Halfpenny, Coin Type from Australia - detailed information

Halfpenny, Coin Type from Australia (issued 1911 - 1964)
Coin TypeHalfpenny

The Australian halfpenny (or half penny) coin was the smallest circulating denomination of the Australian Pound; unlike the British pre-decimal Pound Sterling, the Australian Pound had no smaller denominations like the British farthings and fractional farthings.

The Australian halfpenny has the same dimensions and composition as the British pre-decimal halfpenny, from which it is derived (for a time, the coins circulated in parallel and were interchangeable in Australia - but not in the United Kingdom; the currencies were fixed at par). 1/2 penny was worth 1/24 of a shilling, or 1/480 of a pound.

The reverse of the first type of Australian halfpenny coins features text only. In 1939, a new design superseded it - featuring the iconic leaping kangaroo; the old type of coins remained in circulation.

The coins were struck by a number of different mints, with various mint marks:
- Royal Mint, 1911 - 1914, no mint mark; 1951, letters PL
- Birmingham Mint (ex Heaton and Sons), 1912 - 1915, letter H; 1951, letters PL (as subcontractor for the Royal Mint)
- Calcutta Mint, 1916 - 1918, letter I
- Sydney Mint, 1916 - 1926, no mint mark
- Melbourne Mint, 1923 - 1959, no mint mark
- Bombay Mint, 1942 - 1943, dots before and after the denomination: .HALF PENNY., plus letter I on the obverse
- Perth Mint, 1942 - 1964, dot after the denomination: HALF PENNY. or a high dot after AUSTRALIA, or no mint mark

The coin was first minted in 1911 and minting ceased in 1964, excluding 1937, 1956 - 1958 inclusive. Counting the known mintages of proofs, a total of 422,882,890 (422 million) coins of the denomination were minted during its existence.

They circulated until decimalisation and were withdrawn in 1966, when Australia switched to its current Australian Dollar currency. Unlike some of the larger denominations, they were not re-denominated into units of the new currency. However, the halfpenny coins were never formally demonetised and are still legal tender for 5⁄12¢.

Obverse
Australia / Halfpenny - obverse photo

Effigy of the ruling British monarch, legend (in Latin). Being a Dominion of the British Empire, Australia used the Imperial legend of the monarch and not a "home" version of it.

Throughout the existence of the coin type, the monarchs were:
- King George V, 1911 - 1936, shown in his Crowned bust by Sir Edgar Bertram Mackennal
- King George VI, 1938 - 1952, shown in his Bare Head portrait by Thomas Humphrey Paget
- Queen Elizabeth II, 1953 - 1964, shown in her First Effigy by Mary Gillick

There were no coins released for King Edward VIII.

Obverse Inscription Legend of the ruling British monarch
Reverse
Australia / Halfpenny - reverse photo

First reverse (1911 - 1939):

At centre within a circle of beads, the value and denomination ONE HALF PENNY in three lines above a plain scroll; around above, outside the circle of beads, COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA; below, the date · [year] ·.

Second reverse (1939 - 1964):
At centre a kangaroo leaping right; around above, AUSTRALIA; around below, the value and denomination HALF PENNY. The date [year] is below the kangaroo and the seven pointed Federation star follows the word PENNY. The artist's initials, KG (for [George] Kruger Gray) are below the kangaroo's tail near the rim.

Reverse Inscription
EdgePlainEdge InscriptionNone
Notes

If you keep your coins in 2x2 cardboard holders, the best size for halfpennies is 27.5mm.

