Penny, Coin Type from Australia - detailed information

Penny, Coin Type from Australia (issued 1911 - 1964)
Coin TypePenny

The Australian penny coin was a small circulating denomination of the Australian Pound. It has the same dimensions and composition as the British pre-decimal penny, from which it is derived (for a time, the coins circulated in parallel and were interchangeable in Australia - but not in the United Kingdom; the currencies were fixed at par). It was worth one twelfth of an Australian shilling and 1/240 of an Australian pound.

The reverse of the first type of Australian penny coins features text only. In 1938, a new design superseded it - featuring the iconic leaping kangaroo; the old type of coins remained in circulation.

The coins were struck by a number of different mints, with various mint marks:
- Royal Mint, 1911 - 1915, no mint mark; 1951, letters PL
- Birmingham Mint (ex Heaton and Sons), 1912 - 1915, letter H
- Calcutta Mint, 1916 - 1918, letter I
- Melbourne Mint, 1919 - 1964, no mint mark
- Sydney Mint, 1920 - 1926, no mint mark
- Perth Mint, 1922, no mint mark; 1940 - 1964, dot between designer's initials: K.G or dot after denomination: PENNY.
- Bombay Mint, 1942 - 1945, dots before and after the denomination: .PENNY., plus letter I on the obverse

Counting the known mintages of proofs, a total of 814,788,088 (815 million) coins of the denomination were minted during its existence. They circulated until decimalisation and were withdrawn in 1966, when Australia switched to its current Australian Dollar currency. Unlike some of the larger denominations, they were not re-denominated into units of the new currency. However, the penny coins were never formally demonetised and are still legal tender for 10⁄12¢.

Obverse
Australia / Penny - obverse photo

Effigy of the ruling British monarch, legend (in Latin). Being a Dominion of the British Empire, Australia used the Imperial legend of the monarch and not a "home" version of it.

Throughout the existence of the coin type, the monarchs were:
- King George V, 1911 - 1936, shown in his Crowned bust by Sir Edgar Bertram Mackennal
- King George VI, 1938 - 1952, shown in his Bare Head portrait by Thomas Humphrey Paget
- Queen Elizabeth II, 1953 - 1964, shown in her First Effigy by Mary Gillick

There were no coins released for King Edward VIII.

Obverse Inscription Legend of the ruling British monarch
Reverse
Australia / Penny - reverse photo

The Commonwealth of Australia reverse was issued from 1911 to 1936:

At centre within a circle of beads, the value and denomination ONE PENNY in two lines between upper and lower ornate scrolls.

Around above, outside the circle of beads, COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA; below, the date · [year] ·.

The kangaroo reverse was issued from 1938 to 1964:

Kangaroo leaping to the left; around above, the legend AUSTRALIA.

Around below, the denomination PENNY; the seven pointed Federation star is in the field to the left of the kangaroo and the date [year] is in the field below its tail.

The artist's initials KG (for [George] Kruger Gray) are above the tip of the kangaroo's tail.

Reverse Inscription
EdgePlainEdge InscriptionNone
Notes

If you keep your coins in 2x2 cardboard holders, the best size for pennies is 32.5mm.

