Penny 1831, Coin from United Kingdom - detailed information

Penny 1831, Coin from United Kingdom (demonetised 1870)
CoinPenny 1831

The British pre-decimal penny coin, abbreviated as 1d (from "denarius" - the Roman coin from which the penny is directly descended), was a unit of currency that equalled one two-hundred-and-fortieth of a pound sterling (there were 20 shillings to a pound, and 12 pence to a shilling so one pound was equal to 240 pence).

The denomination continues the tradition of earlier penny coins of Great Britain, which also featured the figure of Britannia. In 1801 the parliaments of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland each passed an Act of Union, uniting the two kingdoms and creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Re-coinage followed in 1806; there was a short-lived penny format with larger coins with concave surfaces struck by the Soho Mint but it was only issued for two years.

After 1807, no penny coins were issued until 1825 (with the exception of some circulating silver pennies), when this smaller version with a new-look Britannia and traditional flat surfaces was introduced; the design is by William Wyon, chief engraver of the Royal Mint, which was the only mint issuing the new coins.

The design is identical to that of the half penny, farthing and half farthing coins minted in the same years; the difference is only in size. Typically for British coinage of the time, the denomination (or, indeed, the country of issue) is not spelled out on the coin.

All these pennies were minted in copper, but after 1860 the denomination changed to bronze with an even smaller size.

One penny coins issued in 1831 circulated for 39 years until all British copper coinage was demonetised after 31 December 1869.

MintRoyal Mint Mint MarkNo mint mark Total Mintage806,400
Visit the Royal Mint web site for the latest coin releases Visit the Royal Mint web site for the latest coin releases
(affiliate ad)
Obverse
United Kingdom / Penny 1831 - obverse photo

Within a beaded border, the bare head of King William IV facing right.

On most coins, there are no designer's initials on the truncation of the King's neck. On some, there are initials "W.W", and on some ".W.W" (extra dot before first W), for William Wyon.

Around, part of the monarch's legend: GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA; translated from Latin: William the Fourth, by the Grace of God.

Below, the date of issue 1831.

Obverse Inscription GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1831
Reverse
United Kingdom / Penny 1831 - reverse photo

The reverse of the coin shows, within a beaded border, the figure of Britannia - the female personification of Great Britain - seated facing right, wearing a Corinthian helmet pushed back to reveal her face, resting her right hand on a shield bearing a saltire of arms, and holding a trident in her left hand.

Around, the rest of the monarch's legend: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF:; translated from Latin: King of Britain, Defender of the Faith.

In the exergue, a rose, a thistle and a shamrock combined - the floral symbols of the constituent parts of the United Kingdom, respectively England, Scotland and Ireland.

Reverse Inscription BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF:
EdgePlainEdge InscriptionNone
Notes

Mint reports indicate that pennies were also coined in 1832, 1835 and 1836. No coins with these dates are known to exist and undoubtedly dies dated 1831 or 1834 were used. These coinage figures have been included in the respective totals.

References to additional information:

[Book] Bressett, Kenneth E. 1962. A Guidebook of English Coins, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Wisconsin, USA. pp 31-40
[Book] Remick, Jerome. 1971. The Guide Book and Catalogue to British Commonwealth Coins., pp 202-206

Penny 1831: Known varieties
Variety W.W on truncation
Mintage Issued: unknown (included in total). Rarity: R3 (Extremely Rare)
Details

Designer's initials W.W on truncation of King's neck.

Variety .W.W on truncation
Mintage Issued: unknown (included in total)
Details

Designer's initials .W.W on truncation of King's neck.

Variety Proof, coin alignment
Mintage Issued: unknown
Variety Proof, medal alignment
Mintage Issued: unknown
Variety Bronze plated copper proof
Mintage Issued: unknown
Details

Listed in Krause but not in Spink. Could be one of the two proofs listed in Spink? However, Spink does not mention bronze plating.

