,194,000
One Pfennig 1978 600,216,000
One Pfennig 1979 600,356,000
One Pfennig 1980 616,190,000
One Pfennig 1981 811,024,000
One Pfennig 1982 441,252,000
One Pfennig 1983 180,300,000
One Pfennig 1984 225,256,000
One Pfennig 1985 75,219,000
One Pfennig 1986 150,176,000
One Pfennig 1987 25,190,000
One Pfennig 1988 200,180,000
One Pfennig 1989 400,180,000
One Pfennig 1990 650,180,000
One Pfennig 1991 1,300,225,000
One Pfennig 1992 200,225,000
One Pfennig 1993 200,225,000
One Pfennig 1994 500,225,000
One Pfennig 1995 500,225,000
One Pfennig 1996 400,225,000
One Pfennig 1997 (mint sets only) 575,000
One Pfennig 1998 (mint sets only) 575,000
One Pfennig 1999 (mint sets only) 575,000
One Pfennig 2000 (mint sets only) 575,000
One Pfennig 2001 (mint sets only) 1,040,000
Currency: Euro. Used in Germany: (1999 - present)
CurrencyEuro
PeriodEuro
Used1999 - present
Description

The currency was introduced in non-physical form (traveller's cheques, electronic transfers, banking, etc.) at midnight on 1 January 1999, when the national currencies of participating countries (the eurozone) ceased to exist independently. Their exchange rates were locked at fixed rates against each other. The euro thus became the successor to the European Currency Unit (ECU). The notes and coins for the old currencies, however, continued to be used as legal tender until new euro notes and coins were introduced on 1 January 2002.

The changeover period during which the former currencies' notes and coins were exchanged for those of the euro lasted about two months, until 28 February 2002. The official date on which the national currencies ceased to be legal tender varied from member state to member state. The earliest date was in Germany, where the mark officially ceased to be legal tender on 31 December 2001, though the exchange period lasted for two months more. Even after the old currencies ceased to be legal tender, they continued to be accepted by national central banks for periods ranging from several years to forever (the latter in Austria, Germany, Ireland, Estonia and Latvia for banknotes and coins; also, Belgium, Luxembourg, Slovenia and Slovakia will accept banknotes forever, but not coins). The earliest coins to become non-convertible were the Portuguese escudos, which ceased to have monetary value after 31 December 2002, although banknotes remain exchangeable until 2022.

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