Coin Type: Penny - (53) Coins
Coin NameReverseObverseDetails
Penny 1911 Australia / Penny 1911 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1911 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Royal Mint
Mintage: 3,768,000
Penny 1912 Australia / Penny 1912 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1912 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Birmingham Mint
Mintage: 3,600,000
Penny 1913 Australia / Penny 1913 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1913 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Royal Mint
Mintage: 2,520,000
Penny 1914 Australia / Penny 1914 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1914 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Royal Mint
Mintage: 720,000
Penny 1915 Australia / Penny 1915 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1915 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Birmingham Mint: 1,320,000
- Royal Mint: 960,000
Total Mintage: 2,280,000
Penny 1916 Australia / Penny 1916 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1916 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Calcutta Mint
Mintage: 3,324,000
Penny 1917 Australia / Penny 1917 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1917 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Calcutta Mint
Mintage: 6,240,000
Penny 1918 Australia / Penny 1918 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1918 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Calcutta Mint
Mintage: 1,200,000
Penny 1919 Australia / Penny 1919 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1919 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 5,810,160
Penny 1920 Australia / Penny 1920 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1920 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Melbourne Mint: unknown
- Sydney Mint: unknown
Total Mintage: 9,041,600
Penny 1921 Australia / Penny 1921 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1921 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Melbourne Mint: 7,292,160
- Sydney Mint: 146,160
Total Mintage: 7,438,320
Penny 1922 Australia / Penny 1922 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1922 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Melbourne Mint: 9,529,440
- Perth Mint: 3,168,000
Total Mintage: 12,697,440
Penny 1923 Australia / Penny 1923 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1923 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 5,654,400
Penny 1924 Australia / Penny 1924 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1924 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Melbourne Mint: 2,649,840
- Sydney Mint: 2,016,000
Total Mintage: 4,665,840
Penny 1925 Australia / Penny 1925 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1925 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 1,639,200
Penny 1926 Australia / Penny 1926 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1926 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Melbourne Mint: 1,036,800
- Sydney Mint: 823,200
Total Mintage: 1,860,000
Penny 1927 Australia / Penny 1927 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1927 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 4,922,450
Penny 1928 Australia / Penny 1928 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1928 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 3,038,400
Penny 1929 Australia / Penny 1929 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1929 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 2,599,200
Penny 1930 Australia / Penny 1930 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1930 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: unknown
Penny 1931 Australia / Penny 1931 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1931 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 494,400
Penny 1932 Australia / Penny 1932 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1932 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 2,116,800
Penny 1933 Australia / Penny 1933 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1933 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 5,817,600
Penny 1934 Australia / Penny 1934 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1934 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 5,808,100
Penny 1935 Australia / Penny 1935 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1935 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 3,724,900
Penny 1936 Australia / Penny 1936 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1936 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 9,890,400
Penny 1937 (pattern) Material: Bronze
Mint: Royal Mint
Mintage: 12
Penny 1938 Australia / Penny 1938 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1938 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 5,552,650
Penny 1939 Australia / Penny 1939 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1939 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 6,240,000
Penny 1940 Australia / Penny 1940 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1940 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Melbourne Mint: 4,075,200
- Perth Mint: 1,113,600
Total Mintage: 5,188,800
Penny 1941 Australia / Penny 1941 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1941 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Perth Mint: 12,794,000
- Melbourne Mint: 1,588,800
Total Mintage: 14,382,800
Penny 1942 Australia / Penny 1942 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1942 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Perth Mint: 12,244,800
- Bombay Mint: 9,000,000
Total Mintage: 21,244,800
Penny 1943 Australia / Penny 1943 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1943 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Perth Mint: 33,086,400
- Melbourne Mint: 11,112,000
- Bombay Mint: 9,000,000
Total Mintage: 53,198,400
Penny 1944 Australia / Penny 1944 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1944 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Perth Mint: 27,830,000
- Melbourne Mint: 2,112,000
Total Mintage: 29,942,000
Penny 1945 Australia / Penny 1945 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1945 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Perth Mint: 15,172,800
- Bombay Mint: 6
- Melbourne Mint: unknown
Total Mintage: 15,172,806
Penny 1946 Australia / Penny 1946 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1946 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 240,000
Penny 1947 Australia / Penny 1947 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1947 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Melbourne Mint: 6,684,000
- Perth Mint: 4,490,400
Total Mintage: 11,174,400
Penny 1948 Australia / Penny 1948 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1948 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Melbourne Mint: 26,616,000
- Perth Mint: 1,534,000
Total Mintage: 28,150,000
Penny 1949 Australia / Penny 1949 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1949 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Melbourne Mint
Mintage: 27,064,800
Penny 1950 Australia / Penny 1950 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1950 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Melbourne Mint: 36,358,800
- Perth Mint: 21,488,000
Total Mintage: 57,846,800
Penny 1951 Australia / Penny 1951 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1951 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Melbourne Mint: 21,240,000
- Royal Mint: 18,000,000
- Perth Mint: 12,888,000
Total Mintage: 52,128,000
Penny 1952 Australia / Penny 1952 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1952 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Perth Mint: 45,514,000
- Melbourne Mint: 12,408,000
Total Mintage: 57,922,000
Penny 1953 Australia / Penny 1953 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1953 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Melbourne Mint: 6,936,000
- Perth Mint: 6,202,816
Total Mintage: 13,138,816
Penny 1955 Australia / Penny 1955 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1955 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Perth Mint: 11,109,901
- Melbourne Mint: 6,337,200
Total Mintage: 17,447,101
Penny 1956 Australia / Penny 1956 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1956 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Melbourne Mint: 13,873,500
- Perth Mint: 12,121,417
Total Mintage: 25,994,917
Penny 1957 Australia / Penny 1957 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1957 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Perth Mint
Mintage: 15,979,112
Penny 1958 Australia / Penny 1958 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1958 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Perth Mint: 14,429,028
- Melbourne Mint: 10,014,306
Total Mintage: 24,443,334
Penny 1959 Australia / Penny 1959 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1959 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Perth Mint: 14,429,030
- Melbourne Mint: 1,619,106
Total Mintage: 16,048,136
Penny 1960 Australia / Penny 1960 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1960 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Perth Mint
Mintage: 20,516,230
Penny 1961 Australia / Penny 1961 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1961 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Perth Mint
Mintage: 30,608,240
Penny 1962 Australia / Penny 1962 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1962 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Perth Mint
Mintage: 34,852,664
Penny 1963 Australia / Penny 1963 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1963 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mint: Perth Mint
Mintage: 10,259,660
Penny 1964 Australia / Penny 1964 - reverse photo Australia / Penny 1964 - obverse photo Material: Bronze
Mints:
- Perth Mint: 54,590,401
- Melbourne Mint: 54,590,000
Total Mintage: 109,180,401
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Penny: Details
CountryAustralia
CurrencyAustralian Pound
Sub-types Penny - Commonwealth of Australia
Penny - Kangaroo
From1911
To1964
Face Value1 (x Penny)
CurrentNo; withdrawn 1966
MaterialBronze
Designer
TechnologyMilled (machine-made)
ShapeRound
Size30.800 mm
Mass9.450 g
Penny: Photos
ImageDetails
Specimen Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1911
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Commonwealth of Australia reverse (1911 - 1936).
Source
Proof Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1949
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Kangaroo reverse (1938 - 1964).
Source
Specimen Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1911
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: King George V (1911 - 1936).
Source
Proof Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1945
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: King George VI, Emperor of India (1938 - 1948).
Source
Proof Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1949
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: King George V (1949 - 1952).
Source
Proof Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1953
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Queen Elizabeth II (1953).
Source
Proof Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1956
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Queen Elizabeth II, Defender of the Faith (1955 - 1964).
Source