Penny - Kangaroo, Coin Type from Australia - detailed information

Penny - Kangaroo, Coin Type from Australia (issued 1938 - 1964)
Coin TypePenny - Kangaroo

The Australian penny coin was a small circulating denomination of the Australian Pound. It has the same dimensions and composition as the British pre-decimal penny, from which it is derived (for a time, the coins circulated in parallel and were interchangeable in Australia - but not in the United Kingdom; the currencies were fixed at par). It was worth one twelfth of an Australian shilling and 1/240 of an Australian pound.

The reverse of the first type of Australian penny coins featured text only. In 1938, this new design by George Kruger Gray superseded it - featuring the iconic leaping kangaroo.

The coins were struck by a number of different mints, with various mint marks:
- Melbourne Mint, 1938 - 1964, no mint mark
- Perth Mint, 1940 - 1964, dot between designer's initials: K.G or dot after denomination: PENNY.
- Bombay Mint, 1942 - 1945, dots before and after the denomination: .PENNY., plus letter I on the obverse
- Royal Mint, 1951, letters PL

Counting the known mintages of proofs, a total of 703,916,879 (704 million) coins of this type were minted during its existence. They circulated until decimalisation and were withdrawn in 1966, when Australia switched to its current Australian Dollar currency. Unlike some of the larger denominations, they were not re-denominated into units of the new currency. However, the penny coins were never formally demonetised and are still legal tender for 10⁄12¢.

Obverse
Australia / Penny - Kangaroo - obverse photo

Effigy of the ruling British monarch, legend (in Latin). Being a Dominion of the British Empire, Australia used the Imperial legend of the monarch and not a "home" version of it.

Throughout the existence of the coin type, the monarchs were:
- King George VI, 1938 - 1952, shown in his Bare Head portrait by Thomas Humphrey Paget
- Queen Elizabeth II, 1953 - 1964, shown in her First Effigy by Mary Gillick

There were no coins released for King Edward VIII.

Obverse Inscription Legend of the ruling British monarch
Reverse
Australia / Penny - Kangaroo - reverse photo

Kangaroo leaping to the left; around above, the legend AUSTRALIA.

Around below, the denomination PENNY; the seven pointed Federation star is in the field to the left of the kangaroo and the date [year] is in the field below its tail.

The artist's initials KG (for [George] Kruger Gray) are above the tip of the kangaroo's tail.

Reverse Inscription AUSTRALIA PENNY [year]
EdgePlainEdge InscriptionNone
Coin Type: Penny - Kangaroo - (27) Coins
Coin NameMintageEffigyLegend
Penny 1937 (pattern) 12 King George VI - Bare Head GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1938 5,552,650 King George VI - Bare Head GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1939 6,240,000 King George VI - Bare Head GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1940 5,188,800 King George VI - Bare Head GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1941 14,382,800 King George VI - Bare Head GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1942 21,244,800 King George VI - Bare Head GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1943 53,198,400 King George VI - Bare Head GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1944 29,942,000 King George VI - Bare Head GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1945 15,172,806 King George VI - Bare Head GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1946 240,000 King George VI - Bare Head GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1947 11,174,400 King George VI - Bare Head GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1948 28,150,000 King George VI - Bare Head GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1949 27,064,800 King George VI - Bare Head GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX FIDEI DEF.
Penny 1950 57,846,800 King George VI - Bare Head GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX FIDEI DEF.
Penny 1951 52,128,000 King George VI - Bare Head GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX FIDEI DEF.
Penny 1952 57,922,000 King George VI - Bare Head GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX FIDEI DEF.
Penny 1953 13,138,816 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA
Penny 1955 17,447,101 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
Penny 1956 25,994,917 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
Penny 1957 15,979,112 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
Penny 1958 24,443,334 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
Penny 1959 16,048,136 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
Penny 1960 20,516,230 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
Penny 1961 30,608,240 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
Penny 1962 34,852,664 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
Penny 1963 10,259,660 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
Penny 1964 109,180,401 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
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Penny - Kangaroo: Details
CountryAustralia
CurrencyAustralian Pound
Sub-type ofPenny
From1938
To1964
Face Value1 (x Penny)
CurrentNo; withdrawn 1966
MaterialBronze
DesignerGeorge Kruger Gray
TechnologyMilled (machine-made)
ShapeRound
OrientationMedal Alignment (Axis 0)
Size30.800 mm
Mass9.450 g
Penny - Kangaroo: Photos
ImageDetails
Proof Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1949
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Kangaroo reverse (1938 - 1964).
Source
Proof Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1945
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: King George VI, Emperor of India (1938 - 1948).
Source
Proof Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1949
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: King George V (1949 - 1952).
Source
Proof Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1953
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Queen Elizabeth II (1953).
Source
Proof Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1956
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Queen Elizabeth II, Defender of the Faith (1955 - 1964).
Source