Penny, Coin Type from Australia - detailed information

Penny, Coin Type from Australia (issued 1911 - 1964)
Coin TypePenny

The Australian penny coin was a small circulating denomination of the Australian Pound. It has the same dimensions and composition as the British pre-decimal penny, from which it is derived (for a time, the coins circulated in parallel and were interchangeable in Australia - but not in the United Kingdom; the currencies were fixed at par). It was worth one twelfth of an Australian shilling and 1/240 of an Australian pound.

The reverse of the first type of Australian penny coins features text only. In 1938, a new design superseded it - featuring the iconic leaping kangaroo; the old type of coins remained in circulation.

The coins were struck by a number of different mints, with various mint marks:
- Royal Mint, 1911 - 1915, no mint mark; 1951, letters PL
- Birmingham Mint (ex Heaton and Sons), 1912 - 1915, letter H
- Calcutta Mint, 1916 - 1918, letter I
- Melbourne Mint, 1919 - 1964, no mint mark
- Sydney Mint, 1920 - 1926, no mint mark
- Perth Mint, 1922, no mint mark; 1940 - 1964, dot between designer's initials: K.G or dot after denomination: PENNY.
- Bombay Mint, 1942 - 1945, dots before and after the denomination: .PENNY., plus letter I on the obverse

Counting the known mintages of proofs, a total of 814,788,088 (815 million) coins of the denomination were minted during its existence. They circulated until decimalisation and were withdrawn in 1966, when Australia switched to its current Australian Dollar currency. Unlike some of the larger denominations, they were not re-denominated into units of the new currency. However, the penny coins were never formally demonetised and are still legal tender for 10⁄12¢.

Obverse
Australia / Penny - obverse photo

Effigy of the ruling British monarch, legend (in Latin). Being a Dominion of the British Empire, Australia used the Imperial legend of the monarch and not a "home" version of it.

Throughout the existence of the coin type, the monarchs were:
- King George V, 1911 - 1936, shown in his Crowned bust by Sir Edgar Bertram Mackennal
- King George VI, 1938 - 1952, shown in his Bare Head portrait by Thomas Humphrey Paget
- Queen Elizabeth II, 1953 - 1964, shown in her First Effigy by Mary Gillick

There were no coins released for King Edward VIII.

Obverse InscriptionLegend of the ruling British monarch
Reverse
Australia / Penny - reverse photo

The Commonwealth of Australia reverse was issued from 1911 to 1936:

At centre within a circle of beads, the value and denomination ONE PENNY in two lines between upper and lower ornate scrolls.

Around above, outside the circle of beads, COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA; below, the date · [year] ·.

The kangaroo reverse was issued from 1938 to 1964:

Kangaroo leaping to the left; around above, the legend AUSTRALIA.

Around below, the denomination PENNY; the seven pointed Federation star is in the field to the left of the kangaroo and the date [year] is in the field below its tail.

The artist's initials KG (for [George] Kruger Gray) are above the tip of the kangaroo's tail.

Reverse Inscription
EdgePlain
Edge InscriptionNone
Notes

If you keep your coins in 2x2 cardboard holders, the best size for pennies is 32.5mm.

All Coins of Type: Penny (53)
Coin NameMintageEffigyLegend
Penny 1911 3,768,000 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1912 3,600,000 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1913 2,520,000 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1914 720,000 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1915 2,280,000 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1916 3,324,000 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1917 6,240,000 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1918 1,200,000 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1919 5,810,160 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1920 9,041,600 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1921 7,438,320 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1922 12,697,440 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1923 5,654,400 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1924 4,665,840 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1925 1,639,200 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1926 1,860,000 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1927 4,922,450 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1928 3,038,400 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1929 2,599,200 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1930 unknown King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1931 494,400 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1932 2,116,800 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1933 5,817,600 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1934 5,808,100 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1935 3,724,900 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1936 9,890,400 King George V - Crowned Bust, by Bertram Mackennal GEORGIVS V D. G. BRITT: OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: ·
Penny 1937 (pattern) 12 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1938 5,552,650 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1939 6,240,000 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1940 5,188,800 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1941 14,382,800 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1942 21,244,800 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1943 53,198,400 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1944 29,942,000 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1945 15,172,806 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1946 240,000 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1947 11,174,400 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1948 28,150,000 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP.
Penny 1949 27,064,800 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX FIDEI DEF.
Penny 1950 57,846,800 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX FIDEI DEF.
Penny 1951 52,128,000 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX FIDEI DEF.
Penny 1952 57,922,000 King George VI - Bare Head, by Thomas Humphrey Paget GEORGIVS VI D : G : BR : OMN : REX FIDEI DEF.
Penny 1953 13,138,816 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA
Penny 1955 17,447,101 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
Penny 1956 25,994,917 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
Penny 1957 15,979,112 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
Penny 1958 24,443,334 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
Penny 1959 16,048,136 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
Penny 1960 20,516,230 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
Penny 1961 30,608,240 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
Penny 1962 34,852,664 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
Penny 1963 10,259,660 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
Penny 1964 109,180,401 Queen Elizabeth II - First Portrait, by Mary Gillick + ELIZABETH · II · DEI · GRATIA · REGINA · F : D :
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Penny: Details
CountryAustralia
CurrencyAustralian Pound
Sub-types Penny - Commonwealth of Australia
Penny - Kangaroo
From1911
To1964
Face Value1 (x Penny)
CurrentNo
MaterialBronze
Designer
TechnologyMilled (machine-made)
ShapeRound
Size (mm)30.8000
Mass (g)9.4500
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Penny: Photos
ImageDetails
Specimen Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1911
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Commonwealth of Australia reverse (1911 - 1936).
Source
Proof Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1949
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Kangaroo reverse (1938 - 1964).
Source
Specimen Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1911
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: King George V (1911 - 1936).
Source
Proof Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1945
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: King George VI, Emperor of India (1938 - 1948).
Source
Proof Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1949
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: King George V (1949 - 1952).
Source
Proof Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1953
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Queen Elizabeth II (1953).
Source
Proof Coin - 1 Penny, Australia, 1956
Copyright: Museums Victoria / CC BY
Author:
Notes: Queen Elizabeth II, Defender of the Faith (1955 - 1964).
Source