Two Marks, Max Planck, Coin Type from Germany - detailed information

Two Marks, Max Planck, Coin Type from Germany (issued 1957 - 1971)
Coin TypeTwo Marks, Max Planck

The Two Marks coin, abbreviated 2 DM and known in English as 2 German Marks, was a relatively large circulating denomination of the Deutsche Mark (German mark), which was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later of unified Germany from 1990 until 2002.

The initial design was similar to the 1 Mark coin and was only issued in 1951. It was superseded by this design honouring Max Planck, which was issued between 1957 and 1971.

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858 - 1947), known as the father of quantum physics, was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. He made many contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame as a physicist rests primarily on his role as the originator of quantum theory, which revolutionized human understanding of atomic and subatomic processes. In 1948, the German scientific institution the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (of which Planck was twice president) was renamed the Max Planck Society in his honour.

This type is called "2 Deutsche Mark II. Ausgabe" ("second issue") in German by the Deutsche Bundesbank; it was struck by four different mints:
- Munich Mint - mint mark D
- Stuttgart Mint - mint mark F
- Karlsruhe Mint - mint mark G
- Hamburg Mint - mint mark J

The diameter of these coins was slightly larger than the earlier type. They were made of copper-nickel with composition Cu (copper) 75%, Ni (nickel) 25%, similar to many other coins issued by other countries - which caused vending machines to confuse other (cheaper) foreign coins with them and accept those coins as 2 Marks. For this reason, this coin type was demonetised in 1973 and was superseded with three-layered coins with a Nickel core (making them magnetic).

The newer coins are known as the "politicians series", because on their obverses they featured portraits of German politicians:
- Konrad Adenauer, 1969 - 1987
- Theodor Heuss, 1970 - 1987
- Kurt Schumacher, 1979 - 1993
- Ludwig Erhard, 1988 - 2001
- Franz Josef Strauß (Strauss), 1990 - 2001
- Willy Brandt, 1994 - 2001

The edge inscription was the same throughout the history of the denomination: Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit, meaning "Unity and Justice and Freedom".

In 1999, the Deutsche Mark was replaced by the Euro; its coins and banknotes remained in circulation, defined in terms of euros, until the introduction of euro notes and coins on 1 January 2002. The Deutsche Mark ceased to be legal tender immediately upon the introduction of the euro - in contrast to the other eurozone nations, where the euro and legacy currency circulated side by side for up to two months. Mark coins and banknotes continued to be accepted as valid forms of payment in Germany until 28 February 2002.

Obverse
Germany / Two Marks, Max Planck - obverse photo

The obverse of the coin, designed by Karl Roth, has within a beaded circle the portrait of the physicist Prof. Dr. Max Planck, wearing glasses, facing left.

Around above is his name: MAX PLANCK.

Around below, the dates of his birth and death: * 1858 - 1947 +.

Obverse Inscription MAX PLANCK * 1858 - 1947 +
Reverse
Germany / Two Marks, Max Planck - reverse photo

The reverse of the coin depicts, within a beaded circle, the Federal Eagle of Germany, being a one headed eagle, its head facing left, its wings open and with open feathering.

Around left, the legend BUNDESREPUBLIK · DEUTSCHLAND ·, meaning Federal Republic of Germany.

Around right, facing in the opposite direction, the value and denomination 2 DEUTSCHE MARK (2 German marks).

The date [year] is divided by the eagle's feet. The mint mark of the mint which produced the coin is a tiny letter above the horizontal stroke of the numeral 2 of the value.

Reverse Inscription BUNDESREPUBLIK · DEUTSCHLAND · 2 DEUTSCHE MARK [year]
EdgeInscribed (incuse lettering)Edge InscriptionEINIGKEIT UND RECHT UND FREIHEIT
Coin Type: Two Marks, Max Planck - (15) Coins
Coin NameMintageSymbolLegend
Two Marks 1957 Max Planck 27,597,876 MAX PLANCK * 1858 - 1947 +
Two Marks 1958 Max Planck 49,601,685 MAX PLANCK * 1858 - 1947 +
Two Marks 1959 Max Planck 1,223,062 MAX PLANCK * 1858 - 1947 +
Two Marks 1960 Max Planck 14,598,316 MAX PLANCK * 1858 - 1947 +
Two Marks 1961 Max Planck 13,506,224 MAX PLANCK * 1858 - 1947 +
Two Marks 1962 Max Planck 12,858,250 MAX PLANCK * 1858 - 1947 +
Two Marks 1963 Max Planck 18,959,319 MAX PLANCK * 1858 - 1947 +
Two Marks 1964 Max Planck 15,764,487 MAX PLANCK * 1858 - 1947 +
Two Marks 1965 Max Planck 14,562,603 MAX PLANCK * 1858 - 1947 +
Two Marks 1966 Max Planck 19,518,540 MAX PLANCK * 1858 - 1947 +
Two Marks 1967 Max Planck 15,582,483 MAX PLANCK * 1858 - 1947 +
Two Marks 1968 Max Planck 9,226,153 MAX PLANCK * 1858 - 1947 +
Two Marks 1969 Max Planck 10,059,800 MAX PLANCK * 1858 - 1947 +
Two Marks 1970 Max Planck 20,393,340 MAX PLANCK * 1858 - 1947 +
Two Marks 1971 Max Planck 32,919,000 MAX PLANCK * 1858 - 1947 +
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Two Marks, Max Planck: Details
CountryGermany
CurrencyDeutsche Mark
Sub-type ofTwo Marks
From1957
To1971
Face Value2 (x Mark)
CurrentNo (demonetised 1973)
MaterialCuproNickel
DesignerKarl Roth
TechnologyMilled (machine-made)
ShapeRound
OrientationMedal Alignment (Axis 0)
Size26.750 mm
Thickness1.790 mm
Mass7.000 g