Coin Type: Halfpenny - (51) Coins
Coin NameReverseObverseDetails
Halfpenny 1911 Australia / Halfpenny 1911 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1911 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Royal Mint
Mintage: 2,832,060
Halfpenny 1912 Australia / Halfpenny 1912 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1912 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Birmingham Mint
Mintage: 2,400,000
Halfpenny 1913 Australia / Halfpenny 1913 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1913 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Royal Mint
Mintage: 2,160,000
Halfpenny 1914 Australia / Halfpenny 1914 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1914 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Royal Mint: 1,440,000
- Birmingham Mint: 1,200,000
Total Mintage: 2,640,000
Halfpenny 1915 Australia / Halfpenny 1915 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1915 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Birmingham Mint
Mintage: 720,000
Halfpenny 1916 Australia / Halfpenny 1916 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1916 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Calcutta Mint
Mintage: 3,600,025
Halfpenny 1917 Australia / Halfpenny 1917 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1917 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Calcutta Mint
Mintage: 5,760,000
Halfpenny 1918 Australia / Halfpenny 1918 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1918 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Calcutta Mint
Mintage: 1,440,000
Halfpenny 1919 Australia / Halfpenny 1919 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1919 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Sydney Mint
Mintage: 3,326,400
Halfpenny 1920 Australia / Halfpenny 1920 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1920 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Sydney Mint
Mintage: 4,113,600
Halfpenny 1921 Australia / Halfpenny 1921 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1921 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Sydney Mint
Mintage: 5,280,000
Halfpenny 1922 Australia / Halfpenny 1922 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1922 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Sydney Mint
Mintage: 6,924,000
Halfpenny 1923 Australia / Halfpenny 1923 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1923 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 1,113,600
Halfpenny 1924 Australia / Halfpenny 1924 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1924 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 681,600
Halfpenny 1925 Australia / Halfpenny 1925 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1925 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 1,147,200
Halfpenny 1926 Australia / Halfpenny 1926 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1926 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Melbourne Mint: unknown
- Sydney Mint: unknown
Total Mintage: 4,132,800
Halfpenny 1927 Australia / Halfpenny 1927 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1927 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 3,072,050
Halfpenny 1928 Australia / Halfpenny 1928 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1928 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 2,318,400
Halfpenny 1929 Australia / Halfpenny 1929 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1929 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 2,635,200
Halfpenny 1930 Australia / Halfpenny 1930 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1930 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 638,406
Halfpenny 1931 Australia / Halfpenny 1931 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1931 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 369,600
Halfpenny 1932 Australia / Halfpenny 1932 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1932 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 2,553,600
Halfpenny 1933 Australia / Halfpenny 1933 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1933 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 4,608,000
Halfpenny 1934 Australia / Halfpenny 1934 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1934 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 3,816,100
Halfpenny 1935 Australia / Halfpenny 1935 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1935 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 2,916,100
Halfpenny 1936 Australia / Halfpenny 1936 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1936 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 2,562,200
Halfpenny 1938 Australia / Halfpenny 1938 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1938 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 3,014,250
Halfpenny 1939 Commonwealth of Australia Australia / Halfpenny 1939 Commonwealth of Australia - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1939 Commonwealth of Australia - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 4,382,400
Halfpenny 1939 Kangaroo Australia / Halfpenny 1939 Kangaroo - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1939 Kangaroo - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 504,100
Halfpenny 1940 Australia / Halfpenny 1940 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1940 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 2,294,400
Halfpenny 1941 Australia / Halfpenny 1941 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1941 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 5,011,200
Halfpenny 1942 Australia / Halfpenny 1942 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1942 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Bombay Mint: 6,000,000
- Perth Mint: 4,334,400
- Melbourne Mint: 720,000
Total Mintage: 11,054,400
Halfpenny 1943 Australia / Halfpenny 1943 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1943 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Melbourne Mint: 33,988,806
- Bombay Mint: 6,000,000
- Perth Mint: unknown
Total Mintage: 39,988,806
Halfpenny 1944 Australia / Halfpenny 1944 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1944 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 720,000
Halfpenny 1945 Australia / Halfpenny 1945 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1945 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Perth Mint
Mintage: 3,033,600
Halfpenny 1946 Australia / Halfpenny 1946 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1946 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Perth Mint
Mintage: 13,747,200
Halfpenny 1947 Australia / Halfpenny 1947 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1947 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Perth Mint
Mintage: 9,292,800
Halfpenny 1948 Australia / Halfpenny 1948 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1948 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Perth Mint: 25,552,800
- Melbourne Mint: 4,608,000
Total Mintage: 30,160,800
Halfpenny 1949 Australia / Halfpenny 1949 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1949 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Perth Mint
Mintage: 22,310,400
Halfpenny 1950 Australia / Halfpenny 1950 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1950 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Perth Mint
Mintage: 12,014,400
Halfpenny 1951 Australia / Halfpenny 1951 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1951 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Perth Mint: 29,422,080
- Royal Mint: 6,960,000
- Birmingham Mint: 5,040,000
Total Mintage: 41,422,080
Halfpenny 1952 Australia / Halfpenny 1952 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1952 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Perth Mint
Mintage: 1,831,680
Halfpenny 1953 Australia / Halfpenny 1953 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1953 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Perth Mint
Mintage: 23,967,376
Halfpenny 1954 Australia / Halfpenny 1954 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1954 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Perth Mint
Mintage: 21,962,880
Halfpenny 1955 Australia / Halfpenny 1955 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1955 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Perth Mint
Mintage: 9,343,021
Halfpenny 1959 Australia / Halfpenny 1959 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1959 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 10,167,906
Halfpenny 1960 Australia / Halfpenny 1960 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1960 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Perth Mint
Mintage: 17,812,870
Halfpenny 1961 Australia / Halfpenny 1961 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1961 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Perth Mint
Mintage: 20,184,080
Halfpenny 1962 Australia / Halfpenny 1962 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1962 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Perth Mint
Mintage: 10,259,624
Halfpenny 1963 Australia / Halfpenny 1963 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1963 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Perth Mint
Mintage: 16,411,300
Halfpenny 1964 Australia / Halfpenny 1964 - reverse photo Australia / Halfpenny 1964 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Perth Mint
Mintage: 18,230,401
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Halfpenny: Details
CountryAustralia
CurrencyAustralian Pound
Sub-types Halfpenny - Commonwealth of Australia
Halfpenny - Kangaroo
From1911
To1964
Face Value1/2 (x Penny)
CurrentNo; withdrawn 1966
MaterialBronze
Designer
TechnologyMilled (machine-made)
ShapeRound
OrientationMedal Alignment (Axis 0)
Size25.400 mm
Mass5.670 g
Halfpenny: Photos
ImageDetails
Specimen Coin - Halfpenny, Australia, 1911
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Commonwealth of Australia reverse (1911 - 1939).
Source
Proof Coin - Halfpenny, Australia, 1939
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Kangaroo reverse (1939 - 1964).
Source
Specimen Coin - Halfpenny, Australia, 1911
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: King George V (1911 - 1936).
Source
Australia 1938 half penny
Copyright: CoinFactsWiki / CC BY-SA
Author:
Notes: King George VI, Emperor of India (1938 - 1948).
Source
Proof Coin - Halfpenny, Australia, 1950
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: King George VI (1949 - 1952).
Source
Proof Coin - Halfpenny, Australia, 1953
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Queen Elizabeth II (1953 - 1955).
Source
Australia 1959(m) half penny
Copyright: CoinFactsWiki / CC BY-SA
Author:
Notes: Queen Elizabeth II, Defender of the Faith (1959 - 1964).
Source