Two Marks, Coin Type from Germany - detailed information

Two Marks, Coin Type from Germany (issued 1951 - 2001)
Coin TypeTwo Marks

The Two Marks coin, abbreviated 2 DM and known in English as 2 German Marks, was a relatively large circulating denomination of the Deutsche Mark (German mark), which was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later of unified Germany from 1990 until 2002. The coinage was first issued under Allied occupation after World War II, by the "Bank deutscher Länder" (Bank of the German States) from 1950, then by the Deutsche Bundesbank (German Federal Bank) since 1957.

The coins were struck by five different mints:
- Berlin Mint - mint mark A (from 1991; Berlin was in a different country - the German Democratic Republic - before that)
- Munich Mint - mint mark D
- Stuttgart Mint - mint mark F
- Karlsruhe Mint - mint mark G
- Hamburg Mint - mint mark J

In 1998, the Stuttgart Mint and the Karlsruhe Mint merged to form the Staatliche Münzen Baden-Württemberg (SMBW) - State Mints of Baden-Württemberg, but retained their separate mint marks.

Unlike the smaller denominations, which had the same appearance throughout their existence, the 2 Marks saw several different designs:
- the initial design (similar to the 1 Mark coin) was only issued in 1951 and was demonetised in 1958
- 2 Marks with the portrait of Max Planck were issued from 1957 to 1971 and were demonetised in 1973
- 2 Marks with the portrait of Konrad Adenauer were issued from 1969 to 1987
- 2 Marks with the portrait of Theodor Heuss were issued from 1970 to 1987
- 2 Marks with the portrait of Kurt Schumacher were issued from 1979 to 1993
- 2 Marks with the portrait of Ludwig Erhard were issued from 1988 to 2001
- 2 Marks with the portrait of Franz Josef Strauß (Strauss) were issued from 1990 to 2001
- 2 Marks with the portrait of Willy Brandt were issued from 1994 to 2001

Note that after 1969, new designs (featuring portraits of politicians) did not supplant the previous ones; older designs continued to be issued and used in parallel.

The coins are made of copper-nickel, with composition Cu (copper) 75%, Ni (nickel) 25%; coins of the "politicians" series which started in 1969 had three layers, with CuproNickel outer layers and a Nickel core. The edge inscription was the same throughout the history of the denomination: Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit, meaning "Unity and Justice and Freedom".

In 1999, the Deutsche Mark was replaced by the Euro; its coins and banknotes remained in circulation, defined in terms of euros, until the introduction of euro notes and coins on 1 January 2002. The Deutsche Mark ceased to be legal tender immediately upon the introduction of the euro - in contrast to the other eurozone nations, where the euro and legacy currency circulated side by side for up to two months. Mark coins and banknotes continued to be accepted as valid forms of payment in Germany until 28 February 2002.

Obverse
Germany / Two Marks - obverse photo

Eight different obverses were used, featuring the German Federal Eagle (1951 only), then the portrait of the scientist Max Planck (1957 - 1971), then portraits of various German politicians: Konrad Adenauer (1969 - 1987), Theodor Heuss (1970 - 1987), Kurt Schumacher (1979 - 1993), Ludwig Erhard (1988 - 2001), Franz Josef Strauß (1990 - 2001) and Willy Brandt (1994 - 2001).

Obverse Inscription
Reverse
Germany / Two Marks - reverse photo

After the first (one-year type) issue in 1950, the reverse showed at its centre the Federal Eagle of Germany, being a one headed eagle, its head turned to the right, its wings open but with closed feathering. The date: [year] is above its head, and the mint mark of the mint which produced the coin is under its right foot.

Around left, the legend BUNDESREPUBLIK DEUTSCHLAND, meaning Federal Republic of Germany.

Around right, facing in the opposite direction, the value and denomination 2 DEUTSCHE MARK (2 German marks).

Reverse Inscription BUNDESREPUBLIK DEUTSCHLAND 2 DEUTSCHE MARK [year]
EdgeInscribed (incuse lettering)Edge InscriptionEINIGKEIT UND RECHT UND FREIHEIT
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Royal Mint
Royal Mint
Two Marks: Details
CountryGermany
CurrencyDeutsche Mark
Sub-types Two Marks, German Eagle
Two Marks, Max Planck
Two Marks, Konrad Adenauer
Two Marks, Theodor Heuss
Two Marks, Kurt Schumacher
Two Marks, Ludwig Erhard
Two Marks, Franz Josef Strauß
Two Marks, Willy Brandt
From1951
To2001
Face Value2 (x Mark)
CurrentNo (demonetised 2002)
MaterialCuproNickel
Designer
TechnologyMilled (machine-made)
ShapeRound
OrientationMedal Alignment (Axis 0)
Size26.750 mm
Thickness1.790 mm
Mass7.000 g