Showing 100 from a total of 127 coins of type: Penny (Pre-decimal)
Coin NameMintageEffigyLegend
Penny 1806 unknown King George III - Laureate Head by Küchler GEORGIUS III · D : G · REX. 1806
Penny 1807 unknown King George III - Laureate Head by Küchler GEORGIUS III · D : G · REX. 1807
Penny 1808 (Proof only) 1 King George III - Laureate Head by Küchler GEORGIUS III · D : G · REX. 1808
Penny 1817 (Silver, circulating) unknown King George III - Small Head GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA 1817
Penny 1818 (Silver, circulating) unknown King George III - Small Head GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA 1818
Penny 1820 (Silver, circulating) unknown King George III - Small Head GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA 1820
Penny 1825 1,075,200 King George IV - Laureate Head by Wyon GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA · 1825 ·
Penny 1826 5,913,600 King George IV - Laureate Head by Wyon GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA · 1826 ·
Penny 1827 1,451,520 King George IV - Laureate Head by Wyon GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA · 1827 ·
Penny 1831 806,400 King William IV - Bare Head GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1831
Penny 1834 322,560 King William IV - Bare Head GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1834
Penny 1837 174,720 King William IV - Bare Head GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1837
Penny 1839 (Proof only) unknown Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1839
Penny 1841 913,920 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1841
Penny 1843 483,840 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1843
Penny 1844 215,040 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1844
Penny 1845 322,560 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1845
Penny 1846 483,840 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1846
Penny 1847 430,080 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1847
Penny 1848 161,280 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1848
Penny 1849 268,800 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1849
Penny 1851 532,224 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1851
Penny 1853 1,021,440 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1853
Penny 1854 6,720,000 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1854
Penny 1855 5,273,856 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1855
Penny 1856 1,212,288 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1856
Penny 1857 752,640 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1857
Penny 1858 1,559,040 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1858
Penny 1859 1,075,200 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1859
Penny 1860 (Large) 32,256 Queen Victoria - Young Head VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1860
Penny 1860 (Small) 5,053,440 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1861 36,449,280 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1862 50,534,400 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1863 28,062,720 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1864 3,440,640 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1865 8,601,600 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1866 9,999,360 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1867 5,483,520 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1868 1,182,720 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1869 2,580,480 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1870 5,695,022 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1871 1,290,318 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1872 8,494,572 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1873 8,494,200 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1874 12,288,105 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1875 11,443,680 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1876 11,074,560 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1877 9,624,747 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1878 2,764,470 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1879 7,666,476 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1880 3,000,831 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1881 6,065,562 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1882 7,526,400 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1883 6,237,438 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1884 11,702,802 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1885 7,145,862 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1886 6,087,759 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1887 5,315,085 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1888 5,125,020 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1889 12,559,737 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1890 15,330,840 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1891 17,885,961 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1892 10,501,671 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1893 8,161,737 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1894 3,883,452 Queen Victoria - Bun Head VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : F : D :
Penny 1895 5,395,830 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Penny 1896 24,147,156 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Penny 1897 20,756,620 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Penny 1898 14,296,836 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Penny 1899 26,441,069 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Penny 1900 31,778,109 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Penny 1901 22,205,568 Queen Victoria - Veiled Head VICTORIA · DEI · GRA · BRITT · REGINA · FID · DEF · IND · IMP ·
Penny 1902 26,976,768 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1903 21,415,296 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1904 12,913,152 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1905 17,783,808 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1906 37,989,504 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1907 47,322,240 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1908 31,506,048 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1909 19,617,024 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1910 29,549,184 King Edward VII - Bare Head EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1911 23,079,168 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1912 65,106,048 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1913 65,497,872 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1914 50,820,997 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1915 47,310,807 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1916 86,411,165 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1917 107,905,436 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1918 87,888,172 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1919 118,970,690 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1920 124,693,485 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1921 129,717,693 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1922 16,346,711 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1926 4,498,519 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1927 60,989,561 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1928 50,178,000 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1929 49,132,800 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1930 29,097,600 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1931 19,843,200 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Penny 1932 8,277,600 King George V - Bare Head GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF: IND: IMP:
Showing 1 to 100 of 127 Coins.
Advertising
Family-run store trading in rare coins and bullion, plus jewellery design and sales
Family-run store trading in rare coins and bullion, plus jewellery design and sales
Penny 1831: Details
CountryUnited Kingdom
CurrencyPound Sterling (pre-decimal)
Coin TypePenny, Britannia second design
Issued1831
MonarchKing William IV
EffigyKing William IV - Portrait by William Wyon
ReverseBritannia, Seated
Face Value1 (x Penny)
Total Mintage806,400
CurrentNo; demonetised 1870
MaterialCopper
DesignerWilliam Wyon
TechnologyMilled (machine-made)
ShapeRound
OrientationCoin Alignment (Axis 6)
Size34.000 mm
Thickness2.600 mm
Mass18.720 g
OCC IDAPVZ-OYRC-XWGX-ELMD
Share or Bookmark this Page
Penny 1831: Photos
ImageDetails
Coin - Penny, William IV, Great Britain, 1831
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Proof.
Source
Coin - Penny, William IV, Great Britain, 1831
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Proof.
Source
Great Britain 1831 penny
Copyright: CoinFactsWiki / CC BY-SA
Author:
Notes: Proof.
Source
Great Britain 1831 penny
Copyright: CoinFactsWiki / CC BY-SA
Author:
Notes: Proof.
Source
Penny 1831: Catalogue Reference IDs
SourceReference ID
Spink, Coins of England and the United Kingdom3845, 3846 (with WW)
Krause, Standard Catalog of World CoinsGreat Britain KM# 707, 707a (Bronze plated)