Penny 1920, Coin from Australia - detailed information

Penny 1920, Coin from Australia
CoinPenny 1920

A bronze coin (30.8 mm diameter with plain edge) featuring a crowned and robed bust of George V facing left; around, GEORGIVS V D.G. BRITT: OMN: REX F.D. IND: IMP: ; below bust in small lettering the artist's initials B.M. The reverse features, within a circle of beads, the words ONE PENNY in two lines between upper and lower ornate scrolls; around the circle of beads, COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA . 1920 . There is a small dot below the lower scroll.

The dots on the 1919 and 1920 pennies were part of a series of tests on die steels that were undertaken at Melbourne. Dies were supplied to Sydney from Melbourne and it is argued that the steel marks can sometimes reflect the mint which produced the coin. According to the Australian Coin Chart 1966, the "Dot above top scroll" variety was minted at the Melbourne Mint and the "Dot below scroll variety" at the Sydney Mint. There is no indication as to the other varieties.

Sydney did not "mark" bronze planchets before striking at that time and had difficulty with the clarity of the rim (as illustrated in the photo below).

Master dies (London or Indian obverse) are judged by the alignment of letters and rim beads. Most catalogues however do not distinguish varieties based on different obverse.

Greg McDonald's Guide to Australian Coins and Banknotes lists the Proof variety as "Dot above top scroll" only.

The varieties listed below comprise all of the known 1920 Australian one penny coins (i.e. there is no "regular" coin which is not listed as a variety).

Mints
NameMint markMintage
Melbourne Mint No mint mark unknown
Sydney Mint No mint mark unknown
Obverse
Australia / Penny 1920 - obverse photo

Crowned and robed bust of King George V facing left; around, the monarch's legend in Latin GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: · (George V, by the Grace of God, King of all the Britains, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India); in relief on the bust truncation, in small letters are the artist's initials B.M. (for [Sir Edgar] Bertram Mackennal).

Obverse Inscription GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Reverse
Australia / Penny 1920 - reverse photo

At centre within a circle of beads, the denomination ONE PENNY in two lines between upper and lower ornate scrolls; around above, outside the circle of beads, COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA; below, the date · 1920 ·.

There may be small dots below the lower scroll and above the upper scroll. The meaning of these is much debated. The current consensus seems to be that they are not mint marks, hence coins minted by the Melbourne Mint and the Sydney Mint are indistinguishable.

Reverse Inscription ONE PENNY COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA 1920
EdgePlainEdge InscriptionNone
Penny 1920: Known varieties
Variety Plain (no dots, London obverse) Australia / Penny 1920 / Plain (no dots, London obverse) - reverse photo
Mintage unknown
DetailsLast stroke of 'N' in 'OMN' lines up in-between outer rim denticles, ':' after 'IMP' lines up with outer rim denticle.
Variety Plain (no dots, Indian obverse)
Mintage unknown
DetailsLast stroke of 'N' in 'OMN' lines up with outer rim denticle, ':' after 'IMP' lines up in-between outer rim denticles.
Variety Dot below lower scroll, Indian obverse
Mintage unknown
DetailsLast stroke of 'N' in 'OMN' lines up with outer rim denticle, ':' after 'IMP' lines up in-between outer rim denticles.
Variety Dot above lower scroll, Indian obverse
Mintage unknown
DetailsLast stroke of 'N' in 'OMN' lines up with outer rim denticle, ':' after 'IMP' lines up in-between outer rim denticles.
Variety Double dot, Indian obverse
Mintage unknown
DetailsDot above top scroll and dot below bottom scroll on reverse. Last stroke of 'N' in 'OMN' lines up with outer rim denticle, ':' after 'IMP' lines up in-between outer rim denticles.
Variety Dot above top scroll, Indian obverse Australia / Penny 1920 / Dot above top scroll, Indian obverse - reverse photo
Mintage unknown
DetailsLast stroke of 'N' in 'OMN' lines up with outer rim denticle, ':' after 'IMP' lines up in-between outer rim denticles.
Variety Dot below lower scroll, London obverse
Mintage unknown
DetailsLast stroke of 'N' in 'OMN' lines up in-between outer rim denticles, ':' after 'IMP' lines up with outer rim denticle.
Variety Dot above lower scroll, London obverse
Mintage unknown
DetailsLast stroke of 'N' in 'OMN' lines up in-between outer rim denticles, ':' after 'IMP' lines up with outer rim denticle.
Variety Proof (Melbourne Mint)
Mintage unknown
DetailsGreg McDonald's Guide to Australian Coins and Banknotes lists the Proof variety as "Dot above top scroll" only.
Penny 1920: References to Information Used
SourceEditionAboutLinkNotes
Museums Victoria Collections 2016 Coin description link
Renniks, Australian Coin and Banknote Values 1965 Mint
Renniks, Australian Coin and Banknote Values 1965 Mintage
Australian Coin Chart 1965 Mintage
Museums Victoria Collections 2016 Varieties link London and Indian obverse
Renniks, Australian Coin and Banknote Values 1965 Varieties Dots; London and Indian obverse
Australian Coin Chart 1965 Varieties Dots
All (53) Coins of Country: Australia, Type: Penny
Coin NameMintageEffigyLegend
Penny 1911 3,768,000 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1912 3,600,000 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1913 2,520,000 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1914 720,000 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1915 2,280,000 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1916 3,324,000 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1917 6,240,000 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1918 1,200,000 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1919 5,810,160 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1920 9,041,600 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1921 7,438,320 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1922 12,697,440 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1923 5,654,400 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1924 4,665,840 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1925 1,639,200 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1926 1,860,000 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1927 4,922,450 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1928 3,038,400 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1929 2,599,200 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1930 unknown Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1931 494,400 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1932 2,116,800 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1933 5,817,600 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1934 5,808,100 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1935 3,724,900 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1936 9,890,400 Portrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust) GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1937 (pattern) 12 King George VI by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1938 5,552,650 King George VI by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1939 6,240,000 King George VI by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1940 5,188,800 King George VI by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1941 14,382,800 King George VI by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1942 21,244,800 King George VI by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1943 53,198,400 King George VI by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1944 29,942,000 King George VI by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1945 15,172,806 King George VI by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1946 240,000 King George VI by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1947 11,174,400 King George VI by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1948 28,150,000 King George VI by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1949 27,064,800 King George VI by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX FIDEI DEF.
Penny 1950 57,846,800 King George VI by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX FIDEI DEF.
Penny 1951 52,128,000 King George VI by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX FIDEI DEF.
Penny 1952 57,922,000 King George VI by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX FIDEI DEF.
Penny 1953 13,138,816 Portrait by Mary Gillick (First Portrait) ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA +
Penny 1955 17,447,101 Portrait by Mary Gillick (First Portrait) ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Penny 1956 25,994,917 Portrait by Mary Gillick (First Portrait) ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Penny 1957 15,979,112 Portrait by Mary Gillick (First Portrait) ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Penny 1958 24,443,334 Portrait by Mary Gillick (First Portrait) ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Penny 1959 16,048,136 Portrait by Mary Gillick (First Portrait) ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Penny 1960 20,516,230 Portrait by Mary Gillick (First Portrait) ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Penny 1961 30,608,240 Portrait by Mary Gillick (First Portrait) ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Penny 1962 34,852,664 Portrait by Mary Gillick (First Portrait) ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Penny 1963 10,259,660 Portrait by Mary Gillick (First Portrait) ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
Penny 1964 109,180,401 Portrait by Mary Gillick (First Portrait) ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D : +
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Penny 1920: Details
CountryAustralia
CurrencyAustralian Pound
Coin TypePenny - Commonwealth of Australia
Issued1920
MonarchKing George V
EffigyPortrait by Bertram Mackennal (Crowned Bust)
Face Value1 (x Penny)
Mintage9,041,600
CurrentNo (demonetised 1966)
MaterialBronze
DesignerWilliam Henry James Blakemore
TechnologyMilled (machine-made)
ShapeRound
Size (mm)30.8000
Mass (g)9.4500
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Penny 1920: Photos
ImageDetails
Specimen Coin - 1 Penny, Proof Strike, Australia, 1920
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Dot below lower scroll. Proof.
Source
Specimen Coin - 1 Penny, Proof Strike, Australia, 1920
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: London obverse. Proof.
Source
Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1920
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: No dots.
Source
Specimen Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1920
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Indian obverse.
Source
Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1920
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Dot above top scroll.
Source
Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1920
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Indian obverse. Sydney Mint (weak rim).
Source
Penny 1920: Catalogue Reference IDs
SourceReference ID
Krause, Standard Catalog of World CoinsAustralia KM# 23
Renniks, Australian Coin and Banknote ValuesB12 (Melbourne Mint), B13 (Sydney Mint) no dots
Australian Coin ChartP12 (No dots)
Renniks, Australian Coin and Banknote ValuesB14 (Dot under scroll)
Australian Coin ChartP13 (Dot under scroll)
Renniks, Australian Coin and Banknote ValuesB15 (Dot over bottom scroll)
Australian Coin ChartP14 (Dot over scroll)
Renniks, Australian Coin and Banknote ValuesB14A (Dot above and below scrolls)
Australian Coin ChartP15 (Dot above and below scrolls)